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.jr&FA' - 



BHi ' 




o o, Subject and Predicate, b, Complements. 











He brought in a new way of arguing by induction, and that grounded 
on observation and experience. 







Entered according to Act of Congress, In the year 1848, by 


In thu Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 
for the Northern District of Nev Yo*k, 








"STUDY things, not words. Use your brains more, and your books less." 

To reason and form correct conclusions without a com 
parison, is an impossibility. We can never know for a cer- 
tainty that we have a pound of coffee or a yard of cloth, 
without first comparing the one with the pound weight, and 
the other with the yard measure. And in all cases, the 
measure and the thing measured are called the premises, or 
the premised proposition?, the measure being the known, 
and the thing to be measured, the unknown quantity ; and 
the comparing of these premises is called reasoning, by 
which we conclude that the premises, or terms premised, 
either agree or disagree. 

Now, in grammar, the standard for measuring words is 
the Table given on the 28th page ; and the business of pars- 
ing, or ascertaining the part of speech, is effected by insti- 
tuting a comparison between the words in the sentence about 
to be parsed, and the word or words having a correspond- 
ing relation in the Table. That is to say : an equation, is 
formed by making the unknown term equal (=, mathemat- 
ical sign} the known ; thus, the expression, " winn; 1 paper" 
equals ( = ) "COLD 1 clay," in the Table of Relations; or 
".MOON 2 smiles" (equals) " MAN" walks." 

Hence we have : first, Analysis, or the srjKirt'ifi-ng ol 
words ; second, Syntax, or the uniting of words ; third, 
Equations, or the comparison of words with the Table of 
Relations (page 28) ; and fourth, the Conclusions, naturally 
formed by the comparison, which shows us at once the true 
classification (or etymology] of the word about to be parsed. 







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light, noun, nom 
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and, conjunction 
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liis, personal pro 
glazing, adjectit'i 
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* Or, Objective. 






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TUB SCBJKCT, a being, existing or acting. 

THB PKKDICATE, the erixhnce or action of the being. 

!0f the Subject, quantity and qiiality. 
Of the Predicate, manner, time, place ; 
i. e., how, tr/en, wliere. 

(See page 17.) 

" THK Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold," is 
a Sentence, because it contains a Subject and Predicate. 

ASSYRIAN is the Subject, because its existence is predicated 
by came. 

CAME is the Predicate, because it Dedicates the existence 
of Assy ri' in. 

THE is a complement of Assyrian, having no separate ex- 
istence, but holding a collateral relation to Assyrian. 

"LIKE THE \VOLF" and " ox TIIE FOLD," are complements 
of came, qualifying it like adverbs of manner and place. 
(Like the icoff, adverb of manner ; on the fold, adverb of 
j>l ><-e ) 

"And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold," 
is a Sentence, containing a Subject and Predicate. 

Cononrs is the Subject, because its existence is predicated 
by were gleaming. 

WKKE GLKAMIXG is the Predicate, because it predicates 
the existence of cohorts. 

His is a complement of cohorts, to which it holds a col- 
latrral relation. 

"LtKi: I-L-KPI.K" and " (like) GOLD," are complements of 
the predicate, expressing the manner in which the cohorts 
were gleaming. 

I :,'" The relation between ASSYRIAN and CAME, as also 
that lM-t\vreii ronoKTs and \VKKI: GLEAMING, is CORRELATIVE. 
The relation of the complements is always COLLATERAL. 


In order the better to elucidate the principle of Subject, 
Predicate, and Complements to the young scholar, it is re- 
commended to the teacher to employ some simple sentence, 
containing a Subject that will be at once recognized by all 
the class ; and let both Subject and Predicate present a 
living exemplification, that shall make an indelible impres- 
sion on the mind of the scholar. 

Let the teacher call up a boy, and form this sentence: 
" The small white boy stands there." 

BOY is the Subject, because his existence is predicated by 

STANDS is the Predicate, because it predicates the exist- 
ence of the boy. 

SMALL and white are complements of boy,. to which they 
belong as adjectives holding a collateral relation. 

THERE is a complement of stands, pointing out the place 
where the boy exists. 

Now if the boy is dismissed, or sent out of the room, it 
will at once become apparent that the Subject of the sen- 
tence has disappeared, and with it, of course, all the rest 
of the sentence. 

Take, again, the sentence : " The black pencil rolls on 
the slate." 

PENCIL is the Subject, having its existence predicated by 

ROLLS is the Predicate, because it predicates the exist- 
ence of pencil. 

THE and BLACK are complements of pencil, to which they 
hold an adjective and collateral relation. 

Ox THE SLATE is a complement holding a collateral and 
adverbial relation to rolls, and showing where the pencil 
exists. Hence, an adverb of place. 

N. B. All that any predicate can predict, predicate, or 
assert of its subject is, that it exists, acts, or is acted upon 
(that is : to be, to do, or to suffer.) 




(See page 42.) 

[that 1 ] (light} 
[light 2 ] (was) 
(light) [ 8 which 2 ] shone 
shone on 14 Righteous 
the 1 Righteous 
on Righteous 7 
which shone 9 
(light) of 13 light 

foreign 1 light 
of light 7 
(light) was 9 

all 19 redundant 
redundant 1 day 
day 2 was 
Righteous ^hey 2 needed 

they needed 10 (which) 
needed not 12 

(See page 42.) 

John 2 
John rode 9 
rocfe for 14 

two 1 days 
for days 7 

<7ays [ 6 which 2 ] came 
(which) [came 9 ] 
(came) together 12 

(See page 44.) 
do do How 12 
do 18 do 

John 8 you 2 do do 
you do do 9 
(0) John?* 


(See page 45.) 

1. Objects charm. 

2. There remains. 

8. Piety and virtue consist. 

(See page 46.) 

4. Pains has been taken. 

5. "JlV/o raised. 

6. Faith 


Variety charms. 
Points remain. 
Happiness consists. 

Pains have been taken. 

Raised whom. 

Patience and diligence remove, 

To whom. 

Know him and them. 
9 Precept nor discipline are Precept nor discipline it. 

(See page 47.) 

7. IFAo will give. 

8. He and f/ir know. 






"He brought in a new way of arguing by induction." Baiter. 




Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1858, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Conrt of the United States for th< 
Southern District of Ohio. 

Electrot7pl t the Franklin Type Foundry, Cincinnati, O. 


THE object and design of this work may be expressed 
in two words, UTILITY and PROGRESS. The author has 
aimed to make the work practically useful, by construct- 
ing it on those simple principles of Relations which 
existed antecedent to, and independent of any written 
treatise on Grammar. 

And by condensing and abbreviating all subjects of 
minor importance, by collecting and classifying various 
subjects under one general head, by avoiding, to a con- 
siderable extent, the discussion of those points about 
which grammarians differ, by preparing exercises in 
blank, to be filled and worked out by the student, thus 
teaching him TO USE THE LANGUAGE CORRECTLY, the author 
flatters himself that he has succeeded in removing from 
the path of the student every obstacle of importance 
that might have obstructed his progress. 

The Tables (or Scales), which have been prepared to 
exhibit the relations of words and phrases, may not im- 
properly be denominated THE CONSTITUTION of English 
Grammar; because the parts of speech in Grammar are 
constituted by these Relations, since every definition 
and rule (law) of Grammar, to be of any validity or 
force must be founded on, and conform to one of these Re- 
lations; and, as the Tables contain the Supreme Laws 
of Grammar, every Rule or definition not based on these 
Relative principles, is not only false, but NULL and VOID. 



LET the scholars commence parsing at once. They 
should repeat the parsing lessons as given on page 32, 
and following, until they have committed them to 
memory. By this means, they will be led, almost at 
once, to a knowledge of the true relations of words, 
which constitute the whole framework of grammar, and 
on which alone the Rules and definitions are founded. 

The scholars are not expected to learn anything more 
than the "coarse print; 1 ' though the accompanying 
observations should always be read over a sufficient 
number of times to enable the student to answer the 
questions given at the bottom of each page, as they 
'serve to give a better knowledge of the general subject. 

Let the teacher recollect that scholars learn more by 
oral instruction than by committing Rules to memory. 
They should be required to demonstrate a great num- 
ber of sentences on the black-board, after the manner 
of the Exercises given on page 29 and 38. 

It will be found a very interesting and instructive 
exercise to let the various classes unite in one, and parse 
in concert. The author has tried it with great sin 

The marked exercises, commencing on page 70, will 
be found of great benefit both to pupil and teacher; 
but one thing should be strictly borne in mind : 


An ordinary term of three months is sufficient to 
communicate, to a child of common capacity, a good 
of the principles of grammar. 

* No Ximli-nt, TKACHKR, nor At THOR is able to parse a word of 
whose relation he u iynorant. To give the relation is to parse. 


THE Black-board is a modern invention, and is found 
to be of great practical utility, by enabling the teacher 
to hold a direct communication with his class, and 
daguerreotyping, as it were, the principles of an art or 
science directly upon the mind or brain of the student. 
For let it be remembered, that at the very moment the 
delineations or demonstrations are being made on the 
board, they are, at the same time, indelibly written on 
the brain of each student, not to be forgotten or effaced 
like impressions made on the board ; but which are to 
remain as part and parcel of his education as long as 
he lives. As the largest fortune is only the accumu- 
lated savings of years of industry, so the finest educa- 
tion is the result of the hoardings and savings of 
thought the remembered impressions made on the 
brain through the medium of the five common senses, 
as the cause, manner or instrument by which the com- 
munication is made. As impressions made on the mind 
by seeing, are more important and lasting than those 
made by any other of the senses, the instructor or edu- 
cator should make a constant use of this faculty in 
communicating his instructions. 

Now, as the black-board is used to demonstrate almost 
every science or study taught at schools, except, as a 
general thing, that of English grammar, the author of 
this work has sought to remedy this defect by prepar- 
ing exercises especially for the black-board, and ar- 
ranging them in such a way that the pages ll^-m selves 
represent the black-board, giving the exercises in blank, 
to be filled with pencil by the student, or transferred to 


the black-board itself, and there demonstrated in full. 
By this method the lesson is presented to the whole 
class at once, and the reason or relation on which the 
definitions and rules are founded becomes at once ap* 
parent, being a deduction from the relations themselves ; 
for every rule is reasonable if the reason on which it is 
founded is understood, and made the base on which the 
rule is to rest; for an arbitrary rule means nothing 
more, in the mind of the novitiate, than a rulo resting 
on unknown principles. Hence it comes to pass, that 
students have, for ages, been learning " Rules " and 
" Definitions," both in arithmetic and grammar, with- 
out understanding the PRINCIPLES on which these Rules 
and Definitions are founded. The principle, origin, or 
foundation of a thing must be known before the rule or 
law of its nature can be understood. The relation is 
the SUBSTANCE : the rule or definition, the SHADOW of 
that substance. 

The only method to render the study of grammar 
inviting and interesting to children possessing reasoning 
faculties, is to communicate to them a true knowledge 
of the PRINCIPLES on which the science about to be 
taught is founded ; for no person ever becomes inter- 
ested in playing a game of draughts, chess, cards, etc., 
until he understands the principles of the, game; other- 
wise, he will bo compelled to make all his moves, as it 
were, by chance, without any guide to direct him. ."No 
one becomes fond of fishing or gunning until he is ex- 
pert in those sports. 

On ivri'ivinir ;i new book, a child first looks for the 
pictures, for the simple reason that he can understand 
tin-in, 1'V comparing them (mentally) with the real ob- 
- in nature which they represent. The comparimj 
of any two objects, as a horse with the pictun- of a horse, 
involves a process, of reasoning, and forming con- 


The object of arranging the words in columns, in the 
Black-board exercises, is to analyze the sentence before 
the student commences to parse it; for the mere act of 
placing the words in this position is the simplest plan 
of analysis, especially for children, that could be given; 
and gives the student a better opportunity of exercising 
his judgment in uniting the words again, according to 
their synthetic relation. 

Analysis is placing the words in a column. 
Synthesis is the reduplication of these words. 
The student will be guided in doubling these words 
by the natural relation which they hold to each other; 
for each word in a sentence has some other word or 
words with which it naturally unites itself, independent 
of arbitrary rules or laws. 

Let it be remembered that the separating of a sentence 
into words, constitutes analysis, (or etymology,} and the 
reunion of these words, so as to reproduce the original 
sentence, or to exhibit their grammatical relations, con- 
stitutes synthesis or syntax; and that a thorough know- 
ledge of analysis and synthesis renders the scholar a 
finished grammarian. 

It is not only desirable, but essentially necessary, that 
the teacher should pronounce each of these words sepa- 
rately, after the manner of spelling lessons, that the 
pupils may give it a relation by joining it to (speaking it 
wit It) some other word or words, to which it has a natu- 
ral dependent relation: on the 29th page 
the teacher pronounces: and the pupil responds: 
"The" "The sun" 

"sun" "sun went" 

"went" "sun went" 

"down." "wentrfoicn." 

"nor" "the'sun went nor the carnage ceased." 

In tli is way any teacher that can teach a class to spell, 
can teach it grammar. 


1. THE ETYMOLOGY of a word depends entirely on its 
SYNTAX, or relation to another word; hence, a word 
that has no SYNTAX can have no ETYMOLOGY : '. e., be- 
fore any word becomes a part (of speech) of a sentence, 
it must be incorporated into that sentence of which it 
is a part. 

2. The CASE of nouns and pronouns is that RELATION 
or position which they have to another icord; therefore, 
a word having no relation to any other word, is in no 
case or position whatever ; as, nominative, MAN ; posses- 
sive, MAN'S; objective, MAN. Now, the word man, as 
arranged above, is in no case, neither is it a "part of 

3. A word never becomes a noun or any other part 
of speech by being used technically, or independent of 
its meaning ; but by having the syntax of a noun (or 
other part of speech), as JOHN is a scholar: is is a verb, 
THEM is a pronoun, in which John, is and them become 
nouns by having the syntax of nouns. 

4. Detached words, as arranged in the columns of 
spelling books and lexicons, are no parts (of speech or) 
of a sentence, until they are actually used in a sentence. 

5. Every word, before it becomes a part of speech or 
sentence, and before it can be parsed, must be connected 
to not more than two, nor less than one other word, 
called the single and doitble relation. 

N"tK. The interjection lx?ing a virtual sentence, lias no relation, 
except with the vocative or case independent. 






THE Philosophy of Grammar is only that relation 
which exists between our ideas or modes of thinking, 
ami the words used to expr^s such ideas. That is. a 
sentence is only the embodiment of our thoughts, and 
affords the best and only reliable means of tracing tho 
origin of words. Tho structure of a language being 
based on these mental operations, is, therefore, appli- 
cable to all languages, each of which is only a different 
method of expressing the same idea. 

THOUGHTS constitute IDEAS. 
SPEECH constitutes LANGUAGE. 

Language, derived from the Latin LINGUA, the tongue, 
is a succession of mental ideas expressed in words, and 
may be either spoken or written. 

As our ideas are of different kinds, so there are differ- 
ent kinds or classes of words, called Parts of Speech, 
used to express such ideas. 

In all operations of tho mind, we either entertain a 
SINGLE IDEA.* or compare two ideas. The latter consti- 
tutes a PROPOSITION. A Proposition is, therefore, a 
OF THE MIND, expressed in words. 

* The expression of a single idea constitutes a simple sentence. 


A JUDGMENT of the mind is an OPINION. 

In forming an opinion, the mind naturally first sug- 
gests the SUBJECT. The quality or description of the 
subject is called the ATTRIBUTE. 

Every subject must be in a state of existence or action; 
and tins existence or action constitutes the PREDICATE. 

A sentence or proposition is formed by the union of 
the subject and predicate. 

Subject. Predicate. 

John walks. 

Jessamine clambers. 

Afl a judgment of the mind consists in comparing two 
Me:;-:. so a proposition must consist of three parts: 1. 
The bchty or subject ; 2. The quality or attribute ; and 3. 
A verl> to join the attribute to its subject. 

All words, besides the subject and predicate, found in 
a sentence are complements (or completements'), and are 
joined to the subject or attribute to complete the sense. 

" The jessamine clumbers, in flower, o'er the thatch.'' 

The, in flower, and o'er the thatch, are complements 
of jr. -..///( in,- and clumbers. 

To analyze is to ascertain the different parts of which 
a tiling is composed, and to reduce any compound to its 
simple elements. 

A ST.NTKM E is comprised within a period, and. in 
written language. terminates at a full point or stop .* 
Every sentence must contain, at least, one simple pro- 

1'noi'nsn ION KM ES are of two kinds, principal 

aii' I I -.. '< /it. 

TV being or subject contains and concentrates 
within itself the ifUiiHtiix, the existence, the nt-tion and 

* See division of sentences, page 181. 


manner of acting which are afterward drawn out and ex- 
pressed by other words. 

(See frontispiece.') 

GOD is the subject. 

HATH SPO'KEN is the predicate. 

And every other word in the sentence is a complement 
of either the subject, GOD, or the predicate. HATH SPOKEN. 

GOD is the TRUNK ; and every other word or phrase is 
a BRANCH of that trunk, and depends upon it for sup- 
port. The relative proposition, who spake at sundry 
times, etc., is a dependent complement of God, and has 
a direct relation to that word ; while the phrases, in 
these latter days, unto us, by his Son, are complements of, 
and hold a direct relation to the predicate HATH SPOKEN, 
and an indirect relation through that predicate to the 
subject God, expressing the time ichen, the person to 
whom, and the person by whom God hath spoken. Hence 
every word in the sentence has cither a direct or indirect 
relation to GOD in the trunk. 

All the parts of speech are determined by a process 
of interrogation, in which each word, successively, be- 
comes the subject of the question. 

Thus : The subject is found \>j interrogating the verb, 
as who hath spoken? answer, God. Hence, God is the 
subject, or nominative. To find the predicate, interro- 
gate the subject. What hath God done? God hath 
spoken. Hence, hath spoken is the predicate. By a simi- 
lar process of interrogation, each part of speech may 
be determined with precision, as it leads at once to the 
syntactic relation of the words. 

In analyzing a sentence, you should first reduce it to 
simple propositions. 

The jessamine clambers in flower o'er the thatch; 

And the swallow chirps sweet from her nest in tiic -wall. 


And in analyzing a proposition, you should reduce it 
to its constituent parts by separating subject, predicate 
aud complements from each other. 

Cnnn. Subj. Predicate. Comp. Comp. 

The | jessamine | clambers | in flower | o'er the thatch. 

Comp. Subj. Predicate. Comp. Comp. Comp. 

And the | swallow | chirps | sweet | from her nest | in the wall. 

Some tense of the verb to be (i. e., existence*) is always 
expressed or understood in every proposition, coupling 
the predicate to its subject, and is (Tailed the copula of 
the proposition. 

Subj. Cop. Predicate. Subj. Cop. Predicate. 

Jessamine | is | clamb'ring. jj Swallow | is | chirping. 


"The jessamine clambers in flower o'er the thatch, 
And the swallow chirps sweet from her nest in the wall," 

Is a compound sentence, containing two propositions, 
the first ending at the word thatch, and the second com- 
mencing with and. 

[Read the first proposition, and determine the subject 
by interrogation. What clambers? Answer (syntax or 
relation), jessamine clambers.] 

JESSAMINE, the subject. 

[What does the jessamine do? Ans. (re?.), the jessa- 
mine clambers. ] 

\MBERS, the predicate. 

[Tlic what? Ans., the jessamine.'] 

THE is a complement of jessamine. 

[What is in flower ? Jessamine is in flower.] 

IN FLOWER, a complement of jessamine. 

* Se definition of rerbs, page 103. 


[Where clambers the jessamine ? O'er the thatch.'] 
O'ER THE THATCH, complement of clambers. 
[What chirps? Ans. Swallow chirps.] 
SWALLOW, the subject. 
[What does the swallow ? Chirps.'] 
CHIRPS, the predicate. 
[How chirps the swallow? Sweet (ty)-] 
SWEET (ty), complement of chirps. 
[Where does she chirp ? From her nest] 
FROM HER NEST, complement of chirps. 
[Where is (or was) the nest ? In the wall.'] 
IN THE WALL, complement of the verb is or was under- 
stood, (i. e., the nest which is or was in the wall.) 

" God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake, in times 
past, xmto the fathers by the prophets, hath, in these latter days 
spoken unto us by his Son," 

Is a compound sentence, divided into two propositions 
by the word who. (See frontispiece.) 

[Who hath spoken ? God hath spoken."] 

GOD, the subject. 

[What hath God done? God hath spoken.] 

HATH SPOKEN, the predicate. 

[Who was the God ? Ans. GOD, 

WHO, at sundry times and 
in divers manners, 

SPAKE, in times past, unto 
the fathers, by the 

Hence, all this is a com- 
plement of the word God, 
to which it is joined by 
the relative Who, in order 
to bound or describe that 


The prepositional phrases, in these latter days, unto us, 
by his Son, are all complements of hath spoken. 

And, at sundry times, in divers manners, in times past, 
unto, the fathers, by the prophets, are all complements of 
the verb (predicate) spake. 


" The vessel, while the dread event draws nigh. 
Seems more impatient o'er the waves to fly,'' 

Is a compound sentence, divided into simple propositions 
by the word ichile. 

-EL, principal subject. 

SEEMS, principal predicate. 

EVENT, dependent subject. 

DRAWS, dependent predicate. 

THE. complement of vessel. 

to fly. 

MORE IMPATIENT, complement of seems. 

O'ER THE WAVES, complement of to fly. 

To FLY, complement of seems. 

" Fate spurs her on " 
Is a pimple sentence. 
FATE, the subject. 
SPURS, the predicate. 
HER and ON, complements of spurs. 

" Thus issuing from afar, 
Advances to the sun some blazing star; 
And, as it feels the attraction's kindling force, 
Springs onward with accelerated course," 

Is a compound sentence, divided into propositions by 
<ni<I, and as. 

STAR, subject of the entire sentence. 

ADVANCES and SPRINOS,* principal predicates. 

Tur.s ISSUING FROM AFAR, complement of star.f 

To THE SUN, complement of advances. 

* If we consider "and tprings onward," etc., a complement of ad- 
vances, springs will be a dependent predicate, 
t Connected by the participle. 


SOME, BLAZING, complements of star. 

ment of springs. 

TUB ATTRACTION'S KINDLING FORCE, complement of feels. 
ONWARD, complement of springs. 
WITH ACCELERATED COURSE, complement of springs. 

" But,* 0,t thou saci'ed power, whose law connects 
The eternal chain of causes and effects, 
Let not th}' chastening ministers of rage 
Afflict with sharp remorse his feeble age," 

Is a compound sentence, separated into propositions by 
the relative whose, etc. 

POWER, independent subject. 

THOU (understood), principal subject. 

LET, principal predicate. 

SACRED, complement of power. 


AND EFFECTS, complement of power. 
LAW, dependent subject. 
CONNECTS, dependent predicate. 
THE, ETERNAL, complement of chain. 
CHAIN, complement of connects. 
OF CAUSES AND EFFECTS, complement of chain. 
NOT, complement of let. 
THY, CHASTENING, complements of ministers. 
MINISTERS, complement of let. 
OF RAGE, complement of ministers. 


complement of let. 

WITH SHARP REMORSE, complement of afflict. 
His FEEBLE, complements of age. 
AGE, complement of afflict. 

* But, as an adverb, qualifies let, and belongs to that sentence, 
t The interjection has no relation. 


" Full many a glorious flower and stately tree 
Floats on the ruthless tide, whose unfelt sway 
Moves not the mire that stagnates at the bottom," 

Is a compound sentence, separated into simple proposi- 
tions by dividing at the words whose and that. 

FLOWER and TREE, principal subjects. 

FULL MANY A GLORIOUS, complement of flower. 

AND STATELY, complement of tree. 

FLOATS, principal predicate. 

ON THE RUTHLESS TIDE, complement of floats. 

THE, EUTHLESS, complements of tide. 

of tide. 

UNFELT, complement of sway. 

SWAY, dependent subject. 

MOVES, dependent predicate. 

NOT THE MIRE, complement of moves. 

THAT STAGNATES AT THE BOTTOM, complement of mire. 

THAT, dependent subject. 

STAGNATES, dependent predicate. 

AT THE BOTTOM, complement of stagnates. 

u The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold ; 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
"When blue waves roll nightly on deep Galilee. 

"Like the leaves on the forest, when summer is greenj 
That host with their banners at sunset were seen ; 
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn has blown, 
That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. 

"And there lay the steed with his nostril spread wide, 
But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride; 
And there lay the rider, distorted and pale, 
With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail. 

" For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast, 
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed; 
And the eyes of the sleeper waxed deadly and chill; 
Their hearts but once heaved and forever grew still." 



( The figures refer to the Table of Relations, page 28.) 
Subject. Predicate. Complement. 


CAME 9 down " 12 like 14 the wolf," " on 1* 

the fold," 


"his "5 
WERE GLEAMING 9 " with 14 purple and gohty 

" tlio," 1 " of 13 their spears." 
WAS LIKE 10 " stars 6 on 14 the sea," 

WAVES 2 "blue"! 

ROLL 9 " nightly," 12 on i* deep Galilee. 

HOST 2 "that"! 

WERE SEEN 11 "at 14 sunset " "with 14 their ban- 
ners," "like 14 leaves," "on 14 the 


( When 1C) 



" green," 1 
is 9 (GREEN) (No complement.") 

"that,"l "withered,"! 
LAY 9 "on 14 the morrow," " like 14 leaves," 

"ofia the forest." 

(No complement.) 
HAS BLOWN (No complement.) 


LAY 9 "there," '2 with 14 his nostril spread 

wide; " 

"the,"l "of 13 his pride." 
ROLLED 9 "not," 12 there," 1- " through 1 it," 


(For 1C) 

A.MiKL 2 

" the," 1 "distorted' anil ''' j.!i!p.l 
LAY 9 "there "12 "with 14 Hie dew '' "on'* 

his brow," " and ( H) the rust 
on 14 his mail." 

"the,"! "of 13 death" 
SPREAD 10 " his wing,' 1 G " on 14 the blast ; " 

(No complement.) 

BREATHED 9 " in 14 the face of the foe," 



HE 2 

E TES 2 

Predicate. Complement. 

(Ab complement.) 
PASSED ;9 (Ab complement.) 

" the," 1 " of 13 the sleeper" " deadly 

and chill ; 1 
WAXED.9 (Ab complement) 

"their "5 
HEAVED 9 " but once " 12 

GREW 9 STILL " forever " 12 


" His house was known to all the vagrant train ; 
He chid their wand'rings, but relieved their pain: 
The long-remembered beggar was his guest, 
"\Vhose beard descending, swept his aged breast; 
The ruined spendthrift, now no longer proud, 
Claimed kindred there, and had his claims allowed. 


HE 2 

(Bui 16) 








his " 

WAS Kxowx.ll "toll all the vagrant train ;" 

(Ao complement.) 
CHID 10 " their wand'rings," 6 

{No complement.) 
RELIEVED 10 " their pain :" t; 

" the," 1 " long-remembered " 
WAS 9 HIS GUEST 2 (pred. subj.) 

" whose," 1 " descending," 1 
SWEPT 10 "his aged brenst. v *> 

" the," 1 " ruined," 1 now no longer 

proud," l 
CLAIMED 10 "kindred," 6 " there," 12 

(JNo complement.) 
HAD 10 " his claims 6 allowed." 

NOTE. In these exercises, we make use of the word complement 
instead of either adjunct or modifier, as denoting more correctly the 
class of words which hold a relation to the subject or predicate. Any 
word may be an adjunct, since all words are joined together, or hold a 
relation to one another; and no words are modifiers except the aux- 
iliary verbs, which serve to point out the various mooJs, etc. 


" One word belongs to another" 

[See plate, page 33.] 

I. The midnight moon serenely smiles 

O'er nature's soft repose; 
No low' ring cloud obscures the sky, 
Nor ruffling tempest blows. 

II. Now every passion sinks to rest; 
The throbbing heart lies still; 
And varying schemes of life, no more 
Distract the lab' ring wilL 

III. In silence hushed, to reason's voice 

Attends each mental pow'r; 
Come, dear Amelia, and enjoy 
Reflection's favorite hour. 

IV. Come, while the peaceful scene invites, 

Let's search this ample round 
Where shall the lovely fleeting form 
Of happiness be found ? 


Subject. Predicate. Complements. 

Moox the, midnight 

SMILES serenely, o'er nature's soft repose. 

CLOUD no, low'ring 

OBSCURES the sky 

["Nor ruffling tempest blov '' is n de- 
pendent conjunctive proposition, connected 
to the preceding sentence by the conj. nor; 
the relation being : cloud obscurts sky XOB 
tempest blows."] 


Subject. Predicate. Complements. 

TEMPEST Nor ruffling 


(Xo complement.) 


PASSION every 

SINKS now, to rest, 

HEART the, throbbing, still 

LIES (No complement.') 

["And varying schemes of life no more 
distract the lab'ving will " is a dependent 
conjunctive complement of "Heart lies.'"] 

SCHEMES varying, and of life, 

DISTRACT no more, and the lab'ring will. 




each, mental 

In silence, and to reason's voice. 

dear Amelia! 

(Ab complement.) 

[" And enjoy reflection's fav'rite hour," 
dependent and conjunction, relation to 
" come </IOM."] 

(Xo complement.) 
reflection's fav'rite hour. 

( Thou,}* 



(No complement.) 
while the peaceful scene invites 

the, peaceful 
INVITES (us) understood. 

(Ab complement.) 
LET us to search this ample round 

the, lovely, floeting, and of happiness 

SHALL BE FO!M> Wiicre. 

t Amelia is the predicate subject, in the case Independent. 



1. Not a drum was heard, 

2. Nor a funeral note; 

3. As his corse to the rampart we hurried. 

4. Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero "we buried. 

5. We buried him darkly, at dead of night, 
The soda with our bayonets turning ; 

By the struggling moon -beam's misty light, 
And our lanterns dimly burning. 

6. K"o useless coffin enclosed his breast, 

7: Nor in sheet, nor in shroud we bound him ; 

8. But he lay like a warrior, taking his rest, 
With his martial cloak around him. 

9. Few and short were the prayers we said ; 

10. And we spoke not a word of sorrow ; 

11. But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead, 

12. And we bitterly thought of the morrow. 

13. We thought 

14. [As we hollowed his narrow bed, 

15. And smoothed down his lonely pillow,] 

1C. That the foe would be rioting over his head, 

17. And we ( ) far away on the billow. 

18. Lightly they '11 talk of the spirit 

19. That 's gone, 

20. And, o'er his cold ashes, upbraid him; 

21. But nothing he '11 reck 

22. If they let him sleep on, in the grave where a 

Briton has laid him. 

23. But half of our heavy task was done 

24. When the clock tolled the hour for retiring, 
2">. And we heard the distant random gun, 

26. That the foe was sullenly firing. 


27. Slowly and sadly we laid him down, 
From the field of his fame, fresh and gory; 

28. We carved not a line. 29. We raised not a stone; 
30. But left him alone in his glory. 

Great Ocean ! too, that morning, thou the call 

Of restitution heardst, and reverently 

To the last trumpet's voice, in silence, listened. 

Great Ocean ! strongest of creation's sons, 

Unconquerable, xinreposcd, iintired, 

That rolled the wild, profound, eternal bass 

In Nature's anthem, and made music, such 

As pleased the car of God ! original, 

Unmarred, unfaded work of Deity, 

And unburlcsqucd by mortal's puny skill, 

From age to age enduring and unchanged) 

Majestical, inimitable, vast, 

Loud ottering satire, day and night, on each 

Succeeding race, and little pompous work 

Of man. Unfallen, religious, holy Sea ! 

Thou bowedst thy glorious head to none, fcaredst none, 

Heardst none, to none didst honor, but to God 

Thy Maker, only worth}' to receive 

Thy great obeisance ! Undiscovered Sea ! 

Into thy dark, unknown, mysterious caves, 

And secret haunts, unfathomably deep 

Beneath all visible retired, none went, 

And came again, to tell the wonders there. 

Tremendous S^-a ! vrhat time thou lifted up 

Thy waves on high, and with thy winds and storms 

pastime took, and shook thy mighty sides 
Indignantly, the pride of navies loll : 
Beyond the arm of help, unheard, unseen, 
Sunk friend and foe. with all their wealth and war. 


GRAMMAR, as a science, treats of the relation 
which letters, words and phrases hold to each 

And a GRAMMARIAN is one who understands 
that relation, and is able to unite liis words in 
such a manner as to speak and write the English 
language with propriety. 

NOTE. Principle, from the Latin principium, the begin- 
ning, signifies the origin, beginning, or commencement 
of any art or science : hence the beginning and the end 
the alpha and omega of the principles of grammar 
are contained in the simple diction that 


This must be true ; for to make a word a definite part 
of speech, it must be joined to some other word, as 
shown in the table of relations. 


Is a combination of words, forming n, sentence or a 
proposition ; as, " God made the world." 


Is any single word, having one of the twenty-one 
relations contained in the table of relations, page 
28. There are eight parts of speech, as follows ; 

What is grammar? What is a grammarian? What is the meaning 
and derivation of the word principle ? What is a speech ? What is a 
part of speech ? How man/'parts of speech are there ? 



Nouns, names of persons, places and things. 

Adjectives, quality or extension of nouns. 
Pronouns, words used for nouns. 
Yerbs, existence or action of nouns. 

Adverbs, manner of existing or acting. 
Prepositions, words placed before nouns or pronouns. 
Conjunctions, words used to connect words or sentences.' 
Interjections, exclamations, having no relation. 

Mr. Murray, after having defined the parts of speech, in his gram- 
mar, accompanies his definitions "with this very just and philosophical 
observation : 

" The preceding definitions and observations may assist the learner, 
in some degree, to establish the different parts of speech; but it 
would be far more interesting to him if he should be able to make out 
the part of speech from its just NATURE and APPLICATION/' 

By NATURE and APPLICATION*, Mr. Murray meant nothing more than 
the true relation of words, which is exhibited in the " table of rela- 
tions." Hence, to constitute any word a certain and definite part of 
speech, it must have the nature and ^plication (i. e., RELATION) of such 
part of speech; for every one of the eighty thousand words in the 
English language must have one of the relations given ou the Table. 



is a noun, or name. 

f Common, general name. 

( Proper, appropriated name. 

C Masculine gender, denotes males. 

} Feminine gender, denotes females. 

(Neuter gender, denotes neither sex. 

C First person, denotes the speaker. 

x Second person, denotes the person spoken to. 

(Third person, denotes the person spoken of. 

What are the parts of speech and their definitions ? What is meant 
by the nature and application of a part of speech ? What relation must 
every word in the language have ? What is the order of parsing a 
noun ? (repeat the order of parsing.) 


Singular number, denotes but one object. 
Plural number, denotes more than one. 

Nominative case, subject of the verb 

Possessive case, possessing the noun 

Objective case, governed by the preposition _ 
Accusative (objective) case, gov'd by the verb. 
Independent (vocative) case, addressed. 
Absolute case, before the participle 


is an adjective, and belongs to 


' is a (relative or personal} pronoun, stand- 
ing for with which it agrees in gender, person 

and number, case.* 


., is a verb, expressing existence or action. 

J Hegular, it forms its past tense in ed. 

| Irregular, it will not form its past tense in ed. 

C Transitive, it governs an object. 

] Intransitive, it docs not govern an object. 

(_ Passive, having a passive nominative. 

( Indicative, it declares. 

Potential mood, implies possibility. 
< Subjunctive mood, expresses uncertainty. 

Imperative mood, used to command. 
(^ Infinitive mood, expresses unlimited action. 

Present tense, represents present time. 

Perfect tense, represents present time completed. 

Imperfect tense, represents past time. 

Pluperfect tense, represents past time completed. 

First future, represents future time. 

Second future, represents future time completed. 

What is the order of parsing an adjective? A pronoun? A verb? 

* Case of the pronoun is like that of the noun. 


C First person, sing, or plu., to agree with 

-< Second person, sing, or plu., to agree with . 

^ Third person, sing, or plu., to agree with 


is an adverb, and qualifies 


is a preposition, governing , and 

giving its phrase an relation to 


is a conjunction, connecting and 

is an interjection, having no relation. 


is an auxiliary verb, forming the 

mood and tense of 

is an aux. adjective, qualifying 

is an aux. adverb, qualifying 

is an aux. preposition, qualifying 


is a participle ; as an adjective it belongs 

to ; and as a verb is in the person, 

/ ~~ i / 

and number, to agree with 


Avoiding, on the one hand, the technicalities of the 
Greek and Roman rhetoricians, and, on the other, the 
parrot-like systems of many modern authors, we have 

What is the order of parsing an adverb? A preposition? A 
conjunction? An interjection? The auxiliaries? The participle? 
What should we avoid in preparing a grammar? 


constructed a Table of Relations, which shall be a 
measure for every word and sentence, not only in Eng- 
lish, but in all other languages. This table will measure 
words with the same mathematical accuracy that the 
pound weight will measure all ponderous quantities, or 
the gallon measure, liquids ; for, as the pound weight 
is the standard of measure for gravity, and the foot- 
rule the standard for all distances, so is this table a 
complete measure for the parts of speech. 

Every word in the language forms an equation with one of 
the words on the table; and as the plan of parsing is such 
as to compel the student to compare every word he 
parses with the corresponding word on the table, and 
to form a conclusion for himself, the study of grammar 
becomes, in effect, mathematical or algebraical ; for as 
there is always an equation between the pound weight 
and the quantity that it balances, (equates or equals^ and 
as .the only reason why a piece of cloth is a yard long, 
is because it is just as long as* a yard measure, so the 
only reason why any word is a part of speech, is be- 
cause it holds a relation to some word in the sentence 
where it occurs, corresponding to that already given on 
the table. 

Let the words in the table be represented by A (as 
known quantities'), and the words in the sentence about 
to be parsed by X as unknown quantities. 

Now, if X = A the unknown quantity becomes 
known the word is parsed, and the equation justified. 

*At as (Equality i. e., comparison,) 
















COLD 1 day. 
MAN 2 walks. 

MAN. 3 

MAN * being killed. 
MAN's 3 horse. 
MAN. 6 

Adj., belonging to 
Noun, nom. case to 

case independent. 
case absolute. 
possessive case. 
obj. (accusative) case. 


HE 8 (is). 

Is. 9 * Verb, intransitive 

CONQUERED 10 Mexico. " transitive. 

Noun, obj. case, gov'd by 
Pronoun, standing for 

Or 13 fate. 
O'ER 14 repose. 
AND IS three. 

e ma y - 

CAN 18 


" passive. 

Adverb, qualifying _ 
Preposition, adj. relation.- 

" adverbial relation. 
Conj., connecting words. 

" connecting sentences. 

Interjection ; no relation. 
Auxiliary verb. 

EXTREMELY 19 cold. Auxiliary adjective. 
YERY 20 swiftly. Auxiliary adverb. 
ALMOST 21 to. Auxiliary preposition. 

NOTE. Every one of the eighty thousand words in the English lan- 
guage, when arranged in a sentence, will take the place of, and, of 
course, become the SAME part of speech as one of the twenty-one words 
in the foregoing scale. 

* The infinitive has a relation to that word which immediately pre- 
cedes it, in construction. The participle has the 1st relation as an ad- 
jective, and either the 9th, 10th or llth, as a verb. 


" One word belongs to another" 


The Sun went down ; nor ceased the carnage there 
Tumultuous murder shook the midnight air. 

The 1 

.ceased 8 

the 1 . 

_there. ia 

Tumultuous '. 

murder 2 

-shook 10 

NOTE. Fill the blank with pencil, to give each word its relation. 


" One word belongs to another." 


The 1 moon 
midnight 1 moon 
moon 2 srniles 
serenely 12 
smiles, 9 
O'er 14 repose 
nature's 5 repose 
softl repose 
repose ; 7 
Nol cloud 
low'ringl cloud 
cloud 2 obscures 
obscures 10 sky 
thel sky 

obscures ski/ \ 
tempest blows. ) 
ruffling l tempest 
tempest 2 blows 

blows, 9 

Now 13 

every 1 passion 

passion 2 sinks 

sinks 9 

to l* rest 
rest; 7 
Thel heart 
throbbing 1 heart 
heart 2 lies 

heart lies 9 

still 1 heart 
heart lies and l6 ) 
schemes distract will ] 

varying l schemes 
schemes 2 distract 
chemes oH 3 life 
of life 7 

distract no more 12 

schemes Distract 10 will j 

thel will 
lab'ringi will 
distract will 6 



nor 16 




adj., and belongs to moon, 
adj., and belongs to moon, 
noun, nom. to smiles, 
adv., qualifies smiles, 
intr. v., agrees with moon, 
prep., governs repose, 
noun, poss. before repose, 
adj., belongs to repose, 
noun, object of o'er, 
adj., belongs to cloud, 
adj., belongs to cloud, 
noun, nom. to obscures. 
tr. verb, agrees with cloud, 
adj., belongs to sky. 
noun, object of obscures. 

jconj., connects cloud obscures tky 

\ and tempest blows, 
adj., belongs to tempest, 
noun, nom. to blows. 

(intr. v., IRREG. 3d pers. sing., and 

t agrees with tempest, 
adv., qualifies sinks, 
adj., belongs to passion, 
noun, nom. to sinks. 

f intr v., IRREG., 3d pers. sing., and 

1 agrees with passion, 
prep., governs rest, 
noun, obj., governed by to. 
adj., belongs to heart. 
adj., belongs to heart, 
noun, nom. to lies. 

f intr. v., TRREG. 3d pers. sing., and 

1 agrees with heart. 
adj., belongs to heart. 

{con/., connects heart lies and 
schemes distract will. 
adj., belongs to schemes, 
noun, PLURAL, nom. to distract 
prep., governs life, 
noun, obj. governed by of. 
adv., qualifies distract. 

{tr. v., 3d pers. PLURAL, and agrees 
with schemes, 
adj., belongs to n-ill. 
adj., belongs to will, 
noun, object of distract. 




hushed In 14 silence 
in silence,? 

hushed 1 power 
attends to 14 voice 

reason's 5 voice 




(do thou) 
(do thou) 







us (to) 




(shall be) 

voice 7 
attends 9 
each l power 
men tall power 
power 2 attends 

Come,!> } 
dearl Amelia 

come and 16 ) 
enjoy hour J 

enjoy 1 hour t 

Reflection's 5 hour 
fav'rite l hour 

Come 9 

while 12 
the l scene 
peaceful l scene 
scene 2 invites 
invites 10 (us) 

Let 10 us 


search 1 round. 
this 1 round 
ample l round 
round ;6 

Where 12 

shall 18 be found 
thel form 
lovely 1 form 
fleeting 1 form 
form 2 shall be found 
of 13 happiness 
be 18 found 

} found ? 11 

prep., governs silence. 

noun, obj. governed by in. 

adj., belongs to power. 

prep., governs voice. 

noun, poss. before voice. 

noun, obj. governed by to. 

intr. v., 3d sing., to agree with power. 

adj., belongs to power. 

adj., belongs to power. 

noun, nom. to attends. 

f verb, irreg. intr., "IMP. MOOD, 2o 

1 TERS. SIXG., to agree with thou. 
adj., belongs to Amelia. 

f noun, prop, fern., 2o PERS. SING., 


fconj., connects (thou) come and 

t (do thou) enjoy hour. 

{tr. v., reg. imperative, 2d pers. 
sing., to agree with thou. 
noun, poss. before hour, 
adj., belongs to hour, 
noun, object of enjoy. 
f intr. v., irreg. imp., 2d singular, 
t agrees with thou. 
adv., qualifies invites. 
adj., belongs to scene, 
adj., belongs to scene, 
noun, nom. to invites, 
tr. v., agrees with scene, 

{tr. v., irreg. imperative, 2d sing, 
agrees with thou. 
pron., object of let. 
tr. v., infinitive, governed by us. 
adj., belongs to round, 
adj., belongs to round, 
noun, object of to search. 

adv., qualifying shall be found. 

aux. verb, joined to be found, 
adj., belongs to form, 
adj., belongs to form, 
adj., belongs to form. " 
noun, nom. to shall be found, 
prep., governs happiness, 
noun, obj. governed by /. 
aux. verb, joined to/' 

{pass, verb, irreg. indie, future, 3d 
pers. sing., to agree with form. 



Relation, MIDNIGHT moon. 
MIDNIGHT is an adjective, and belongs to 

Rule 1. Every adjective belongs to a noun or pro- 
noun ; as 

Relation, MOON smiles. 
2 MOON is a noun, or name ; 

common, a general name ; 
feminine gender, by personification ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one ; 
nominative case to the verb ! 

Rule 2. The nominative case is the subject of tho 
verb ; as, 

Relation, moon SMILES. 
9 SMILES is a verb, expressing existence ; 
regular, it forms its past tense in ed; 
intransitive, having no object, 
indicative mood, simply indicates or declares; 
present tense, represents present time ; 
third person singular, to agree with 

Rule 9. A verb agrees with its nominative case in 
number and person ; as, 

Relation, smiles SERENELY. 

12 SERENELY is an adverb, and qualifies 

Rule 12. Adverbs qualify verbs ; as, 

* All words on the plate, marked 1, are adjectives, and parsed like 
midnight. All words marked 2 are in the nominative, and generally 
parsed like cloud. For reference to the other figures, see Table of re- 
lations and definitions, page 28. 



The figure 2 nhvays denotes the SUBJECT; 9, 10 and 11 mark the PREDICATE; nH 
other numbers denote 


Relation, smiles O'ER repose. 

14 O'ER is a preposition, governing , and 

giving its phrase and adverbial relation to 

Rule 14. Prepositions give their phrase an adverbial 
relation to the preceding verb or participle ; as, 

Relation, NATURE'S repose. 
5 NATURE'S is a noun, or name ; 
common, a general name ; 
neuter gender, denotes neither sex ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one object; 
possessive, possessing the noun 

Eule 5. The possessive case possesses a noun ; as, 

Relatioji, o'er REPOSE. 
7 REPOSE is a noun, or name ; 
common, a general name ; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, it denotes but one object ; 
objective case, governed by the prep. 

Rule 7. Prepositions govern the objective case ; as, 

Relation, CLOUD obscures. 
2 CLOUD is a noun, or name; 

common, not applied to individuals ; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, it denotes but one ; 
nominative case to the verb _ 

(Eule 2.) 

Relation, cloud OBSCURES sky. 
10 OBSCURES is a verb, denoting action ; 
regular, it forms its past tense in ed; 
transitive, governing the object ; 


indicative mood, simply indicates or declares; 
present tense, represents present time ; 

third person singular, to agree with 

(Rule 9.) 
Relation, obscures SKY. 

6 SKY is a noun, or name ; 

common, a general name ; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one object ; 
- accusative* (obj.) case, governed by the trans. 

Rule 6. Transitive verbs govern the accusative (ob- 
jective) ; as, 

Relation, cloud obscures sky NOR tempest blows. 
16 NOR is a conjunction, connecting the sentences 

. NOR 

RULE 16. Conjunctions connect words or sentences ; 
as, (conj.} 


Relation ; tempest BLOWS, passion SINKS, heart LIES. 

9 BLOWS, SINKS and LIES are each parsed like smiles, 
with the exception of the second line, which must be 

IRREGULAR, it does NOT form its past tense in ed. 

Relation ; schemes DISTRACT will 

10 Distract is parsed like obscures, except in the last 
line, which should be read : 

Third person PLURAL, to agree with schemes. 

(Rule 9.) 

* We have called this case accusative, after the manner of gram- 
mars in all other languages, to distinguish it from the object of the 
preposition ; but the teacher may retain the old name, if preferable. 


Relation; (do thou) COME. 

9 COME is a verb, denoting existence ; 

irregular, it does not form its past tense in ed ; 
intransitive, having no object, 
imperative mood, used for commanding, en- 
treating, etc. 
second person singular, to agree with thou. 

(.Rule 9.) 
Relation ; (do thou) ENJOY hour. 

10 ENJOY is a verb, denoting action ; 

regular, it forms its past tense in ed. 

transitive, governing the object ; 

imperative mood, used for commanding, en- 
treating, etc. 
present tense, represents present time ; 

second person singular, to agree with 

(Rule 9.) 
Relation; (thou') LET us. 

10 LET is parsed like ENJOY, except ; 

IRREGULAR, it will NOT form its past tense in ED. 

Relation ; happiness SHALL BE FOUND. 

11 SHALL BE FOUND is a verb, expressing action re- 

ceived ; 

irregular, it will not form its past tense in ed ; 
passive, having a passive nominative ; 
indicative mood, it simply indicates or declares; 
future tense, represents future time ; 

third person singular, to agree with 

(Rule 9.) 

Relation ; us TO SEARCH round. 
10 To SEARCH is a verb, denoting action ; 
regular, forms its past tense in ed; 

transitive, governing the object 

infinitive mood, expresses unlimited action ; 
present tense, represents present time ; 
governed by - 

Kule 10. The infinitive mood is governed by the pre- 
ceding word, in construction ; as, to 


Relation ; schemes OF life. 

13 OP is a preposition, governing , and giv- 
ing its phrase an adjective relation to the noun 

Rule 13. Prepositions give their phrase an adjective 
relation to a noun ; as, . 

Relation ; O AMELIA. 

3 AMELIA is a noun, name of a person ; 
proper, an appropriated name ; 
feminine gender, denotes a female ; 
second person, spoken to ; 
singular number, denotes but one ; 
Case independent. 

Eule 3. All nouns of the second person are in the 
case independent. 


No grammarian ever transposed a word or filled an 
ellipsis, except to give to the word which he is about to 
parse one of the 21 relations contained in the Table on 
the 28th page of this book, as this is the only possible 
way to make any word a part of speech. Filling the 
blanks in the following exercises is nothing more than 
transposing and filling the ellipsis. If this is correctly 
done, the scholar will find no difficulty in parsing his 
words, by referring them to the table of relations, and 
seeing that they have relations corresponding to those 
contained in the table. 

B"Let the teacher put the FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON 
EACH WORD in the exercises : 
| 1. What is the word about to be parsed? 

2. What other word or words must be joined to it to make 
it a part of speech? 

3. Which of the 21 relations does it take? 

4. What part of speech is it in consequence of that rela- 
tion ? 


" One word belongs to another" 


The war, that for a space did fail, 
Now, trebly thund'ring, swelled the gale, 
And "Stanley" was the cry, 
A light on Marm ion's visage spread, 
And fired his glazing eye. 


The 1 

war, 2 


for ' 

a 1 

space 7 

did is 

fail, 9 
now, 12 
trebly " 
thund'ring, 1 

the 1 

And 16 

Stanley * 
was 9 

the 1 


A 1 

light 2 

on' 4 

Marmion's 5 

visage 7 

spread. 9 


adj., belongs to 

noun, nom. to 

pron., standing for 
prep., and governs 


noun, obj. governed by 

intr. verb, agrees with 

adv., qualifies 

adv., qualifies 

~part. | . 

t>, agrees with . 

tr. verb, agrees with 

adj., belongs to 

noun, object of 

conj., connecting 

noun, nom. to 

intr. verb, agrees with 

adj., belongs to 

noun, nom. after 

adj., and belongs to 

noun, nom. to 

prep., governs 

noun, poss., before 
noun, obj., governed by 
intr. verb, agrees with 

" One word belongs to another" 



With dying hand above hia head, 

He shook the fragment of his blade 

And shouted victory 1 

' Charge, Chester, charge ! On, Stanley, on 1 ' 

Were the last words of Marmion." 



dying 1 

hand 7, 

And 16 

above 1* 

8He2 _ 
shook 10 
thel _ 
fragment 6 
of!3 _ 

blade 7 

shouted 10 
" Victory ! " 6 
" Charge,9 
. charge ! 9 
on!"*l2 * 
Were 9 

words 2 

. Prep., governs hand. i 

- adj., and belongs to hand. 

noun, objective governed by with. 
. prep., governs head. 
. p. p. poss. case before head. 

noun, object of above. 

p. p., nom. to shook. 

. tr. v., agrees with he. 
. adj., belongs to fragment. 

noun, objects of shook. 
. prep., governs blade. 

P- P-> POSS. case before blade, 
noun, objective governed by of. 

- conj., connects shook and shouted, 
tr. v., agrees with he. 

noun, object of shouted. 

int. v. im., agrees with thou, implied. 

noun, independent case. 

in. v. im., agrees with thou, implied- 

adv., agrees with press, implied. 

noun, independent case. 

adv., agrees with press, implied. 

in.v b., agrees with preced'g clause.t 

adj., belongs to words. 

adj., belongs to words. 

noun, nom. after were. 

prep., governs Marmion. 

noun, obj. governed by of. 

* These words may also be considered as interjections or verbs in the imperntivo 
mood. By the nbove synthetical connection they are regarded as adverbs, qualifying 
urge or }>rest, understood. 

f Or with " words " following. 


<f One word belongs to another" 

SENTENCE: " They feed, they quaff; and now, their hunger fled, 
Sigh for their friends devoured, and mourn the dead." 

. 8 They 2 
feed, 9 
8 they 2 . 
quaff; 9 

and 16" 

, now, 12 

. 8 their 5 


fled,l -I 

[fled,9] / 

sigh 9 

for 14 

8 their 5 

friends 7 

devoured, l 

[devoured] 9 

and 1G1 


mourn 9 
thel _ 
dead. 7 

pron., nom. to feed. 
intr. v., agrees with they, 
pron., nom. to quaff, 
intr. v., agrees with they, 
(conj., connects they quaff and 
( (they) sigh, 
adv., qualifies fled, 
pron, poss. before hunger, 
noun, abs. case before fled. 

. (adj.. belongs to hunger, 
part. J 

\intr. v., agrees with which. 

intr. verb, agrees with they, 
prep., governs friends, 
pron., poss. before friends, 
noun, obj. governed by for. 

. (adj., belongs to friends, 
part. J 

[in. v., agrees with who. 

(conj., connects (they) sigh and 
( (they) mourn. , 

intr. v., agrees with they, 
adj., belongs to dead, 
noun, obj.,* governed by for.* 

SEXTEXCE: John went almost to Boston." 

John 2 _ 
almost 21 

Boston. 7 

noun, nom. to went, 
intr. v., agrees with John, 
aux. prep., joined to to. 
prep., governs Boston, 
noun, obj. governed by to. 

* Governed hy /or, understood Mourn for the dead, as mourn is intransitive, and 
can not govern an olt|ect. 


" One word belongs to another." 

SENTENCE : " Cold duty's path is not so blithely trod." 

Cold 1 adj., belongs to duty's. 

duty's 5 noun, poss. before path. 

path 2 noun, nom. to is trod. 

is 18 aux. verb, joined to trod. 

not 12 adv., qualifies is trod. 

so 20 aux. adv., joined to blithely. 

blithely 12 adv., qualifies trod. 

trod. 11 pass, verb., agrees with path. 

SENTENCE : " 0, how bitter a thing it is to look 

Into happiness through another man's eyes ! " 

0, l 7 Interjection, no relation. 

how 19 aux. adj., joined to bitter. 

bitter 1 adj., belongs to thing. 

a 1 adj., belongs to thing. 

thing 2 noun, nom. to is. 

. 8 if* 2 . pron., nom. to is. 

is 9 intr. v., agrees with thing. 

. to look 9 in. v., inf., governed by is. 

Into 1* prep., governs happiness. 

happiness 7 noun, objective governed by into. 

through 1* . prep., governs eyes. 

another 1 . adj., belongs to man's. 

man's 5 , noun, poss. before eyes. 

eyes ! 7 noun, object of through. 

' It stands for tiling, and is used in apposition with it. 








S 5 

f-l ^ 

03 - - 


g ^ 

01 "1 

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bO -^ j c> 



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g g 

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t*- to 



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00 ^ m * S 

~ t> H 

"S "S 

*> 5 - 

o .s > ." r 

.,H ^ -* -J CO 

".i " co T3 

> ^ & 



belongs to another" 

1 1 
11 \\ 

O g He 

, o - 1 

d a? 

i I I 

1 -B ! 









" f 






' 1 

' I * r 1 

^ A * 

pf .2 

en a '" 
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= " & d 

w ^ 

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CJ3 ** 

d ^^ 8 " . co . in 





C3 jj 




C3 513 00 

fl K> d 

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to > 
















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a s 

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a? > 0. 

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f O V3 

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l!i-!ii i s* 

f J * 1 * * 1 ,. <f - e 

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1 I tf 1 1 ^ i .s s 
1 th f I . * i i g. * ! 

s d 5 o 3 *- 2 fc 

1 f -v e, . :. * * 1 

s .t: 

fi "Sr * 

<n r3 S 

to eo a 
Q r 

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f 8 



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^^ * G* c3 M 





<3 ei 


oo on d 

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3 1 * 

2 1 -2 

2 1 r 

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s 1 s | .:!. 

^H act ^ ^ "- no .2 
H^ 5 >FH H v "^ 2? 
^ S *** C/i 'Si o ^i 
^S ^g^S^ 











> 2 
i S 

3 S 41 

d M "O 



rl - 


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3 Hj K C 


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" One word belongs to another" 

SENTENCE: " How do you do, John?" 
How 12 adv., and qualifies do. 

do 18 aux. verb, joined to do. 

8 you 2 pron., nom. to do. 

do,9 intr. v., and agrees with you. 

John ? 3 noun, case independent. 

SENTENCE : " Few and short were the prayers we said." 
Few 1 adj., belongs to prayers. 

and 15 conj., connecting few and short. 

short 1 adj., belongs to prayers. 

were 9 intr. v., agrees with prayers. 

the l adj., belongs to prayers. 

prayers 2 noun, nom. to were. 

8 we 2 pron., nom. to said. 

said. W tr. verb, agrees with we. 

SENTENCE : " It is but as if he should say, I know you not" 

It 2* pers. pron., nom. to ta. 

is 9 intr. v., agrees with it. 

but 12 adv., qualifies is. 

as 16 f con;., connects it is and it is. 

iflGf conj., connects (see note.) 

8 he 2 pron., nom. to should say. 

should 18 aux. verb, joined to say. 

s;iy,io J tr. v., agrees with he. 

8 1 2 p. p. t nom. to know. 

know 10 tr. v., agrees with /. 

SyouC pron., object of know. 

not. 12 adv., qualifies know. 

* It it, impers. verb. It stands fortho (subsequent clause. " as if he should say," etc. 
t " It it AS it is," or a it tconf<l be if, etc. // conaecU (as) it would be IF he thoubl 
toy, etc. 

J Say governs the clause " Ihtov yo* not." 



SENTENCE: "A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye." 

A 1 adj., belongs to variety. 

variety 2 noun, nom. to charms. 

of 13 prep., governs objects. 

pleasing 1 adj., belongs to objects. 

objects 7 noun, obj. governed by of 

charm 10 verb, agrees with variety. 

the 1 adj., belongs to eye. 

eye. 6 * noun, object of charms. 

SENTENCE: " There remains two points to be considered." 
- There 12 ad 9ij qualifies remain. 

remains 9 verb, agrees with points. 

two 1 adj., belongs to points. 

points 2 noun, nom. to remain. 

to be considered. U pass, verb, infin., gov'd by remain. 

SENTENCE: "In piety and virtue consist the happiness of man." 

In 1* .PJ^P-J governs piety. 

piety 7 noun, obj. governed by m. 

and 15 conj., connects piety and virtue. 

virtue 7 noun, obj. governed by in. 

consist 9 verb, agrees with happiness. 

the! adj., belongs to happiness. 

happiness 2 noun, nom. to consists. 

of 13 prep., governs man. 

man. 7 noun, obj. governed by of. 

* FALSE SYNTAX" Objects charm." TRUE SYNTAX "Of object*" and "variety 
CHARMS." By Riving each word its true syntax, the error will apjiear, and the student 
can correct with a pencil. 


SENTENCE: "Great pains has been taken to make this work 

Great 1 adj., belongs to pains. 

pains 2 noun, nom. to have been taken. 

has been taken 11 pass, verb, agrees with pains. 

to make * 10 tr. verb, infin. governed by taken. 

this 1 adj., belongs to work. 

work 6 noun, object of to make. 

useful.l adj., belongs to work. 

SENTENCE: "The man, who he raised from obscurity, is dead." 

The 1 adj^ belongs to man, 

man,2 noun, nom. to is. 

8 ^pho 6 pron., object of raised. 

8 he t 2 pronoun, nom. to raised. 

raised 10 '. tr. verb, agrees with fie. 

from U prtp-i an ^ governs obtcurity. 

obscurity,? noun, objective governed by from. 

is 9 intr. v. agrees with man. 

dead.l adj., belongs to man. 

SENTENCE: "Patience and diligence, like faith, removes moun- 

Patience and J nom to T(mme ^ 

diligence 2 J 

like 1* P Tf P-i governs faith. 

' faith 7 noun, objective governed by like. 

, f tr. verb, agrees with patience and 
removes 10 J g 

mountains.*? noun, objective of remove. 

* That is, to render. 

f tie stands torpcrtcm, understood. Who (corrected, whom) stands for 




SENTENCE: " Who will you give that pen to?" 

_8 Who* 7 pron., obj. governed by to. 

will 18 aux. verb, joined to give. 

_ 8 you * 2 pron., nom. to will give. 

- give 10 tr. verb, agrees with you. 

thati adj., belongs to pen. 

- pen 6 noun, object of give. 
-to? 1 * prep-i governs whom. 

SENTENCE: "He and they we know." 

8 He* 6 pron., object of know. 

and 15 conj., connects him and them. 

8 they * 6 pron., object of know. 

8 we* 2 pron., nom. to know. 

know. 10 tr. verb, agrees with we. 

SENTENCE: "Neither precept nor discipline are so forcible as 

Neither t * cor. conj. or adj. belonging toprecept. 

precept 2 noun, nom. to is. 

nor 15 conj., connect'g precept & discipline. 

discipline 2 noun, nom. to is. 

. arej 9 intr. v., agrees with precept. 

BO 19 aux. adj., belonging to forcible. 

forcible 1 adj., belongs to discipline. 

_^__^_ as H 16 conj., connects . 

example.2 noun, nom. to it. 

* Stands for person or personi, understood. 

t As an adjective this word qualifies precept or discipline. As a con;'., it connects th 
two words. See page 139 and 141. 

; Either precept or discipline, singly, is the nominative. 
" Forcible ditcipline" or "forcible} 

? precept." 

At connects precept (or ducipline) is (forcible) AS example (it forcible.) Supply tho 



THE following exercises are arranged in such a man- 
ner as to cover the whole ground of English philology ; 
and, if they are carefully gone over by the student, they 
'can not fail to lead him to a perfect knowledge of all the 
'principles of the language. But, in order to do this 
effectually, all the exercises should be disposed, of in 
accordance with the PRINCIPLES OP RELATION on page 28. 
That is, every sentence must be written out on the 
black-board, after the manner of the example on page 
29 ; and every word should be numbered and equated 
with the table on page 28, by reduplicating the words. 

Each exercise should be transcribed into a blank-book, 
which, being a review of the whole subject, will serve to 
fix the lessons more permanently on the memory of the 
student. The book, thus prepared, may be used for fu- 
ture reference. 

In analyzing these exercises, the teacher should ask 
the following general questions : What is the sentence ? 
Is it principal or dependent ? Simple or compound ? If 
dependent, how connected ; by a word of the 8th or IGth 
relation ? What is the subject ? What is the predicate ? 
What is the complement of the subject? What is the 
complement of the predicate? What is the word about 
to be parsed? What other word or words must be 
joined to it to make it a definite part of speech ? Which 
of the 21 relations does it take ? What part of speech 
is it in consequence of that relation f On what page is 
the corresponding number and example for parsing this 
word ? (Page 32-4-5-6.) 

If the exercises are gone over thoroughly, in exact 
accordance w r ith the above plan, they can not fail to per- 


feet the "scholar in a knowledge of grammar, and to 
enable him to understand all the rules, definitions, etc., 
contained in the SECOND PART of this work, even before 
he shall have read them ; although it is proper that 
the student should study the second part, while going 
through these exercises in the first part, so that THEORY 
and PRACTICE may be combined. 



1 A 1 high 1 wall 2 stands 9 * by 14 the 1 road-side. 7 

2 A 1 young 1 man 2 f wrote 10 ! a 1 large 1 book. 6 

3 The 1 broad 1 green 1 leaves 2 of 13 the 1 trees 7 make 10 

a 1 fine 1 shade. 6 ~ 

4 The 1 large, 1 black, 1 iron 1 stove 2 stands 9 on 14 the 1 

floor. 7 

5 The 1 river 2 runs 9 * slowly 12 by 14 the 1 high 1 moun- 

tains. 7 

6 Many 1 people 2 think 10 If the 1 earth 2 is 9 not 12 

round. 1 ** 

7 The 1 sky 2 is 9 blue. 1 The 1 road 2 is 9 wide. 1 

8 The 1 roan 1 horse 2 is 9 -in 14 the 1 pasture. 7 

9 Good 1 boys 2 love 10 If to study 10 8 their 5 lessons. 6 


1 Where 12 is 9 John's 8 book? 2 8 It 2 is 9 on 14 the 1 

table. 7 

2 James ! 3 have 18 8 you 2 learned 10 8 your 5 lesson? 8 

* Parse like BLOWS. f Parse like Amelia, except common, mascu- 
line gender, Zd person, and nominative case. 

J Like obscures, except irreg. and imperfect tense. Plural. 
If Governs the following phrase as an object. 
** 'Adj., belongs to earth. 


3 Yes, 18 sir, 3 ff 8 1 2 have 18 learned 10 8 it. 6 

4 8 Your 5 lesson 4 being learned, 8 you 2 may 18 go'JJ 

and play. 9 

5 A 1 good 1 conscience 2 fears 10 nothing. 6 

6 Devotion 2 promotes 10 and 15 strengthens 10 virtue. 6 

7 Knowledge 2 gives 10 happiness 6 to 14 solitude. 7 

8 Bad 1 habits 2 require 10 immediate 1 reformation. 6 
9 Economy 2 is 9 no 1 disgrace. 2 

1 Good 1 and 15 wise 1 men 2 only, 19 can 18 be 9 J| real 1 

friends. 2 
Jfc2 James 2 performs 10 8 his 5 part 6 well. 12 

3 Evil 1 communications 2 corrupt 10 good 1 manners. 6 

4 Deep 1 rivers 2 move 9 with 14 silent 1 majesty; 7 but 1 
small 1 brooks 2 are 9 noisy. 1 

5 Many 1 people 2 form 10 conclusions 8 before 16 8 they 2 
have 18 fully 12 considered 10 the 1 subject. 6 

6 Some 1 persons 2 affect 10 haughty 1 manners. 6 

7 Pride, 2 perceiving 1 - 10 humility 6 honorable, 1 often 8 
borrows 10 8 her 5 cloak. 6 

NOTE. The large figures, numbering the sentences, are for the con- 
venience of reference; and the small figures attached to the words 
refer to the Table of Relations, page 28. 


Transitive, intransitive, and passive. 


1 God created the world. 

2 Columbus discovered America. 

3 "We heard a drum. 4 The table supports a book. 
5 Milton wrote a poem. 

ft Ye*, an adv., and qualifies have learned. Sir, common noun, 2d 
person, case ind. 
it Potential mood. 


6 "Washington liberated his country. 

7 A good conscience will make a man happy. 

8 Vice degrades learning, obscures the luster of every 
accomplishment, and sinks us into universal contempt. 


World WAS. God CREATED world. World WAS CREATED. 

America WAS. Columbus DISCOVERED America. America WAS DISCOVERED. 
Drum WAS. We HEARD drum. Drum WAS HEARD. 

Book is. Table SUPPORTS book. Book is SUPPORTED. 

Poem WAS. Milton WROTE poem. Poem WAS WHITEN. 

Country WAS. Washington LIBERATED country.Country WAS LIBERATED. 
Man WILL BE. Conscience WILL MAKE man. Man WILL BE MADE. 
Learning is. Vice DEGRADES learning. Learning is DEGRADED. 

Luster is. Vice OBSCURES luster. Luster is OBSCURED. 

We ARE. Vice SINKS us. We ARE SUNK. 


Relation, world WAS. 

WAS is a verb, irregular; INTRANSITIVE, having no ob- 
ject; indicative mood; imperfect tense; third person 
singular to agree with world. (Rule 9.) 

Relation, God CREATED world. 

CREATED is a verb, regular; TRANSITIVE, governing 
world; indicative, imperfect, third person singular, to 
agree with God. (Rule 9.) 

Relation, world WAS CREATED. 

WAS CREATED is a verb, regular ; PASSIVE, having a 
passive nominative; indicative mood, imperfect tense, 
third person singular to agree with world. (Rule 9.) 

NOTE. The above model of parsing the transitive verb, and chang- 
ing it into its intransitive and passive form, is of the utmost impor- 
tance, and should be practiced by the scholar during all his exercises 
through the grammar, in order to acquire a thorough knowledge of the 
formation of verbs; for unless the scholar forms these passive verbs 
for himself, he will not meet with a sufficient number of them in the 
pieces of poetry, etc., usually selected for parsing, to lead to a thorough 
understanding of their nature. 


Transitive Verb. 

1 A good conscience will make 10 a man happy. 

2 Application in the early period of life, will give lfl 
happiness and ease to succeeding years. 

3 Dissimulation degrades 10 learning, obscures 10 the 
luster of every accomplishment, and sinks 10 us into uni- 
versal contempt. 

4 If w,e lay 10 no restraint upon our lusts, no control 
upon our appetites and passions, they will hurry 10 us 
into guilt and misery. 

5 Indolence undermines 10 the foundation of every 
virtue, and unfits 10 a man for the social duties of life. 

Intransitive Verb. 

1 A virtuous education is 9 a better inheritance than a 
great estate. 

2 He that swells 9 in prosperity, will shrink 9 in ad- 

3 You must not always rely 9 on promises. 

4 Friendship can scarcely exist 9 where virtue is 9 not 
the foundation. 

5 From idleness arises 9 neither pleasure nor advan- 
tage : we must, therefore, flee 9 from idleness, the certain 
parent of guilt and ruin. 

6 The evidence of a man's education exists 9 in his 
conversation and writings. 


Transitive. Intransitive. 

Conscience WILL MAKE man. Education is. 

Application WILL GIVE happiness. That SWELLS. 

Dissimulation DEGRADES learning. He WILL SHRINK. 

Dissimulation OBSCURES luster. You MUST RKLY. 

Dissimulation SINKS us. Friendship CAN EXIST. 

We LAY restraint. Virtue is. 

They WILL HURRY us. Idleness ARISES. 

Indolence UNDERMINES foundation. We MUST FLEE. 

Indolence UNFITS man. Evidence EXISTS. 


Passive Verbs. 

1 Yirtue must be formed 11 and supported" by daily 
and repeated exertions. 

2 You may be deprived n of honor against your will. 

3 Virtue is connected" with eminence in every lib- 
eral art. 

4 Many are brought" to ruin by extravagance and 

5 The best designs are often ruined " by unnecessary 

6 All our recreations should be accompanied " by vir- 
tue and innocence. 

7 All difficulties may be overcome " with diligence. 

8 Some talents are buried" in the earth. 

9 True pleasure is only to be found" in the path of 

10 Our most sanguine prospects have often been 
blasted " by sudden and unexpected reverses. 

11 The table of Dyonysius, the tyrant, was loaded" 
with delicacies of every kind. 

12 All our actions should be regulated" by religion 
and reason. 


{MUST is an aux. verb, forming the pot. pres. of form. 
BE is an auxiliary, making the verb passive. 
FORMED verb, PASSIVE, potential, present. 

MCST BE SUPPORTED, analyzed like the above. 
MAY BE DEPRIVED,- analyzed like the above, 
f Is an aux. verb, forming the indie, pres. passive voice. 

I CONNECTED verb; PASSIVE, indicative, present. 

ARE BROUGHT verb; PASSIVE, indicative, present, (plural.) 
ARE RUINED verb; PASSIVE, indicative, present, (plural.) 

{SHOULD aux. verb, forming the pot. imperfect tense. 
BE aux. forming the pot. imperfect passive voice. 
ACCOMPANIED verb, PAS. potential, imp. 

MAY BE OVERCOME ; (like must be formed.) 
ARE BURIED ; (like are ruined.) 


!To aux., forming the infinitive present, 
BE aux., forming the passive voice. 
FOUND verb; PASSIVE, infinitive present. 

(HAVE aux. verb, forming the indicative perfect. 
BEEN aux. verb, forming the passive voice. 
BLASTED verb ; PASSIVE, indie, perfect. 

| WAS aux. verb, forming the indie, imp. passive voice. 

(. LOADED verb ; PASSIVE, indicative, imperfect. 

SHOULD BE REGULATED ; (like should be formed.) 

Auxiliary Verbs. 


NOTE. The Auxiliary Verbs are used to form the moods and tenses 
of other verbs. They are, have, do, be, shall, will, may, and cmi, with 
their variations ; and must, which has no variation. These auxiliary 
verbs are confined to a certain mood or tense, as shown on the table 
of conjugation, page 121. 

1 John walks to church. 

2 The boys do study grammar; and they have stu- 
died for a long time. 

3 David destroyed the note, after he had sold the 

4 I shall go to New York next week. 

5 They icill return in a short time. 

6 They will have completed their lessons by two 

7 Present arms ! 8 Forgive us our trespasses. 

9 He may have spoken to my friend. 

10 You should pay respects to your father. 

11 She might have loved him. 

12 If it rain to-morrow I will come. 

13 If I "see him, I will speak to him. 

14 If he has left the city, I shall not see him. 

15 If he were loved, he would consider himself happy. 

16 \Vere he loved, he would be happy. 

17 Had he paid attention to my counsel, he would 
have been safe. 

18 He is willing to study his lesson. 

19 He was known to have left the city. 1 




s, do. have. ed, had. shall, will, shall have. 

1 John walks s makes the verb walks, INDICATIVE 
mood, PRESENT tense, third person singular. 

2 Boys do study do forms the INDICATIVE mood, PRE- 
SENT tense, of study. 

2 They have studied have is an auxiliary, making 
the verb studied, INDICATIVE PERFECT. 

3 David destroy-ecZ ed (contraction of did; as destroy- 
did, or did destroy, and denotes that the act of destroying 
is done or passed,} making the verb to which it is at- 

3 He had sold had (past tense of have) is an aux- 
iliary, forming tho INDICATIVE, PLUPERFECT, of sold. 

4 I shall go shall, auxiliary verb, forming the INDI- 
CATIVE mood, FUTURE tense of go. 

5 They will return will, auxiliary, forming the IN- 
DICATIVE mood, FUTURE tense of return. 

6 They will have completed will, an auxiliary, ex- 
pressing future time ; and have denotes the perfect. 
Hence, will have denotes a future action that will be per- 
fected at a certain time; and forms the INDICATIVE, FU- 
TURE PERFECT, third person plural of completed. 

7 ( Ye ) present arms IMPERATIVE mood. 

8 You can write can, as an auxiliary, makes the word 
write in the POTENTIAL, PRESENT, expressing possibility. 

9 He may have spoken may, denotes possibility ; and 
have denotes a present completed action. May have forms 
the POTENTIAL PERFECT of spoken. En, at the termination 
of the verb spoken, shows it to be irregular. 

10 You should pay should (past tense of shall) forms 


11 She might have loved might (past tense of may') 


denotes possibility; have, denotes past time: might have, 
forms the POTENTIAL mood, PLUPERFECT tense, of the verb 

12 If it rain If is the subjunctive conjunction, mak- 
ing the verb rain in the SUBJUNCTIVE mood, PRESENT tense. 

14 If he /if/s-left If is the subjunctive conjunction, 
making the verb left in the SUBJUNCTIVE mood; and has 
is an auxiliary verb, forming the PERFECT tense. 

15 If he icere loved If denotes SUBJUNCTIVE mood' 
and were forms the IMPERFECT tense, PASSIVE voice. 

17 (Tjf) he had paid had, by its position, shows the 
omission of-?/, and makes the verb in the SUBJUNCTIVE 


18 Willing to study to is an auxiliary, forming the 

19 Known to have left to forms the INFINITIVE mood; 
and have makes it in the perfect or past tense. 


The following method of analj-sis is in accordance 
with the author's plan of analyzing Latin and Greek 
verbs ; and determines the mood and tense of a verb at 
once, not by a tedious and prolix conjugation, but by the 
form of the verb itself. 

It will be seen that the person and number of a verb 
are always determined by the nominative case, since the 
verb in English, unlike other languages, has no changes 
of termination to denote person and number, except in 
the second person singular, which takes t or st; and the 
third person singular of the indicative present only, 
which takes s. 

The auxiliaries always denote the same thing in the 
same combination : thus, have, as an auxiliary, always in- 


dicates the perfect; shall or will denotes future time; 
did or ed denotes the imperfect; -ing, as a termination, 
indicates the present participle, when joined to the prin- 
cipal verb, and when used with the auxiliary, merely 
shows it to be part -of the participle, the tense of which 
is pointed out by some other termination of the princi- 
pal verb. 

Any part of the verb to be, when used as an auxiliary, 
always indicates the passive voice, and, in some of its 
variations, serves also to point out the mood and tense. 
Let the student go over these exercises thoroughly, 
before committing the tables of conjugation, and he will 
find, when he does come to learn them, that he is already 
familiar with all their changes, so that their acquisition 
will only require a slight effort of the memory in order 
to recollect their general arrangement. 


3d plu. pot. past. perf. pas. verb. reg. 

They might have been discover - ed. 

Discover the verb. 

- ed makes the verb regular. . 

been denotes the passive voice. 

have expresses the perfect tense. 

might the potential past. 

(might have, potential past perfect, or pluperfect.) 

they third person plural. 

NOTE. Commencing at the right hand, or end of the verb, it will be 
Been that the verb is in the word discover ; it is made regular by the 
termination ed; the passive voice is in the word been; the perfect 
tense is in have; the pot. past is in might; and the person and num- 
ber in the pronoun they. 


A?ialysis of Verbs. 

1st sing, verb ind. pres. 

1 I hold a pen. 

2d sing, verb ind. pres. 2d sing. 

2 Thou BEHOLD - ST the sun. 
3d sing. v. ind. pr. 3d sing. 

3 He HEAR - s a noise. 

1st plu. v. ind. pr. 

1 We EMPLOY servants. 

2d. plu. v. ind. pr. 

2 You recommend the measure. 

3d plu. v. ind. pr. 

3 They steal horses. 

1st s. ind. pr. verb. 3d s. ind. pr. verb. 

I do love my book. He does not regard his word. 

1st plu. ind. pres. verb. 
We do not despise our servants. 

Ind. pr. 1st s. verb. Ind. pr. 2d sing. verb. 

Do I see my friend ? Dost thou repent ? 


1st s. ind. imp. verb. 
I did not write a letter. 

3d plu. ind. imp. verb. 3d s. verb. ind. imp. re<r. 

The citizens did receive him. He lov - ed his country. 

3d plu. ind. perf. verb. reg. 3d sing. ind. perf. verb. 

They have just return-ed. He has gone to school. 

Ind. perf. 2d. sing. verb. 1st sing. ind. plup. verb. ir. 

Hast thou seen the man. I had tak-en advice. 

2d sing. ind. plup. verb. ir. 3d plu. ind. fat. verb. ir. 

Thou hadst know-n me. They shall soon retur-n. 

Ind. fut. 2d sing. verb. 1st sing. ind. fiit. verb. 

Shalt thou quaff the wine? I will know the worst. 

Ind. fut. 2d sing. verb. 3d sing. ind. fut. perf. verb. 

Wilt thou hear my voice? He will have yeen you. 

2il ping. ind. fut. perf. verb. reg. Pot. pres. 1st sing. verb. 
Thou shalt have listen-cd. May I recite my lesson? 


3d sing. pot. pr. verb. 2d s. pot. past perf.* verb. 

He can tell the story. Thou might have done better. 

1st s. pot. perf. verb. 3d sing. pot. imp. verb. 

I may have been there. He should speak truth. 

Subj. 3d sing, verb pr. Subj. 2d plu. perf. verb. 

If he demand justice. If you have seen him. 

Verb, imperative. Inf. pres. verb. 

Stand firm! To receive his friends. 

3d sing, verb, ind. pr. inf. perf. verb. reg. 
He seems to have acquir -ed a good education. 

Passive Voice. 

1st s. ind. prea. pas. verb, reg. 2d sing. ind. pres: pas. verb, reg. 
I am inform-ed. Thou art deceiv-oZ. 

3d sing. ind. pr. pas. verb, ir. 3d plu. ind. pr. pas. verb, reg. 
He is know-n They are determin-e<I. 

1st plu. perf. ind pas. verb, reg. 2d plu. ind. imp. pas. verb, reg. 
We have been receiv-ed. You were resolv-ed. 

1st sing. ind. plup. pas. verb, ir. 2d sing. pot. pres. pas. verb, reg. 
I had been sough- 1. Thou must be releas-ed. 

1st sing. pot. perf. pas. verb, reg. 
He may have been misinform-edf. 

3d s. pot. imp. pas. verb. reg. 2d sing. pot. imp. pas. verb. ir. 
He would be delight - ed. Thou wouldst be see -n. 

3d plu. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. reg. 
They might have been discover -ed. 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. reg. 
The man should have been pardon -ed. 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
The lamb might have been shor -n. 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
The picture could have been draw -n. 

Subj. 3d sing. pas. pr. verb. reg. 
Unless a man be persuad -ed. 

Subj. 2d plu. pas. pr. verb. ir. 
Except ye be bor - n again. 

* Past perfect tense, i. e. : Pluperfect. 



Subj. 3d plu. past t perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
"Whether they could have been slai-n. 

Imperative pr. pas. verb. reg. imperative, pas. pr. verb. reg. 
Be assur-ed. Do not be alarm -erf. 

2d plu. v. ind. pr. inf. pr. pas. 
You are certain to be 

verb. reg.. 
well receiv - ed. 

3d sing. ind. pr. pas. verb. inf. perf. pas. verb. reg. 
He is said to have been caution - ed. 

Verb. pres. participle. Verb. 

JLov - ing. Lov 

Perf. part. verb. past. reg. 
Hav - iug lov - ed. 

verb. reg. Perf. part, 
lov - ed. 

past. part. reg. 
- ed. 

pas. pr. part. verb. reg.. 
Be - ing lov - ed. 

Perf. part. pas. 

3d sing. 
The house 

ind. pr. pas. 

3d sing. 

ind. pr. 

Ind. fut, interrog. 1st sing. 


pas. verb. reg. 
Hav - ing been lov - ed. 

progressive participle.^ verb. ir. 
(being) buil-t. 

verb, progressive form. 

writ - ing a letter. 

verb, progressive form. 

I be still speak - ing ? 


The difference between a noun and pronoun is this ; 
the noun always has a single relation, while the pronoun 
has at least a double, and frequently a treble relation, the 
latter being always the case when the pronoun is a 

* Past perfect tense ; f. e., pluperfect. 

t This verb has the form of the potential, and would be of thafe 
mood, if it had not been preceded by the subjunctive conjunction, 
which always determines the mood. 

J The word being is used to express the progressive form of the verb; 
as is built alone would denote a finished action. To say the house is 
building, is incorrect, since is building is a transitive verb, in the progres- 
sive form ; while the passive verb, in that form, is obviously required. 

$ The word be, with the participial termination of speak-ing, ex- 
presses the progressive form ; and when united form the word BE-IXG, 
as in the above example, the house it being built. 


compound relative; and it is this complex relation that 
renders the pronoun more difficult to be disposed of 
than the noun. The relation of the noun is always 
direct, while that of the pronoun is frequently indirect 
and not understood, or readily perceived by the student. 
For instance, in the sentence, " eat what is set before 
you," i. e., eat the food ichich is set before you,) in which 
the word what, when resolved into its equivalent parts, has 
THREE DISTINCT RELATIONS, the 6th, 8th, and 2d (food, 
6th relation ; which, 8th, as a pronoun, and 2d, for the 
case) ; the relations are natural and direct : but when 
we say, " He is the person whom I saw," the relation of 
whom, is saw whom, a position of words which sounds 
harsh and unnatural to the young scholar ; and it is for 
this very reason that so many errors are committed in 
using the pronoun. If the relation could always be 
seen or understood, no person would use such incorrect 
expressions as, " It is me;" "this is the man who I lent 
the pen to j " " these persons whom, more than all others, 
are censurable, etc., etc. 

The following exercises have been prepared especially 
to meet these difficulties, and it is hoped that if the stu- 
dent will give each pronoun its correct relation, as indi- 
cated by the figures placed before and after it, he will 
be enabled to comprehend its nature ; and if he will 
persevere until he transfers these principles to his mind, 
he will have mastered in a great degree the principal 
difficulties in parsing and correcting. 


1 *He* 8 who* performs every part of his business in 
its due place and season, suffers no part of time to escape 
without profit. 

2 *He 2 e that 2 overcomes his passions, conquers his 
greatest enemies. 


3 An error s that 2 proceeds from any good principle, 
leaves no room for resentment. 

4 Answer a fool according to 8 his 5 folly. 

5 John told James, on meeting 8 him, 6 that 8 Ae 2 had 
forfeited B his 5 claims to friendship. 

6 s He, 2 to 8 ichom' 1 S I 2 owe *my 5 being, 8 whose 5 8 7* 
am, and 8 whom 6 8 / 2 serve, is eternal. 

7 This is the friend 8 whom 6 8 7 2 love. 

j 8 8 Thou 2 s who 2 hast been a witness to the fact, canst 
give 8 me 7 a true account of 8 #. 7 

Relation of the above Pronouns. 

1st sentence. (Man) 8 HE 2 suffers. He 8 WHO* performs. 

2d sentence. (Mail) 8 HE 2 conquers. He 8 THAT 2 over- 

3d sentence. Error 8 THAT 2 proceeds. 

4th sentence. Fool 8 HIS 5 folly. 

5th sentence. James 8 HIM ; meeting HIM. 6 James 8 HE 2 
had forfeited. James 8 ms s friendship. 

6th sentence. (God} 8 HE 2 is. (God) WHOM; S to WHOM.' 
(person) 8 1 - owe (person)* MY 2 being. ( God) 8 WHOSE 5 
(person) (person) 8 1 2 am. ( God) WHOM ; 8 serve WHOM. 6 
(person) 8 1 3 serve. 

7 Friend WHOM; S love WHOM (person) 8 I 2 love. 

8 (person) 8 THOU 2 canst give. Thou, 8 WHO 2 hast been. 
(per soil) ME; 8 (to) ME 7 Fact, IT; 8 of n. 7 


1 Relation He 8 who 2 performs. 

WHO is a pronoun, 3d person, singular number, mas- 
culine gender, to agree with its antecedent he; and in the 
nominative case to performs. 



[The phrase, containing a relative pronoun, is invari- 
ably the complement of its antecedent.] 

1 8 What 2 - 2 can not be prevented, must be endured. 

2 Be attentive to 8 what 7 ' 7 you are about. 

3 "What 6 - 6 you do not hear to-day, you will not tell 

4 Mark Antony, when under adverse circumstances, 
made this interesting remark : " I have lost all, except 
8 what 7 ' 6 I gave away. 

5 8 Whatever 2 - 2 gives pain to others, deserves not the 
name of pleasure. 

6 8 Whatsoever 2 - 8 is set before you, eat. 

7 8 Whatever 2 ' 2 is, is right. 

8 8 Whoever 2 - 2 is not contented in poverty, would not 
be so in plenty. 

9 He who does not perform 8 what 6 ' 6 he has promised, 
is a traitor to his friend. 

10 He speaks 8 as 6 ' 6 he thinks. 

11 Our father 8 who 2 art in heaven. 

12 8 What 6 ' 6 thou bidst, unargued I obey. 

NOTE. The compound relative pronoun is always resolvable into 
the words that which, or the thing which; thus I speak what I know; 
t. e., I speak that which I know ; in which case the antecedent part of 
the word what, thing, is always the subject of the principal proposi- 
tion; and the word which, with its accompanying words, if in the 
nominative, is a complement of the principal subject. 

Subject, Predicate, Complements. 

1 8 What 2 - 2 (the evil 2 8 which*) can not be prevented, 
must be endured. 

EVIL 2 which can not be prevented, 


2 Be attentive to 'what 7 - 7 (the thing" 1 s which" 1 ) you are 


Subject. Predicate. Complements. 


BE ATTENTIVE To the tiling which you are about 
3 8 "What 6 ' 6 (the thing 6 8 which 6 ) you do not hear to-day, 
you can not tell to-morrow. 
You 2 

CAN NOT TELL the thing 6 to-morrow, * which* 

you do not hear to-day. 

6 8 Whatever 5 - 2 (the thing ^ichich^) is, is right. 
THING' the, 8 which 2 is, 


In like manner analyze the remaining sentences. 

1 " WHAT can not be prevented must be endured." 

WHAT is a compound relative pronoun, equal to 
the evil which. 

Syntax of evil ; EVIL must be endured. 
[Parse evil like CLOUD, page 34.] 

Syntax of which ; evil, WHICH can be prevented. 
[Parse which like WHO, page 62.] 


Conjunctions of the 15th Relation. 

1 John and 15 James are studious boys. 

2 The good and 15 wise are truly happy. 

3 The indolent and 15 indifferent accomplish little. 

4 The falls of Niagara are situated between the Amer- 
ican and 15 Canadian shores. 

5 Honesty and 15 virtue elevate mankind. 

6 "Water and 15 oil will not combine. 

7 You and 15 I are friends. 

8 Every person is either* good or 15 bad. 

9 The assertion was neither* wholly true nor 15 false. 
10 Ellen or 13 Jane can demonstrate the problem. 

* Corresponding conjunction. 


Conjunctions of the IGth Relation. 

1 Though 26 he was rich, yet 16 for our sakes, he be- 
came poor. 

2 Blessed are the meek, for 18 they shall inherit the 

3 You are happy, because 16 you are good. 

4 There was a certain householder, who planted a 
vineyard, and 16 hedged it round about, and 16 digged a 
wine-press in it, and 16 built a tower, and 16 let it out to 
husbandmen, and 16 went into a far country. 

5 It came to pass in those days, that 18 he went out 
into a mountain to pray. 

6 Consider the ravens; they neither sow nor 18 reap. 
.7 I am well pleased with your efforts, but 18 1 can not 

remunerate you. 

8 He was determined to go, notwithstanding 18 the 
weather was inclement. 

9 I should be pleased if 16 I could meet you there. 

10 "We wandered through the groves, as 18 we sung our 

Adverbial Conjunctions* 

1 I will pay you when 16 I have received my money. 

2 "We looked where 18 the tumbling waters leaped from 
the rocky precipice. 

3 "We paused when 16 we reached the boundary line. 

4 I have seen little boys express themselves in good 
language, while 16 older persons have hesitated or used 
very awkward speeches. 

* Every proposition commencing with an adverbial conjunction is a 
complement of the predicate in the principal proposition. That these 
words are conjunctions is obvious from the nature of their relation. 
Many words, usually considered as conjunctions, have sometimes the 
relation of adverbs. 




1 I shall not be able to see you until 16 I return. 

2 He was not aware of the fact before 16 he received 
my letter. 

3 I did not recognize him till ie he had ceased speak- 

4 I can not tell you without 16 I see the article. 

Relation of the preceding conjunctions, of the IGth relation. 

, ("He became poor THOUGH 16 he was sick. 

( He was rich YET 16 he became poor. 

2 Meek are blessed FOR 16 they shall inherit earth. 

8 You are happy BECAUSE 16 you are good. 

4 Who planted vineyard, AND 16 (icho) hedged it. 

who) hedged it, AND 1C (who) digged wine-press. 

who) digged wine-press, AND 16 {who) built tower. 

who) built tower, AND 16 (who) let it out. 

who) let it out, AND 16 (who) went. 

6 It came (to pass) THAT 16 he went. 

6 They sow KOR16 (they) reap. 

7 I am (pleased,) BUT 16 I can (not) remunerate you. 

8 He was (determined,) NOTWITHSTANDING 1 weather was. 

9 I should be pleased, IF 16 I could meet you. 
10 We wandered AS 16 we sung. 

Relation of Adverbial Conjunctions. 

1 I will pay you WHEN 16 I receive money. 

2 We looked WHERE 16 waters leapt. 

3 We paused WHEN 16 we reached the boundary line. 

4 I have seen boys (to) express themselves wuiLEi6 (older) persons 

have hesitated. 

Relation of Prepositional Conjunctions. 

1 I shall (not) be able to see you UNTIL 16 I return. 

2 He was not aware BEFORE 16 he received letter. 

3 I did (not) recognize him Tii,Li6 he had ceased speaking. 

4 I can (not) tell you WITHOUT 16 I see (the) article. 

Prepositions are often used to connect verbs of like moods and 
tenses, etc., when they certainly appear to have the force of conjunc- 
tions; but if we supply the ellipses, we can give these words the rela- 
tion of prepositions; thus "I shall not be able to see you until the 
time when I return :" until would then be a preposition and govern 



NOTE. The RELATION of the preposition is rarely understood, even 
by professed grammarians. Smith gives this sentence " James found 
his hat in the road;" and proceeds to say that in is a preposition, 
showing a relation between hat and road. A moment's reflection will 
suffice to convince any one of the error of this relation. If the pre- 
positional phrase in the road has a relation to the noun hat, it must be 
an adjective relation; for every preposition that holds a relation to an 
antecedent noun, converts its phrase into a virtual adjective; thus 
" the jessamine in flower ;" i. e., the flowery jessamine ; " the book of 
fate;" f. e., fatal book. Now, what attribute of hat is the phrase in the 
road ? None at all. On the other hand, if it has a relation to found, 
that relation must be adverbial; and this we find to be true. Where 
did he find the hat? Ans. In the road. Hence, in the road is an ad- 
verbial phrase, qualifying found, and is, virtually, an adverb of place. 
Every grammarian would see at once that in the road is a COMPLEMENT 
or SIODIFIER of found, and not of hat. In addition to the two relations 
of the preposition given in the Table on page 28, there are two other 
relations, auxiliary adjective and auxiliary adverbial, as will be seen by 
reference to the article on Prepositions, page 135, in the second part 
of this work. As these relations, however, seldom occur, and are, 
virtual!}', either auxiliary adjectives or adverbs, it has been thought 
unnecessary to include them in the Table. 


1 His character is above 14 reproach. 

2 They found the boat by 14 the shore. 

3 These people followed directly in the footsteps of 1 * 
their ancestors. 

4 India-rubber is made from the gum of 13 a tree. 

5 The tree is at quite a distance from 13 the wall. 

6 He has been removed from 14 office. 

7 The poor man is beside 14 himself. 

8 By 14 this time the ship should have arrived. 

9 He is the person to 14 whom I gave the book. 

10 He had an extreme aversion to 13 gaming. 

11 An addition to 13 the house was contemplated. 

12 Idle people sometimes live without 14 labor. 

13 Small creeks flow into 14 larger streams. 


14 The governor resides in M thiS house. 

15 Ye shall not go after 14 other gods. 

16 The world was all before 14 them. 

17 They wept for 14 joy. He died in M debt. 

18 To him of 13 * poetical notoriety I gave the pen. 

19 "We win no friends by living in 14 f solitude. 

20 She was angry with 19 1 her brother. 

21 He was zealous in 19 ! the pursuit of knowledge. 

22 They were anxious about 19 J the matter. 

23 Go quickly, by 20 ^ all means. 

24 He speaks well 20 ^ on some occasions. 

All prepositions marked 14 have a relation to the verb 
or participle ; all marked 13 have a relation to the noun 
or pronoun. 


NOTE. As the auxiliary verbs are used for no other purpose than to 
form the moods and tenses of other verbs, and are never denominated 
adverbs, although they are invariably added to a verb; so these aux- 
iliary adjectives and adverbs, which are used in forming the degrees 
of comparison in the adjective or adverb, never can become adverbs, 
as not one of them can be added to a verb. We shall proceed to show 
that the adverb and the auxiliary adverbs and adjectives are distinct 
parts of speech, the adverb invariably holding the 12th relation, or 
being added to a verb, while the auxiliaries always hold either the 
19th, 20th, or 21st relation. Now, as 12 can never equal either 19, 
20, or 21, separately or combined, so the adverb can never equal a 
relation which is as much distinct and separate from it as these figures 
are from one another. 


1 The weather is eortremely 19 warm. 1 

2 The wall is very 19 high. 1 

3 The wall is sixty-feet high. 1 

* Adjective relation to the pronoun, 
t Adverbial relation to the participle. 
J Auxiliary adjective (19th relation). 
Auxiliary adverbial (20th relation). 


4 The sun is a thousand-times 19 larger 1 than the earth. 

5 Down, deep 1 in the main, full-many -a-score-fathom 19 
thy frame shall decay. 

[Thy frame shall decay down, in the full-many -a-score- 
fathom 19 deep L main.] 

6 He paid the note more-than-a-year M ago. 12 

7 The mercury is ten-degrees 21 below 14 zero. 

8 Itx is more -than -three -thousand -miles 21 across the- 
ocean. 14 

9 The 20 more 12 I examine it, the 20 better 12 I like it. 

10 His raiment became exceedingly 19 white. 1 

11 John is wiser 1 than his brother. 

12 John is more 19 wise 1 than his brother. 

13 John is the most 19 learned 1 boy in the school. 

14 James runs more 20 rapidly 12 than William. 
15. But Henry runs most 20 rapidly. 12 

16 The coat is too 19 large. 1 

17 This coat is very 19 large. 1 

18 This coat is a-world-too 19 large. 1 

19 She is as 19 tall 1 as her sister. 

20 He is less 19 wise 1 than his brother. 

21 And the least 19 esteemed 1 of his associates. 

22 He came near 21 to 14 the edge of the precipice. 

NOTE. If any of these auxiliaries be used in a sentence, they will, 
by the very law of their nature and inherent relations, immediately 
attach themselves to their principals, and become auxiliaries. Again, 
a word which is a legitimate adverb, holding the 12th relation, quali- 
fying a verb or participle, can not be used as an auxiliary. 

The moon smiles serenely. 12 
Ho acted cautiously. 12 

" The word very, exceedingly, or any other word of similar im- 
port, when joined to an adjective, forms, what grammarians term tho 
superlative of eminence, to distinguish it from the superlative of compari-* 
son. Lindlay Murray. 



LIST OP ABBREVIATIONS used in the following exercises, 
and other parts of this work. 

n., noun. 

c., com., common. 
p., prop., proper. 
m., mas., masculine. 
f., fern., feminine. 
n., neut., neuter. 

2, second person. 

3, third person. 
s., sing., singular. 
pi., plu., plural. 
norn., nominative. 
pos., possessive. 
obj., objective. 
ace., accusative. 
abs., absolute. 
ind., independent. 
v., ver&. 

reg., regular. 
ir., irregular. 
tr., transitive. 
in., int., intransitive. 
pas., passive. 
ind., indicative. 
pot., potential. 
sub., subjunctive. 
inf., infinitive. 
im., imperative. 
pr., pres., present. 
perf., perfect. 
imp., imperfect. 
plup., pluperfect. 
fut., 1st future. 
2 fut., 2d future. 
No., number. 

pers., person. 
gen., gender. 
adj., adjective. 
pron., pronoun. 
adv., adverb. 
prep., prepositiot , 
conj., conjunction. 
int., interjection. 
part., participle. 
p. p., personal pronoun. 
T. p., relative pronoun. 
aux., auxiliary. 
subj., subject. 
pred., predicate. 
comp., complement. 
att., attribute. 
cop., copula. 

Additional Exercises in Parsing. 

adv. v. ind. imp. 3 s. adj. n. c. f. 3 s. nom. adv. 

1 NOW 12 


still 1 

evening^ on. 


p. p. pos. adj. 
8 her 5 sober 1 

conj. n. c. f. 3 s. nom. adj. aux. v. 

2 And 16 twilight* gray 1 had 18 in 

n. c. n. 3 s. obj. adj. n. c. n. 3 pi. ace. v. ir. tr. ind. plup. 3 s. 
livery 7 all 1 things 6 clad. 10 

n. c. f. 3 s. nom. v. reg. tr. ind. imp. 3 s. p. p. ace. 

3 Silence 2 accompanied 10 ( 6 ) 

conj. n. c. n. 3 s. nom. conj. n. c. n 3 s. nom. v. ir. in. ind. imp. 3 p. 

4 For 16 beast 2 and 15 bird were 18 sunk. 9 

p. p. nom. prep. p. p. pos. adj. n. c. n. 3 s. obj. 

8 They 2 to 14 8 their 5 grassy 1 couch, 7 " " 

adj. prep. p. p. pos. n. c. n. 3 pi. obj. adj. 

These 1 (_*) to 14 8 their 5 nests 7 all 1 " 

In like manner let the student mark on the blackboard all the words 
in the following sentences : 

5 But 16 the 1 wakeful 1 nightingale, 1 

( 18 _ 9 \ 

6 8 She 2 all-night-long 12 "her 5 amorous 1 descant 6 sung. 10 

7 Silence 2 was pleased." 

8 Now 12 glowed 9 the 1 firmament 2 with" living 1 
sapphires. 7 


9 Hesperus* ["that 2 led 10 the 1 starry 1 host 6 ] rode' 
brightest, 1 

10 Till 16 the 1 moon, 2 rising 19 in "clouded 1 majesty, 7 
at length 12 unvailed 10 8 her 5 peerless 1 light; 6 

11 And 16 1 2 o'er" the 1 dark 7 8 her 5 sil- 
ver 1 mantle 6 threw. 10 

12 When 16 Adam 2 ( 10 ) thus" to" Eve, 7 

13 Fair 1 consort 3 the 1 hour 2 of 13 night 7 and 15 all 1 
things 2 now 12 retired 1 - 9 to" rest, 7 mind 10 8 us 6 of" like 1 
repose. 7 

14 Since 16 God 2 hath set 10 labor* and 15 rest 7 

15 As 16 ( ' 18 10 ) day 6 and 15 night" 

V X / O 

to" men 7 successive. 1 

16 And 18 the 1 timely 1 dew 2 of" sleep 7 now 12 falling 1 - 9 
with 14 soft 1 slumbrous 1 weight 7 inclines 10 8 our 5 eyelids. 6 

17 Other 1 creatures 2 all-day-long 12 rove 9 idle 1 un- 
employed, 1 

18 And 16 ( l 2 ) less 1 need 10 

rest. 6 

19 Man 2 hath 10 8 his 5 daily 1 works of 13 body 7 or 15 
of 18 mind 7 appointed, 1 - 9 

20 "Which 2 declares 10 8 his 5 dignity, 6 

21 And 16 ( J 10 ) the 1 regard 6 of 13 

heaven 7 8 on 5 all 1 8 his 5 ways ; 7 

22 While 12 other 1 animals 2 unactive 1 range, 9 

23 And 16 of 13 their 8 - 5 doings 7 God 2 takes 10 no 1 ac- 
count. 6 

24 To-morrow, 12 [ere 16 fresh 2 morning 2 18 

streak 10 the 1 east, 6 with" first 1 approach 7 of 13 light 7 ] 

i 25 8 We 2 must 18 be 9 risen, 1 

26 And ( l ) at 1 * 

8 our 5 pleasant 1 labor 7 to reform, 10 yon 1 flowery 1 arbors, 1 
yonder 1 alleys 6 green, 1 8 our 6 walk 7 at 13 noon 7 with 1 * 
branches 7 overgrown. 1 - 9 

27 8 That 2 mock 10 8 our 5 scant 1 manuring, 8 

28 And 16 require 10 more l hands 6 


29 Than 16 8 ours, 5 (i. e., than our hands are,~) to lop 10 
8 their 5 wanton 1 growth. 6 

30 Those 1 blossoms, 2 also, 12 and 15 those 1 dropping 1 
gums* [ 8 that 2 lie 9 bestrewn, 1 unsightly 1 and 15 un- 
srnooth, 1 ] ask 10 riddance, 6 

31 If 16 8 we 2 mean 10 to tread 9 with" ease. 7 

32 Meanwhile 12 [ 8 as 6 * nature 2 wills 10 ] night 2 bids 10 
*us 6 (to) rest. 9 

33 To u 8 whom 7 thus 12 Eve 2 (said 10 ) with 14 perfect 1 
beauty 7 adorned, 1 - 11 

34 8 My 5 author 3 and 15 disposer, 3 

35 "What 6 8 thou 2 bidst, 10 unargued 1 8 I 2 obey. 10 

[35 8 I 2 obey, 10 the 1 unargued 1 thing 6 "which 6 thou 
bidst. 10 ] 

36 8 So 6 God 2 ordains. 10 

37 With 14 8 thee T conversing, 1 - 9 8 I 2 forget 10 all 1 time, 6 
all l seasons 6 and 15 8 their 5 change. 6 

38 All 1 ( 2 ) please 10 ( fi ) alike. 12 

39 Sweet 1 is 9 the 1 breath 2 of 13 morn, 7 

"40 8 Her 5 rising 2 ( 9 ) sweet 1 with 14 charm 7 of is 

earliest 1 birds. 7 

41 Pleasant 1 ( 9 ) the 1 sun 2 

42 "When 16 first 12 on 14 this 1 delightful 1 land? 8 he 
spreads 10 8 his 5 orient 1 beams, 6 on 14 herb, 7 tree, 7 fruit 7 
and 15 flower, 7 glistening 1 -' with 14 dc\v. 7 

43 Fragrant 1 (_ 9 ) the 1 fertile 1 earth 2 after 14 soft 1 
showers, 7 

44 And 16 sweet 1 ( 9 ) the 1 coming-on 2 of 13 grateful 1 

evening 7 mild j 1 

, 45 Then 16 silent 1 night 2 (_ 9 ) with 14 this 1 8 her 5 sol- 
emn 1 bird/ and 15 ( ") this 1 fair 1 morn, 7 and 15 

these, 1 the 1 gems 7 of 13 heaven, 7 "her 5 starry 1 train. 7 

* As, relative pronoun, equivalent to the word which; i. e., "which 
nature wills." It may be observed that the word wills is a. tratnitirc vrb, 
and, as such, requires an object. If we consider as a conjunction, irills 
can have no object. The same construction occurs in the 36th sen- 



IT will be seen that the first part of this work is al- 
most exclusively practical ; and it is suggested that the 
teacher make use of it in the following manner. After 
having gone over the promiscuous examples on the 
plate, and in the blackboard exercises, let the classes 
commence at page 49, and, for two or three lessons, 
parse nothing but adjectives, or words of the first rela- 
tion, at the same time directing their attention particu- 
larly to the description of the adjective contained in 
the second part. After the adjective is well understood 
let them review the same three lessons, commencing 
at page 49, parsing nothing but nouns, their attention 
being called, in the mean time, especially to the noun 
and its accidents in the second part. Then let the verb, 
with all its moods, tenses, variations, etc., be' the object 
of the pupils' consideration, for several lessons, until 
they shall thoroughly understand all that is contained 
in the lessons, commencing on page 50, and continuing 
to age 62, the conjugation, and general description of 
the verb in the second part being well studied at the 
same time. Let each student be required, particularly, 
to change each transitive verb in these exercises, into its 
passive form, and parse it as such. In like manner go 
over the pronouns, conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, 
etc., and it will be found that the scholar will acquire a 
more perfect and correct idea of the parts of speech 
and their accidents when the mind is directed to one 
'only, at a time, thus concentrating and fixing the at- 
tention upon a single point, than by continuing a pro- 
miscuous course of exercises. In a similar manner the 
scholars should parse and correct false syntax. 

tence; "So God ordains." As stands for the phrase, "ni<rht bids us 
rest;" and so stands for the preceding clause, "what thou bidst," etc. 


Founded on the Table of Relations, page 28. 

1 Every word having the first relation is an adjective. 

2 Words, having the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th re- 
lation, are nouns or pronouns. 

3 Every word having the 8/7i relation, is a pronoun. 

\ 4 All words of the 9th, 10th, or llth relation, are 

5. All words holding the 12th relation, are adverbs. 

6 A word having the 13th or 14th relation, is a pre- 

1 All words of the 15th or 16th relation, are conjunc- 

8 A word, having no relation, (17) is an interjection. 

9 All words of the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st relation, 
are auxiliaries. 

10 Any word, having none of the above relations, is 
no part of speech, whatever. 

NOTE. Analysis is a separation of any whole into its parts. Now 
let all the words in the English language constitute the whole to be 
analyzed : then let the Table of Relations on page 28 be the measure 
or guide for referring all these words to their respective classes; (i. e. 
adjective, noun, verb, etc.,) and the proposition that every word, which 
holds the first relation on that table, is an ADJECTIVE, (not an article or 
pronoun,} will be self-evident, for this reason, that all etymological dis- 
tinctions, not founded on these relations, will instantly vanish like the 
baseless fabric of a vision. 



ENGLISH Grammar treats of the nature and 
structure of the English language.* 

GRAMMAR, derived from rpa^a-fevg, (Gframmateus,') a 
writer, in a comprehensive sense, signifies the capacity or 
ability to write or speak a language in such a manner 
as will give to each word and phrase in the sentence that 
constructive relation to the other words in the same sen- 
tence which the universal consent of all men using the 
same language has assigned to them ; but, in a more 
confined and technical sense, 

Grammar is that science which presents the construc- 
tive principles of the language or languages of which it 
treats : (from the Latin con, together ; struere, to build ;) 
therefore, a work which purports to be a " Treatise on 
Grammar," ought rather to point out clearly THIS CON- 
STRUCTIVE RELATION, which exists among the words in a 
sentence, and by virtue of which they become parts of 

What is the definition of English grammar given on this page? 
From what is grammar derived? What does grammar present? From 
what is constructive derived? 

* This is believed to be more in accordance with the true intent and 
import of language than the commonly received definition that " Gram- 
mar is the art of speaking and writing a language correctly." Spoken 
language is not artificial; it is the natural attribute of human beings. 
Written language, with its arbitrary signs, letters, points, etc., may 
very properly be considered artificial; but grammar treats of both 
spoken and written language both the natural and the artificial pe- 
culiarities of speech; hence the necessity of a definition sufficiently 
broad to comprehend the two under one distinct head. 



speech, than to be a mere transcript of definitions and rules 
from the grammars of antiquity! which are of but little 
use in guiding the student in the structure of his sen- 
tences, or in " writing and speaking the language with 
propriety." And here let the student be admonished, 
that 710 person has ever yet been able either to speak or 
write correctly, who was ignorant of the actual relation 
or natural dependence which is found to exist between 
the words and members of a sentence, and which it is 
the peculiar province of the grammarian to make dear 
and plain. 

Language (derived from the Latin word Lingua, the 
tongue,) is the faculty of communicating our thoughts to 
others, by pronouncing or writing certain words, which 
the universal consent of mankind has agreed should 
stand for a fixed and definite idea. 

Grammar is naturally divided into four parts: 


ORTHOGRAPHY teaches the method of expressing 
words by their appropriate letters. 

ORTHOGRAPHY, derived from the Greek words opOog 
(orthos) correct, and ypa>o (grapho) to write, signifies writ- 
ing, or spelling correctly ; and as spelling is always 
taught in our schools by books or dictionaries, prepared 
expressly for this purpose, it would be useless to add 
any thing further concerning it in this place. 

SYNTAX is the union of words in a sentence. 
SYNTAX, from the Greek avv (syri), together, and rier t fn 
(tithemi), to put or place, signifies the putting^together of 

What is language? From what is language derived? Into how 
many parts is grammar divided? What are those parts? What is 
orthography? How is it learned? From what i3 it derived? What 
is syntax? From what is it derived? 


words in a sentence. It is obvious, that if ideas in lan- 
guage were xpressed by single, detached words, instead 
of sentences, there could be no such thing as Syntax : 
hence it is, that the etymology of a word depends upon 
the syntax or relation of that word to some other word 
or words in the sentence, rather than on obsolete and 
arbitrary rules and definitions, which serve only to ren- 
der the study of grammar more dark and mysterious; 
and for this reason syntax should have precedence be- 
fore etymology, as it is only by the relation (or syntax) 
of a word that we can determine its etymological classi- 
fication. Let syntax be well understood, and etymology 
will follow, as a matter of course. Syntax is one of the 
first things in grammar, the nature of which should bo 
thoroughly explained to the learner. Let us instance 
the following sentence: 

" The midnight moon serenely smiles." 
The syntax of the is the moon: in other words, the be- 
longs to moon. Now, whatever we may call the as a 
part of speech, whether an adjective, an article, or an 
add-noun, it matters nothing; its syntax, relation, or 
connection will remain always the same, founded, as it is, 
upon the principles of the language itself, and offering 
nothing about which grammarians can in the least disa- 
gree; as every one must see that it has an unquestion- 
able relation to moon. Midnight has also a relation to 
moon, and is constituted an adjective by virtue of such 
relation. Moon has a syntax with smiles, a relation 
clearly indicating that it is a noun in the nominative. 
Serenely must be joined to smiles: we can not say serenely 
moon, and preserve the sense of the sentence ; hence we 
learn that syntax is but the common-sense rendering of 

Does the etymology of a word depend on its syntax ? Is syntax an 
important part of grammar? Can you give the syntax (or relation) 
of the words in the sentence "The midnight moon serenely smiles? ' 
(See plate, page 33.) 


words, having nothing to do with arbitrary rnles and 
definitions. As by this relation, we add serenely to a 
verb, we call it an adverb. Smiles is connected with 
moon, and in giving the syntax the pupil will say moon 
smiles; and whatever etymological attributes we may 
ascribe to the word smiles, is of little consequence, the 
syntactic relation will always remain an indisputable 
fact, imprinting upon the mind of the young learner 
ideas which time shall never obliterate, although rules: 
and etymological definitions be buried long ago in the 
rubbish of oblivion. 

ETYMOLOGY treats of the various parts of speech, 
their declensions and modifications. 

ETYMOLOGY, from the Greek itvpov (etymon), a true root, 
and xoyoj- (logos), a word, signifies the true root or deriva- 
tion of words. Its grammatical signification, however, 
does not only include this idea, but extends the meaning 
to the classification of words as well as their derivation 
and signification. 

Etymology, therefore, may be considered, 

1, as the arrangement of words into various classes, 

called parts of speech, and the consequent orders 
or methods of parsing ; 

2, the formation and derivation of adjectives, adverbs, 

etc. ; and tho declension and conjugation of nouns, 
verbs, etc. 


jective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, con- 
junction and interjection. 

What, is etymology? From what is it derived? To what is its 
grammatical signification extended? Into what two parts may ety- 
mology be divided? How maiiy parts of speech, are there? What are 

NOUN. 79 

Some authors also include the article as a distinct part 
of speech ; but as it is only a word of the adjective 
variety, it is deemed unnecessary to give it a distinct 
classification. See page 86. 


A noun is the name of a person, place or thing, 
as John, Boston, book. 

NOTJN, from the Latin nomen, a name, signifies the 
naming word, or subject of the sentence. This is particu- 
larly so when the noun is in the nominative (also from 
nomen} or naming case. 

Relations and Cases of the Noun. 

Nouns have six relations, and six* corresponding 
cases, as follows: 


Singular. Plural. 

1st. Nominative. MAN walks. MEN walk. 

2d. Possessive. MAN'S horse. MEN'S horse. 

3d. Objective. to MAN. to MEN. 

4th. Accusative.t saw MAN. saw MEN. 

5th. Independent. or ah MAN. or ah MEN. 

6th. Absolute. MAN being killed. MEN being Mled. 

By the foregoing table we learn the nominative case 
precedes a verb ; the possessive precedes a noun, and 
always employs the apostrophe (') and s in the singu- 
lar, and the apostrophe placed after the s in the plural; 

What is a noun? From what is it derived? How many relations 
and corresponding cases have nouns? Repeat them. What do we 
learn by this declension of the noun ? 

* The three additional cases can not be considered an innovation 
upon established grammatical precedent, inasmuch as they have 
always been recognized under the names of nominative and objective. 

t Or objective, if the teacher prefer, and governed by the verb saw. 


the objective follows a preposition ; the accusative fol- 
lows a transitive verb ; the independent follows an 
interjection ; and the absolute precedes a participle. 
Hence, the noun can have no syntactic relation with a 
pronoun, an adverb, an adjective or conjunction, as a de- 
pendent on any one of them for a case. 


It is of the utmost importance that the scholar should 
learn, at an early period, to distinguish the cases of 
nouns and pronouns ; nor should he ever be permitted 
to omit the case, as some grammarians have recom- 
mended, although he may not be advanced as far as a 
knowledge of the verb. As the case of a noun can 
never be determined by the declension, and in no other 
way than by the relation, it follows that no word can 
have a case until it becomes incorporated in a sentence; 
hence the absurdity of requiring the scholar to give the 
cases of detached nouns j as book, books, book's, etc. 

The Possessive Case.' 

The possessive case presents many peculiarities. TTe 
see that it has the same relation to the noun that an 
adjective has ; for this reason, some authors call it an 
adjective. The s is thought to be a contraction of his, 
as indicated by the apostrophe, which is always used to 
denote the omission of letters; John's book being but a 
contraction of John his book. Another peculiarity of 
the possessive case ia its resemblance to the genitive in 
Latin, which is often translated into English by the 
preposition of; as pater patrice, father of his country; 
liber pueri, the booh of the boy (i. e., the boy's book) : hence 
nearly all phrases, following the preposition of, are simi- 

How is the case of a noun determined? Wlmt other -word has a re- 
lation like the possessive case? What is said about the apotfro/ilie 
and a ? What other peculiarity is there about the possessive case 

KOTO. 81 

hir in their nature to nouns in the possessive case, and 
always hold an adjective relation (like the possessive) to 
some noun or pronoun. 

The rule for using the apostrophe is here subjoined. 

If the noun is in the possessive case, singular number, 
add an apostrophe and s, as John, John's. If the noun 
is possessive plural, and already ends in s, add an apos- 
trophe only, as boys, boys' ; if possessive plural, not 
ending in s, add the apostrophe and s, as men, men's. \ 


Nouxs are either proper or common. 

A common noun is one including within its extension 
a whole race, genus or species ; as man, country, tree, 

A proper noun is one whose extension is limited to a 
single individual; as George, William, Albany, Boston, 
Hudson, ILccla, etc. 

It may be well to observe that proper nouns always commence with 
a capital letter ; but this does not at all times distinguish them from 
the common noun, which, also, often commences with a capital, par- 
ticularly at the beginning of sentences. 


THERE are three genders the masculine, femi- 
nine and neuter : the masculine denotes males ; 
the feminine, females; and all other nouns are 

In some other languages inanimate objects are con- 
sidered either masculine or feminine, particularly in 
French and Spanish, in which all nouns are either mas- 
culine or feminine, there being no neuter gender. 

What is the rule for the use of the apostrophe? What distinction 
have nouns ? What is a common noun ? A proper noun ? Do proper 
nouns always commence with a capital? How many genders are 
there ? What are they ? What is said of gender in other languages ? 


Inanimate objects are sometimes considered masculine 
or feminine by personification (a figure of speech, by 
which life and action are attributed to them), or by the 
relation of some adjective, verb, or pronoun, indicating 
the gender or class. 

Gray ticilight had clad all things in her sober livery. 

Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet. 

Pleasant is the sun, when he spreads his orient beams. 

Tic flight is personified by had clad, and gender desig- 
nated by her. 

Sun, masculine, personified by spreads, gender desig- 
nated by he and his. 

Twilight, her, feminine, by personification. 

Morn, her, do. do. 

Sun, he, masculine, do. 

There are, also, a few words, as parent, friend, cousin, 
relation, stranger, child, etc., of the common gender. 

It would be unnecessary to add here the methods by 
which the scholar may distinguish the genders of nouns, 
as any person who understands the English language 
needs no such assistance to distinguish males and 
females by their appropriate names. 


THERE are three persons, denominated first, 
second and third ; the first denotes the speal-< r ; 
the second, the person spoken to; and the third, 
the person spoken of. 

The first person is only applied to the personal pro- 
nouns, J, mine, me; we, ours, us ; and the relatives stand- 
ing for them. The second person is always in the 

Is gender sometimes ascribed to inanimate objects in English ? In 
what manner? How many persons are there? What are they? To 
what are they applied? What case is the 2d person? 

NOUN. 83 

pendent case, and is preceded by the interjection 0, or 
ah, (or some other word, in hailing,) either expressed or 
understood. See " Eolations and cases of nouns," p. 
79. As a general rule we may say that the independ- 
ent case alone is 2d person, and all other cases of nouns 
are of the third person. 


NOUNS have two numbers, singular and plural : 
the singular denotes but one object; the plural, 
any number of objects greater than one. 

In writing, the plural of nouns is generally formed by 
adding s to the singular ; as book, books ; pen, pens ; day, 

Nouns ending in s, sh, ch, x, or o, in the singular, form 
their plural by adding es ; as dress, dresses; dish, dishes ; 
match, matches; box, boxes; hero, heroes. 

Nouns ending in y, change y to ies for the plural ; as 
lady, ladies ; but when a vowel occurs before the y, an s 
is merely added for the plural ; as tray, trays ; day, days. 

Nouns in / or fe change / or fe to ves for the plural ; 
as loaf, loaves ; wife, wives. 


"When ch is pronounced like k, at the termination of 
words, the plural adds merely an s; as pibroch, pibrochs ; 
stomach, stomachs. 

Portico, solo, quarto, grotto, tyro, junto, canto, and all 
nouns ending in io, take s only in the plural ; as nuncio, 
nuncios; grotto, grottos, etc. 

Nouns ending in ff (except staff, which has sometimes 
staves}, take s, as cuff, cuffs. 

Scarf, dwarf, brief, grief, chief, gulf, fife, strife, handker- 

How many numbers are there ? What are they ? How are plurals 
formed ? 


chief, mischief, proof, hoof, roof, and reproof, do not change 
/ or fe into ves. 

Proper nouns have no plural form, except when a 
race or family is indicated, as the Browns, the William- 
sons, the Jews, the Turks, etc. Swiss, British, English, 
Dutch, are always plural, the singular being Switzer, 
Briton, Englishman and Dutchman. 
We also write, the Messrs. Brown, meaning two or 
more of that name ; the two Miss Watsons, or the Misses 
Watson ; the corner of State, and Main street, and not 
streets, there being but one State street, and one Main 
street, in any one place. Observe the comma after State, 
indicating the elliptical absence of street. 

Many nouns form their plural irregularly ; as 

Sing. Flu. Sing. Phi. 

man, men. child, children, 

woman, women. tooth, teeth, 

foot, feet. penny, pence, 

etc., etc. etc., etc., 

An extended list of which need not be given, as every 
child that can read or spell knows how to form irregu- 
lar plurals as well as those that are regular. 

Some words have no plural, as icealth, drunkenness, hay, 
poverty, etc. Some others have no singular, as arms, (wea- 
pons,') antipodes, etc. Some nouns are the same in the 
singular as plural ; as sheep, deer, swine, etc. We say pease 
and fish, meaning the species, but peas and fishes when 
speaking of any specified number. This latter rule is 
not always observed, peas and fish being used at all 
times. Snuffers, scissors, tongs, etc., are always used in 
the plural ; and mathematics, pneumatics, politics, ethics, 
are singular. 

Many nouns from foreign languages retain their origi- 
nal form of the plural; as radius, radii; focus, foci; da- 
Do proper names have a plural? Do some nouns form their plural 
irregularly? Give some examples. Are there some words which 
have no plural? 


turn, data; erratum, errata; calx, calces, etc., for a perfect 
knowledge of which the student is referred to those lan- 
guages, or to "Webster's unabridged dictionary. 


THE adjective is a word joined to a noun, and 
generally expresses some quality of the noun, or 
limits its logical extension. 

In order to constitute a word an adjective, it must 
have the syntax of an adjective ; that is, it must be 
joined to a noun. Many adjectives express no quality 
whatever, and a few do not limit or restrict the logical 
extension of the word to which it is joined, but all ad- 
jectives hold a certain and invariable relation with some 
noun or pronoun, expressed or understood. An adjec- 
tive is part and parcel of the noun to which it is at- 
tached, as the black stove expresses but one object ; and let 
there be ever so many adjectives, they do not augment 
the number of objects ; as, the large, black, iron stove may 
be considered the logical subject or subject-nominative 
of a sentence, the conclusion of which may be expressed 
by the words stands on the floor, as a predicate. 

A noun without an adjective is invariably taken in its 
broadest extension ; as, Man is accountable. America is 
a fine country. A knife is a useful article. The rose is 
beautiful. In these expressions, the words man, America, 
knife and rose, are taken in their broadest extension, 
meaning, respectively, all mankind, the whole continent, 
aU kinds of knives, and all kinds of roses. Now, if wo 
wish to express a part, we use the adjective, and say 
white man (excluding the blacks), North America (and 
exclude the South), etc., from which it will be readily 

What is an adjective ? What must a word have to constitute it an 
adjective? Do all adjectives express quality? Do they all restrict 
extension ? When is a noun taken in its broadest extension ? 


perceived by the student, without dwelling longer on 
this point, that the legitimate use of an adjective is, to 
enable us to distinguish one object from another, to de- 
fine it ; and that any word which has a syntactic rela- 
tion to and restricts the extension of a noun, by excluding 
a part, is an adjective in its nature, whether it expresses 
quality or not; as, this room (alluding to the room in 
which you are while reading this) ; this is nothing but 
an adjective, as it restricts the extension of the noun 
room, by excluding all other rooms. A he goat (exclud- 
ing the female). 

Some phrases, also, have the same relation to a noun 
that the adjective has, by virtue of the fact that they re- 
strict the extension of the noun. (See Relation of Sec- 
tions and Phrases.) 

The adjectives THE and A or AN. 

THE and A or AX are words of an adjective re- 
lation, when used in a sentence. 

AN is used before words commencing with a 
vowel or silent Ji ; as, an egg ; an hour. 

A is used before words commencing with a con- 
sonant or aspirated li ; as, a man; a boy ; a hun- 
dred ; etc. A is also used before words commenc- 
ing with u, y, and w; as, a union; a yoke; a way ; 
not an union, etc. 

By some authors these words are denominated articles. 
"Webster says, such a thing as an article can not exist in 

language. He says : 

" There is no word, or class of words, that falls within 
the signification of article (a joint}, or that can otherwise 
than arbitrarily be brought under that denomination. 
The words called articles are all adjectives or pronoun* .* 

Do phrases also limit extension ? What are the peculiarities of the 
adjectives a and the f Do some grammarians call these words articles ? 

* In Latin or Greek. 


"When they are used with nouns, they are adjectives, 
modifying the signification of nouns, like other adjec- 
tives, for this is their proper office. \Vhen they stand 
alone, they are pronouns; as, hie, ille, ipse, in Latin, 
when used with nouns expressed, are adjectives : hie 
homo, this man; ille homo, the or that man. When they 
stand alone, hie, ille (meaning he, etc.), they stand in the 
place of nouns." 

In English, says Webster, "the is an adjective; and 
why it should have been selected as the only definitive 
is very strange, when, obviously, this and that are more 
exactly definitive." Again: 

" As to the English an or a, which is called, in gram- 
mars, the indefinite article, there are two great mistakes. 
A being considered as the original word, it is said to be- 
come an before a vowel. The fact is directly the reverse. 
An is the original word ; and this is contracted to a, by 
dropping the n before a consonant. 

" But an is merely the Saxon orthography for one. ?/;?, 
unus, etc., an adjective found in nearly all the langi; 
of Europe, and expressing a single person or thing. It 
is merely a word of number, and no more an article 
than two, three, four, and every other numeral in the 

In Greek, 6, r t , to; and in French, le, la, as also the 
article (if such it may be termed), in some other lan- 
guages, might with propriety be called definite, inas- 
much as it serves to designate the gender of the noun to 
which it is attached : 6 belongs to masculine nouns, $ to 
feminine, and to to neuter. So le is always joined to 
masculine nouns only, and la to those that are feminine. 
We may say the same of the German der, die, das; and 
the Spanish el, la, lo ; which belong respectively to nouns 
masculine, feminine and neuter. 

Neither does the serve, in any manner, to define, desig- 
nate, or point out the noun to which it is attached ; on 

Are there any reasons why these words should be considered as ad- 
jectives ? (live some of those reasons. What is said of an or af 
What is said of the article in other languages? Does the serve t? de- 
fine any word ? 


the contrary, the is the least definitive of all adjectives, 
unless it be such words as any, all, few, many, and the 
like. Let us instance this sentence " Bring me the 
book." Now, if there be several books in the room, no 
one would be enabled, by the word the, to designate what 
book is meant; and if there be but one book in the 
room, certainly the book is of itself a very definite word, 
and can not be made more so by prefixing the word the. 
Again : " Bring me the large book." Is it not obvious 
that the word large is not only the more definitive word, 
but the only one in the sentence? 

The is evidently a contraction of this, that, these, or 
those, being similar to these words in meaning; and, 
generally, can be readily substituted in the place of one 
of them, the only difficulty being that the is not suffi- 
ciently definitive to express the ordinary meaning of this, 
that, etc. 

Says "Webster, quoting " ' The article a is used in a 
vague sense, to point out one single thing of a kind ; in 
other respects, indeterminate.' Lowth. 

" Example ' I will be an adversary to thine adversa- 
ries ;' that is, in a vague sense, any adversary : indeter- 
minate ! 

" 'And he spake a parable unto them;' that is, any 
parable : indeterminate ! 

" ' Thou art a God, ready to pardon ; ' that is, any 
God ! any one of the kind, in a vague sense, and inde- 
terminate ! " Again : 

" ' The article a,' says Harris, ' leaves the individual 
unascertained.' Let us examine this position : 

" But Peter took him, sajnng, stand up ; I, myself, 
also am a man." Noah Webster. 

(That is, according to Harris, Peter was not assured 
of his own identity ! ) 

Says A to me, " I have a worthy father." Quere : does 
it leave the individual unascertained ? "Washington was 

Of what word may the be considered a contraction? Is a used in 
a vague sense indefinitely ? 


a great man; London is a large city; drunkenness is a 
vice; charity is a virtue; Edward is a scholar; Webster 
was a statesman. Now, in these instances, the adjective 
a does not " leave the noun to which it belongs unascer- 
tained or indeterminate;" neither is it the word that does 
ascertain or determine the " individual," this office being 
performed by some other word in the sentence. Says 
Webster again : 

" On testing the real character of an or a, by usage or 
facts, we find it is merely the adjective one, in its Saxon 
orthography, and that its sole use is to denote one, 
whether the individual is known or unknown, definite 
or indefinite." 

A Mr. Hamblin, who, some years ago, published an 
abridgement of Murray's grammar, introduced this 
highly original sentence: " The bee is an industrious 
insect." Xow, as none of his readers could tell what 
particular bee was meant by the, it being plain that bee 
was taken in its broadest extension, including in its mean- 
ing every bee on earth, he accompanied the sentence 
with this learned commentary : " The is a definite arti- 
cle, because it points out the SIGNIFICATION of the noun 

The preceding remarks, it is hoped, will be sufficient 
to induce any one to call f/ie*and a merely adjective's. 
If, however, any teacher, making use of this work, 
should still persist in adopting the superstitious errors 
of past ages, let him not mystify the minds of his schol- 
ars by teaching them that the is any more definite than 
this or that ; or that a or an is any less so than one, two, 
or three. 

What does Webster say about a? What renders nouns definite? 



This, that, these, those, are simply adjectives, this 
and that being added to nouns in the singular, 
these and tliose to nouns in the plural This and 
these indicate things near or present; that and 
those indicate things absent, distant, past or re- 

Says Smith in his grammar " In the sentence ' Eoth 
wealth and poverty are temptations j that tends to excite 
pride; this, discontent:' you perceive that the word 
that represents wealth ; and the word this, poverty. 
This and that do, therefore, resemble pronouns, and may 
for this reason be called pronouns." 

May we not say the same, then, of any other adjec- 
tive? Let us substitute some other adjective in the 
above sentence, and say, " Wealth and poverty are 
temptations : the former tends to excite pride ; the latter, 
discontent; former what? temptation; latter what? temp- 
tation. Again : " The first tends to excite pride, the 
second (or the other~), discontent. Adjectives again. 
Another instance: "This paper is white; that is black." 
Now the words white and black are as much pronouns as 
this or that. Or again : " Good and bad persons dwell 
on earth ; the good shall be rewarded, the bad punished." 
Are good and bad pronouns? Any adjective may be 
used in a sentence without a noun, but in all such cases 
the noun is evidently understood. Such elliptical omis- 
sion o,f the noun does not render the adjective a pronoun 
by any means. 

What other adjectives are there? What are they, and what are 
their peculiarities? What does Smith say of them? May not almost 
any adjective be used independent of its noun ? Is it, then, a pro- 


Each, every, either,* neither,* some, any, all, 
such, one, few, many, other, former, latter, an- 
other, any other, each other, which f and whatf 
may also be considered as adjectives. 

SENTENCE : They looked at one another. 

Antecedent, p. p. nom. verb. 

Construction (Persons) THEY LOOKED 

Adj. understood, understood. 

ONE (person) (looked) 

Prep. adj. obj. understood. 

AT ANOTHER (person) 

The above construction is in strict accordance with 
the rules of all grammars, and merely supplies the 
ellipses to make the sense complete. If, however, the 
teacher should consider other and its compounds pro- 
nouns, let him cease to call them adjectives ; for such a 
thing as an adjective pronoun can not exist in language. 


A secondary adjective is a word that has a re- 
lation to some other adjective; as, a very cold 
day ; an exceedingly long journey. 

These words are, by many authors, considered as ad- 
verbs; but an adverb, as its name indicates, must belong 
to some verb : hence any word that is not joined to a 
verb can not be an ad-verb. Auxiliary adjectives, when 
formed from primitive adjectives add /y, generally, after 
the manner of adverbial terminations ; as, a supremely 
wise ruler; an extremely high tower, etc. 

What other adjectives are there ? Repeat them. Give example of 
their construction. What is an auxiliary adjective? How are these 
words considered by some authors ? 

* When not used as corresponding conjunctions. 
t When not relating to an antecedent or consequent ; as what book 
is this? 


By means of the auxiliary adjective, words hitherto 
considered anomalous are easily parsed; as in the sen- 
tence, "the wall is three-feet thick." By comparison \ve 
see : 

The \vall is extremely thick; extremely, aux. adjective. 
The wall is quite thick ; quite, aux. adjective. 
The wall is three-feet thick ; three-feet, aux. adjective. 
The wall is very thick ; very, aux. adjective. 

The term anomaly means that one word has a differ- 
ent construction from another; the term analogy sig- 
nifies that words having the same syntax, relation, or 
construction, must, from the necessity of that very con- 
struction, be the same part of speech. ]S~ow, is the word 
"feet," in the above sentence, analogous to, or anomalous 
from the other words in italics? We first ask the 
learned grammarian to give us the syntax. He will 
agree that it holds a relation, as arranged in the above 
sentence, with thick ; three feet thick. Let me ask the 
student, who may be reading these remarks, if he ever 
knew a noun constructed with an adjective ; and do 
words become nouns in consequence of that construc- 
tion? If the auxiliary adjective, (or adverb, as styled 
by old authors,) is a noun without a governing word, it 
would form one of the greatest anomalies that ever ex- 
isted in language. 

The adjectives a and the are often used as auxiliary 
adjectives : and in this way a or an is sometimes joined 
to an adjective that belongs to a noun in the plui-al; a 
thousand stars, a dozen eggs. In such cases one may 
be often used in the place of a; but there are cases in 
which it can not; as, a few men attended; a large con- 
course assembled. A, placed before little changes the 
signification; as, "he had little faith" and "he had a 

Are a p^ I** somotimps used as auxiliaries? 


little faith." Observe the effect of a. The same thing 
occurs in the use of a before fe\v. 

Care must be taken not to confound the auxiliary ad- 
jective with the simple adjective, in cases where two or 
more adjectives follow in succession ; as, " a pious, gen- 
erous man," in which case both adjectives belong to man, 
differing from "a very pious man," where "very" belongs 
to "pious." Recollect the primitive adjective has a 
relation to a noun only ; the secondary, to an adjective 


[By extension we mean the number of individuals to 
which the noun can be applied; thus: "Man is account- 
able to his Maker." Here, man is a noun, in the singu- 
lar number, denoting but one ; and yet, by its logical 
extension, it includes every individual of the human 
race; for if there were one human being that was not 
accountable, the proposition, that "Man is accountable 
to his Maker," would not be true.] 

' No word in a period or sentence can have any 
greater extension than the other words or sec- 
tions in the same sentence will give it. 

It now remains to be shown how a noun may be 
limited in its extension, or prohibited from extending to 
the whole race, genus or species of which each indi- 
vidual is a part ; and this is affected in three ways : 

1. By appropriating to an individual a proper name. 

2. By prefixing an adjective. 

3. By subjoining to a noun a section of an adjective re- 

What is the difference between the adjective and auxiliary adjec- 
tive? How great an extension can any word have? How may a 
noun be limited ? 



George, David, "William and Henry are proper names 
used to point out certain individuals included in the ex- 
tensive, common name, man. 

Boston, London, Troy, Rome, Massachusetts, Ohio, 
Somerville, Hudson, St. Lawrence, Mohawk, Mississippi, 
each restricts the extension of the more extensive noun, 
city, state, village, and river. 

It has been previously shown in what manner nouns 
are restricted by adjectives ; but for the better elucida- 
tion of the present subject the following are subjoined : 
Table, carving, butcher, pen, pocket, and butter knife, 
are six fractions, of which "knife" is the whole; as, 


K = 









= = 

From this view of the subject, we deduce the follow- 
ing rules : 

1. Every greater includes the less. 

2. All the parts united form a whole. 

Again : Nouns are restricted in their extension by 
subjoining a section of an adjective relation ; * as, 

1. Father; (all or any father broadest extension.) 

2. Our father; (extension limited by our that is, 
father of us.) 

3. Father who art in heaven; (that is, heavenly father. 
Now, as heavenly is simply an adjective, its equivalent 
phrase "who art in heaven" is called an adjective phrase, 
and restricts the noun to which it is subjoined in the 
same manner as any other adjective.) 

What rules are deduced ? In what other way are nouns restricted? 

* See Relation of phrases, page 188. 


4. Heaven hides the book of fate ; of fate, being equiv- 
alent to the adjective fatal, is called an adjective phrase, 
and as such restricts the extension of the noun, book, to 
one class only. 

For a further consideration of this subject, see Eela- 
tive Pronouns and Prepositions. 


Adjectives have three degrees of comparison; 
the positive, comparative ahd superlative. 

The positive degree expresses absolute quality 
or simple limitation ; as, an old man. 

The comparative expresses the quality or limi- 
tation in a higher or lower degree; as an older 
man ; a better boy ; a less evil. 

The superlative expresses the quality or limita- 
tion in the highest or lowest degree ; as, the oldest 
man ; the best boy ; the least evil. 

The comparative degree is used to compare two nouns 
only ; the superlative compares never less than three, 
and often more. 

The comparative is formed by adding er to the 
positive, or by using the auxiliary adjective more 
in connection with the positive ; as positive dear, 
comparative dearerj positive extensive, compara- 
tive more extensive. 

The superlative is formed by adding est to the 
positive, or prefixing most ; as dear, dearest; ex- 
cellent, most excellent. 

Many adjectives are compared irregularly ; as : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Good, better, best. 

Little, less, least. 

Bad, worse, worst. 

Much or many, more, most. 

How many degrees of comparison are there? What are they? 
What do they express? How are they formed? Are some adjectives 
compared irregularly? 


As a general thing adjectives of quality only are 
comparable. "SVords, naturally nouns, but by relation 
adjectives, are incomparable. Adjectives, which in them- 
selves express the comparative or superlative degree, 
admit of no comparison; as, extreme, excessive, right, 
wrong, infinite, supreme, eternal, perfect, omnipotent, utter- 
most, etc., etc. 

, The use of double comparatives is incorrect ; as " he 
is the most wisest man ; " " it is more worse now." Most 
and more should be omitted. 


Adjectives sometimes belong to pronouns. 

Instance : John is studious. I am studious. John is 
industrious. They are industrious. 

Eelation of John, in the first sentence ; "John is ;" i. e., 
John is nominative to the verb is. Eelation of is ; " John 
is." That is, is agrees with John. Eelation of studious ; 
"studious John." Studious, an adjective, and belongs to 
John. By this we see that no word in that sentence has a 
syntactic relation to any word in any other sentence; and 
this is true of all sentences. Hence 

RULE. Every word in a sentence must have a 
syntactic relation to some other word in the same 

If this be true, the word " studious," in the second sen- 
tence, can not belong to "John " in the first. Hence wa 
conclude it must have a relation to the pronoun I. 

An adjective can not be joined to a verb. 

Says Mr. Lennie " The poets sometimes improperly 
use an adjective for an adverb." 

What adjectives do not admit of comparison ? Do adjectives some- 
times belong to pronouns? What rule is given on this page? Can 
an adjective be joined to a verb? What does Lennie say about this? 


He then adds, as an example : 

"The lovely young Luvinia once had friends, 
And fortune smiled deceitful on her birth." 

Deceitful what? Evidently, deceitful fortune; and de- 
ceitful is an adjective, belonging to fortune. We think 
Mr. Lennie hath unjustly traduced the poets. Again he 
quotes : 

" I, cheerful, will obey " 

Why may not cheerful be an adjective belonging to the 
pronoun I? These words obviously belong to the noun 
or pronoun, and not to the verb. An adjective can not be 
construed with a verb / hence the above words are adjec- 

Again Mr. Lennie gives the following sentence for 
correction : 

"Eliza always appears amiably; 11 implying that the 
word amiably should be aimable, inasmuch as it is an 
adjective, and has a relation to the noun Eliza. Does 
not the word amiably or amiable in the above sentence 
occupy a position precisely similar to that of the words 
deceitful and cheerful above quoted? Most assuredly 
it does. If the first words arc adverbs, why not the 
last? When learned grammarians thus contradict them- 
selves, we think their principles must be at fault. De- 
ceitful, cheerful, and amiable, in the above sentences, are 
adjectives, beyond dispute ; as also the italicised words 
in the following sentences : 

He throws the ball high (i. e., high ball). 

The house was painted white (white house). 

He gives much to the poor* 

The good are truly happy. ^ 

The speaker waxed indignant. 

* Much belongs to things or alms, understood ; and poor belongs to 
persons, understood. 

t Good and happy belong to persons, understood. Truly is an aux- 
iliary adjective, belonging to happy. 



Adjectives are often formed from nouns by adding ly ; 
as, man, manly ; prince, princely ; and sometimes by add- 
ing ful; us, truth, truthful; mirth, mirthful; Adjectives 
are sometimes compounded with other words and termi- 
nations; as, senseless, piteous, righteous, fulsome, loath- 
some, handsome, etc., etc. 


A PROXOUN* is a word used instead of the noun : 
as, the man is industrious, therefore he is con- 

NOTE. If, in the above definition, you read the three 
words in italics thus (man), he is yon give to the pro- 
noun he its true relation ; for all pronouns have a double 
relation ; and all refer to their antecedents for gender, 
person and number, and to another word for case : hence, 
HE is a personal pronoun, 'standing for, and agreeing 
with MAN (in gender, number, and person), and in the 
nominative case, because it precedes the verb is. There- 
fore, no word of a single relation can possibly be a pro- 
noun as, every 1 man this adjective can not be a PRO- 
noun, because it stands FOR no noun whatever; hence, 
there can be no such thing as an adjective pronoun, or a 
pronominal adjective. 

There are two sorts of pronouns, PERSONAL and 
sent the three persons of nouns (first, second, fhh-d). 
I represents the first person; as, / am (I, the 
speaker) . Thou represents the second person ; as, 
tliou art (tJiou, the person "spoken to"). He, she 

* Pronoun is derived from the two latin words pro (for), and nomen 
(a name), signifying that it stands for a name or noun. 

How are adjectives sometimes formed? Are they sometimes com- 
pounded with other words? How? What is a pronoun? What is 
the relation of a pronoun? How many sorts of pronouns are there? 
What are they? Do the personal pronouns always represent certain 
persons of the noun? From what is the word pronoun derived? 


and it represent the third person; as, lie is (He, 
third person spoken of). The relative pronouns 
may represent any one of these persons. 

The use of the pronoun is to obviate the too frequent 
repetition of the noun. As a part of speech, it is not 
an absolute necessity in any language, but is one of those 
ingenious contrivances, with which all languages abound, 
to make our words and sentences fall smooth and harmo- 
niously upon the ear. 

Personal pronouns, like nouns, have number 
and case as well as person. In the third per.son 
they also have gender ; as, he, she, it., being re- 
spectively masculine, feminine and neuter." 

They vary, either in form or termination, for the dif- 
ferent cases ; hence they are declinable. 























ye or you, 



( m y, 

1 mine, 



" own, 


































ye or you, 


Pronouns have the same relations as nouns. 

And it is by this -relation that the case is determined : 
no reliance can, therefore, be placed on a table of " de- 
clension," in determining this attribute. No noun or 
pronoun can have a case until it has a relation. The 
above table gives the forms of the cases for convenience 

What may relative pronouns represent? What is the use of the 

pronoun? Do personal pronouns have number and case? Do they 

.have gender? Do Ihcy vary to form the different cases? Kc]>ont 

the declension of the personal pronouns? Do pronouns have the 

same relations as nouns? What is determined by this relation? 


of reference ; but a pronoun can not properly be said to 
have a case or position until it is incorporated in a 

A pronoun must be referred to its antecedent 
or consequent : 

For unless a word has an antecedent or consequent, 
for which it stands, it can not be a pronoun. 


adding self to the simple pronouns ; as, myself, 
himself, etc. 

All the cases of the personal pronouns, however, can 
not be so compounded ; as we can not say Iself, thousclf, 
heself. It is, in fact, to the possessive and objective or ac- 
cusative cases, only, that self can be added. 


RELATIVE PRONOUNS, like personals, relate to 
antecedents, with which they agree in gender,, 
number and person. 

There are five relative pronouns, iclio, icJii<-Jt 7 
what, that, and as. W/io is declined thus : 

Nom. poss. obj. ace. ind. abs. 

who, whose, whom, whom, who, Avho. 

The plural is like the singular. .All the other relatives 
are indeclinable. 


WHAT and AS are sometimes used in a twofold sense; 
and are then called compound relative pronouns, equal to 
"the thing or things which;" as, "Heaven hides from 

To what must a pronoun be referred? Why? How are compound 
personal pronouns formed? Can all the cases of personal pronouns 
be compounded? Do relative pronouns relate to antecedents? Do 
they agree with them in gender, number and person? How inuny 
relative pronouns are there? What are they? How is who declined? 
Are the other relatives declinable? What are the compound relative 
pronouns? to what are they equal? 


brutes what men; from men what spirits know;" i. e. t 
hides from brutes the things which men know, and from 
men the things which spirits know. Again : 

f lie speaks as he thinks. 

| He speaks the thoughts which he thinks. 

J From what is recorded. 

| From the fact which is recorded. 
By changing what or as into the thing which, or other 
words of like import, as above, to correspond with the 
evident sense of the sentence, we shall easily be able to 
construe and parse the words. 


If the words other, another, some, any, one, and the like, 
be called pronouns, it must be clearly established that 
they stand for some noun. In this case they cease to be 
adjectives, for the nature of an adjective and a pronoun is 
as opposite as that of a verb and a preposition. Better 
far to- call them adjectives and supply the noun to which 
they belong. 

It' a pronoun can be construed with a noun, then it 
would be grammatically correct to use such expressions 
as, "give me THEM books;" "lend me' THEM pens," etc., in- 
stead of using the adjective these, as these books, those 
pens, etc. 

Of the relative pronouns it is proper to observe that 
who is always Used in speaking of persons ; and what and 
as in speaking of things. Which and that are generally 
used in speaking of things, but occasionally also applied 
to persons. 

That, when used as a relative pronoun, does not admit 
the preposition with before it. We can not say: "this 
is the same man with that you are acquainted;" but 
must use whom in the place of that. Smith, however, 
says we may say: "He is the same man that .you are 
acquainted with ;" a very improper, inelegant and erro- 
neous sentence for several reasons: 1st. It is precisely 
like the first, when construed. 2d. It unnecessarily 

Give examples of compound relative pronouns. Can the same 
be an adjective and pronoun at the same time? What may be ob- 
served of the relative v>'Tm<>m>*? What is said of tlmt ? 


closes the sentence with a pi*eposition ; and 3d. It vio- 
lates the rule at the commencement of this pai'agraph, 
by making that the object of with. 

When who, which and what aroused as interrogatives, 
the word or Avords for which they stand follow in the 
answer and for that reason are called subsequents instead 
of antecedents ; the former signifying "following after;" 
and the latter "going before." Which has no possessive 
form of its own ; we use therefore whose or of which : :i>, 
"the tree ichose bark is rough;" or the tree, the bark of 
which is rough. 

Who, which and what are often compounded with ever 
and soever; as, whoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever, 
whichever and whichsoever. The two latter are considered 
inelegant and seldom used. These compoiinds are used 
when we wish to give the pronoun its broadest exten- 
sion, or to apply it to some person or thing unknown. 
We might, with great propriety consider these four 
latter words as mere adjectives, belonging to person or 
thing understood. By supplying ellipses, which and what 
may, in all cases, be construed as adjectives. The word 
own may be construed as a noun, pronoun or adjective; 
generally the latter, signifying peculiar possession. 

Himself, herself, themselves, etc., are often used in the 
nominative, though inelegantly so. They are used cor- 
rectly in the objective, accusative, and sometimes the 
absolute; as, he reads to himself; she killed herself; them- 
selves being famished, etc. 

For a further consideration of the words that and as, 
see conjunctions. 


A VERB is a word used to express the existence 
or action, performed or received by its nominative. 

The verb, from the Latin verbum, a word, is the word 
paramount to all others in a sentence, as the life giving 
principle. The noun or subject of a sentence may be 

What is said of icho, irhich and what? Are they often compounded 
with ever and soever ? What is said of herself, himself and themselves t 
What is a verb? From what is it derived? 

VERBS. 103 

compared to a body, of which the verb is the soul or 
spirit. These two words alone (i. e., the nom. and verb, 
as subject and predicate,) form the sentence, all other 
words, as adjectives, adverbs, etc., being non-essential 
further than to serve as a garb with which to beautify 
the living form of a sentence. 

All verbs imply the existence of their nominative; for 
if we behold a work performed we must infer the ex- 
istence of some agent capable of performing it. All 
verbs, however, do not express action or motion. A 
simple definition of the verb is : " it is that word in a 
sentence which asserts, that something or some person 
exists, acts, or is acted upon." 

There are three kinds of verbs, TRANSITIVE, ix- 

TRANSITIVE VERBS have a nominative before 
them arid an object after them; as, James EATS 

INTRANSITIVE VERBS have a nominative, but no 
object; as, Henry WALKS. 

A PASSIVE VERB is the reversed form of the 
transitive verb, and generally expresses action 
received by its nominative ; as, fruit is EATEN l>y 

The old-time division of the verb into six classes, 
active transitive, active intransitive, neuter trans., neater 
intrans., active passive and neuter passive is now disre- 
garded. By the present method, the idea of motion does 
not enter into the formation or classification of verbs. 

The word transitive (from the Latin transeo, or more 
directly from the supine of that verb, transitum, signify- 

What do all verbs imply? What is a simple definition of a verb? 
How many kinds of verbs are there? What are they? Describe 
them? From what is the word transitive derived? What does it 

signify ? 


ing to go oivr,) plainly indicates that the action passes 
over or goes over from the nominative to the object ; as, 

John strikes the table, 

in which sentence the action is said to pass from John to 
table. The same thing is equally true of sentences where 
there is neither action nor motion ; as, 

The table supports the book, 

from which we see that motion has nothing to do with 
the formation of verbs, the only reliable guide being the 
relation which the words sustain to each other. As, for 
instance, in the above sentence, "table supports book," 
the relation of supports is duplicate; that is, it has a rela- 
tion to table on the one side, and to book on the other. 

All transitive verbs must have a double re- 

The contrary is true of intransitive (or not-go-over) 
verbs: that is, there can be no "passing over" to an ob- 
ject, from the fact that intransitive verbs require no 
object; as in the sentence, 

The moon smiles, 

there is but one relation, and that is from the verb 
smiles to its nominative moon, there being no object; as 
it would be improper to say the "moon smiles any thing." 
Hence : 

All intransitive verbs can have but a single re- 

From .the above two rules we deduce this axiom : all 
verbs of a double relation, in all languages, are transitive 
verbs; and, a priori, all verbs of a single relation are ix- 
trans-ix-ive (or not-go-over) verbs. 

Docs motion have any thing to do with the formation of verbs? 
AVliat must transitive verbs have? What do all intransitive verbs 

VERB. 105 

Intransitive, (single rel.) Transitive, (double rel.) 

Man walks. John studies grammar. 

Tempest blows. God made the world. 

Trees grow. Trees bear fruit. 

John runs. John drives a horse. 

This list might be increased by inserting every verb 
in the language ; in which case all the transitive verbs 
would arrange themselves under the second column of 
the plus relation. From which it is plain that the only 
division of verbs founded on the language is to be traced 
to their single and double relation. 

1. Single relation, or intransitive. 

2. Double relation, or transitive. 

PASSIVE* VERBS, being but the transposed or reversed 
form of the transitive, may, very properly, be included in 
that class. The passive form is used often when tho 
agent of the verb is unknown ; as, a man was killed ; the 
house was set on fire. The passive form can alwaj-s bo 
changed to the transitive by supplying the real nomina- 
tive, if known ; or tho word somebody, or something, if 
unknown ; as, somebody killed a man ; somebody set fire to 
the house, etc. And, vice versa, the transitive verb can 
be changed to the passive; as, John strikes the table; 
i. e., table is struck by John. But the intransitive never 
can be made passive ; as, John walks ; we can not say, 
" somebody or something is walked by John. 1 ' 


MOOD is the different form of the verb, to rep- 
resent the manner of existing or acting. 

Can all transitive verbs be changed into the passive form, and all 
passive into the transitive form? Can intransitive verbs be changed 
into the passive form ? From what is the word passive derived ? 

:;: PASSIVE, from the supine of the Latin verb patior, to suffer, or to 
receive, signifies receiving, or suffering, the action of the nominative. 


There are five moods INDICATIVE, POTENTIAL, 


THE INDICATIVE MOOD indicates that its nomina- 
tive case exists or acts, either affirmatively or in- 
terrogatively ; in a positive or negative sense. 

A FFTRU *TTVE I Pos. John ate an orange. 

' E - I Xeg. John did not eat an orange. 

TNTFRROOATTVF 'Pos. Will John eat an orange? 

> E - { Neg. TPftZ wo* John ea an orange ? 

THE POTENTIAL MOOD denotes the possibility, 
liberty, power, will or obligation of its nominative 
to exist : as, I can strike the table, but I will not ; 
you may return, if you please. 

Can strike, denotes that the act is possible ; but I 
not (strike if), implies that no one can act against his 
I can strike you, but I will not that action ; therefore, you 
will escape with impunity. I could go to New York if I 
WOULD. Could, denotes that the act of going is possible 
in itself, while the section, if I would, implies that no 
possible existence or action can take place ayainst the 
icill of him on whom its performance depends, whether 
of God or his creatures. 

" What wo would do, wo should do when wo would, 
for this would changes." Shakspeare. 

In all languages, except the English, this mood is de- 
nominated the SUBJUNCTIVE. The only object of this 
change in the English seems to have been to get a better 
and more appropriate name. The fact that, in other 
languages, this mood is subjoined or connected back to a 
previous sentence by the conjunction that, or some simi- 
lar word, renders it very properly the subjunctive mood. 
This is not the case in English. 

How many moods arc there? What arc they? What does flic in- 
dicative mood indicate? The potential mood? What is this mood 
called in other languages ? V/hy? 

VERBS. 107 


express a doubt or uncertainty regarding an action. 

THE INDICATIVE FORM is often used in the sense of the 
subjunctive ; and some authors give this form in their 
tables of conjunction as a second form of the subjunctive. 

Noah Webster, in the introduction to his dictionary, 
devotes a large space to the consideration of this mood, 
showing the indicative form to be correct. He says : 

" The propriety of using the indicative form of the 
verb to express a present or past act conditionally does 
not rest solely on usage; it is most correct on principle. 
It is well known that most of the words which are used 
to introduce a condition or hypothesis, and called, most 
improperly, conjunctions, are verbs, having not the least 
affinity to the class of words used to connect sentences. 
If is the Saxon gif, to give, having lost its first letter ; if, 
for the ancient gif. Though is a verb now obsolete, ex- 
cept in the IMPERATIVE MOOD. Now let us analyze this 
conditional tense of the verb. ' If the man knows his 
true interest, he will avoid a quarrel.' Here is an omis- 
sion of the word that, after if. The true original phrase 
was, ' If that the man knows,' etc. ; that is, ' give that 
(admit the fact that) the man knows, etc.,' then the con- 
sequence follows, he will avoid a quarrel." 

Again : "Admit that the man knows his interest. "We 
have then, decisive proof that the use of the indicative 
form of the verb after if, when it expresses a conditional 
event, in present time, is most correct; indeed, it is the 
only correct form. This remark is equally applicable 
to the past tense." , 

Smith, in his grammar, says : " When any verb, in 
the Subjunctive Mood, present tense, has a reference to 

When is the Subjunctive Mood used? Is the Indicative form some- 
times used in the Subjunctive? What does Webster say about this 
Mood? From what is the word Subjunctive derived? 

* SUBJUNCTIVE from the Latin subjungo, to join together, indicates 
that the sentence in which the subjunctive occurs is connected back 
to the former sentence by a conjunction. 


future time, we should use the SUBJUNCTIVE FORM ; " as, 
if thou love, if he love, etc. But, "when a verb in the 
Subjunctive Mood, present tense, has no reference to 
future time, we should use the COMMON (i. e. INDICATIVE) 
FORM;" as, if thou lovest, if he loves, etc. 

This distinction, at first sight, seems a good one ; but 
we find that some of the best writers use the Indicative 
form when future time is clearly indicated; as : 

"If America is not to be conquered." Lord Chatham. 

"If we are to be satisfied with assertions." Fox. 

"The politician looks for a power that our workmen 
call & purchase, and if lie finds the power." Burke. 

"If lie finds his collection too small." Johnson. 

"The prince that acquires new territory, if he finds it 
vacant." Dr. Franklin. 

"If any persons thus qualified are to be found." George 

"If discord and disunion shall wound it, (Liberty) if 
party strife and blind ambition shall hawk at and teat it 
if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and 
necessary restraint shall succeed to separate it from that 
union by which alone its existence is made sure, it will 
fall, if fall it must, amid the proudest monuments of its 
own glory and on the very spot of its origin." Daniel 

"But nothing he'll reck if they let him sleep on." Bu- 
rial of John Jfoore. 

"If I am gone from you when you read this." Willis. 

"We might continue these quotations, ad infinitiim, but 
the above will doubtless suffice to convince any rational 
person that the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, in the INDICATIVE 
FORM, is used as often to represent future action as the 
past or present. 

AVe must, therefore conclude, either that all verbs folr 
lowing the conjunctions, if, though, unless, except, u-hdhcr, 

What does Smith say ? Is the indicative form used to indicate future 
time? Give examples. How is the Subjunctive Mood known ? 

VERBS. 109 

etc., are in the Subjunctive Mood, or that there is no 
Subjunctive whatever. Since there are a few forms of 
the verb, representing a contingent action, and usually 
subjoined to a previous sentence by one of the conjunc- 
tions, which can not be used in an Indicative sense, we can 
not say there is no Subjunctive Mood. Hence we will 

Any verb following any of the conjunctions, 
if, thougli, unless, except, whether, since, although, 
lest, notwithstanding, provided, is in the Sub- 

Sometimes there is an intervening clause between the 
Subjunctive and the conjunction ; as, " if, when I return, 
I find you convalescent, I shall be pleased." The phrase 
"when I return" is parenthetical, as indicated by the 
commas placed before and after it, and is not, in reality, 
the immediate subsequent of the conjunction if. When 
properly construed the sentence reads : " I shall be 
pleased if I find you convalescent, when I return." This 
arrangement brings the conjunction if between the sen- 
tences it connects, and before the Subjunctive find, which 
it renders contingent ; and, also, places the parenthetical 
clause "when I return" at the close of the sentence where 
it seems more properly to belong. 

Lennie says, the Subjunctive is "preceded by a con- 
junction and followed by another verb; as, 'If thy 
presence go not with us, carry us not up hence.' " 

This, so far from being the Eule, is the exception ; for 
it is obvious that if "if" is a conjunction, it must connect 
some word or sentence. We have already shown that 
this is bad arrangement, in the previous sentence, " If I 
find you convalescent," etc. Hence, when the sentences 

When a parenthetical clause intervenes after the subjunctive con- 
junction, which verb is subjunctive? What does Lennie say? la 
this always true ? 


are properly construed, and the conjunction placed be- 
tween those sentences it connects, the Subjunctive will 
immediately follow one of the conjunctions, if, though, 
etc. ; and no sentence, unless parenthetical, explicative 
or irrelevant can follow. For a test of this rule, examine 
and construe all sentences by the best writers, containing 
a Subjunctive verb. 

It must be borne in mind that it is the conjunction, 
and not the form of the verb that indicates the Subjunc- 
tive Mood. It is frequently the case that, not only the 
Indicative, but the Potential form is used in the Sub- 
junctive indeed the potential form is, apparently, more 
often used than any other, and that, too ; in all its tenses ; 

If I may be permitted ; present or future time. 

If I can assist you ; " " 

If I must yield ; " " 

If I might conjecture present time.* 

If I could escape; present, past, or future.f 

If I would engage " " " 

If I could have seen ; past time, 
etc., etc., etc. 

The imperative and infinitive forms are never used in 
the subjunctive: hence, in the sentence " if TO BE a sol- 
dier is your desire" the verb to be is not in the subjunc- 
tive after if, not only because it has the infinitive form, 
but because the sentence, transposed, reads : " if it is 
your desire to be a soldier" showing is to be the true sub- 

Does the form of the verb always indicate the subjunctive mood? 
Is the potential form sometimes used in the subjunctive mood? Give 
examples. Are the imperative and infinitive forms ever used in this 
mood ? 

* Although might is regarded as the form of the imperfect potential. 
it nevertheless certainly indicates present time without hare, ns above. 

t " I thought if I could escape ;" past. " I could escape this mo- 
ment;" pres. 


THE IMPERATIVE MOOD is used for commanding, 
exhorting and entreating; as, "John! return to- 
morrow." Soldiers ! stand firm. 

This mood has but one tense and one person the pre- 
sent tense, the second person as all commands must be 
given to a second person (not to a third), and must be 
given at the present time. 

THE INFINITIVE MOOD expresses the verb in gene- 
ral terms. It has neither nominative case, person, 
nor number. It is usually indicated by to being 
placed before it ; as, to walk ; to Jiave icalked. 

This mood will always take the word to before it, if 
not already expressed ; as, " I saw him go to school;" 
i. e., " I saw him to go to school." " Let little children 
come unto me;" i. e., "Let little children to come unto 
me." By this it will be seen, that the use of to after 
such verbs, as see, let, hear, and some others, is very in- 
elegant; and, although we must supply the word in 
parsing, we must omit it in speaking or writing. 

The infinitive is often used as a nominative ; as, to see 
the sun is pleasant; to die (is), to sleep, no more" (i. e., 
is no more than to sleep) ; " to sleep (is) perchance to 

As the infinitive has no nominative case, it must have 
some other governing word, and this governing Avord is 
usually a verb, or the accusative after the verb ; but, in 
some cases, the infinitive is governed by adjectives (as, 
he is eager to learn) ; sometimes by pronouns, when they 
are the accusative of a verb (as, I saw him (to) depart ; 
I told him to return, etc.) The participle, also, consid- 

For what is the imperative mood used? What peculiarity about 
this mood? What does the infinitive express? What peculiarities 
about it? How is it indicated? Is to always understood when not 
expressed? Is the infinitive sometimes used as a nominative? llow 
is the infinitive governed? 


cred as part of the verb, governs the infinitive ; as, he 
is going to return ; he is beginning to learn, etc. In some 
instances the infinitive seems to have no governing 
word ; as, " to proceed with the story," " to tell the 
truth," etc. We may, however, supply the words "If I 
am" before " to proceed" " to tell" etc., which would be 
more consistent. 


THE PARTICIPLE is a certain form of the verb, 
and derives its name from the fact that it partici- 
pates of the nature of a verb and an adjective ; as, 
" the soldier being wounded ;" i. e., wounded soldier, 
making wounded an adjective; or, soldier, who 
was wounded, making was wounded a verb. 

The participle can always be thus construed, despite the 
seeming improbabilities in the case ; as, " on opening the 
box I found it empty." The word opening, as an adjective, 
belongs to the pronoun I; as a verb, it may be construed 
thus : " I, who was opening the box, found, etc." It is in 
its construction as a verb, only, that it can be made to 
govern the accusative box. 

The participle may also be construed as a noun, in the 
objective after a preposition, or the nominative to a 
verb ; as, " on opening the box, I found it empty." 
Opening, as a noun, is the object of the preposition on. 
Hence, the same participle may be construed either as 
a noun, a verb, or an adjective ; nay, must be construed 
both as noun, verb and adjective, in all Sentences like the 
above. " The taking of the census is attended \>y diffi- 
culties." The word taking is nominative to the verb is. 
In this sentence taking is not properly a participle, 

What is the participle? From what is its name derived? Give 
example of the construction of a participle. May the participle be 
construed as a noun? 

VERBS. 113 

although it may be construed as such ; for, as an adjec- 
tive, it may qualify person understood ; and, as a verb, 
we may say "person, who is taking the census." But 
when we use this construction, we must change the rest 
of the sentence, and say, " the person who is taking the 
census meets with difficulties." 

The participle has three tenses and six forms, as 
follows : 

Present, { b e ^ n /i oved . 

-r, , f loved, 
Perfect, j been j oved 

Compound Perfect, { 


The AUXILIARY VERBS are used to form the 
moods and tenses of the verb. 

They are, have, do, be, shall, will, may, can, with their 
variations ; and must, which has no variation. These 
auxiliary verbs are each confined to a certain mood or 
tense, as in the plan on page 121, by carefully studying 
which, you can always ascertain the mood and tense of 
any verb. The ed termination of the past tense is a 
contraction of did, the past of do, as John walk did, or 
John did walk, and always denotes the action expressed 
by the verb, to which it is prefixed, to be did, or done, 
past, or finished; as, I \oved, I ruled, I smiled, which de- 
notes the actions of loving, ruling, smiling, to be did or 
done actions. 

How many tenses and forms has the participle? Repeat them. For 
what are the auxiliary verbs used? What are the auxiliaries? What 
do they denote. 



"We will that execution be done upon the earl. 
"We will that you execute the earl. 
"We will execute the earl. 

1. "We will execute the earl to-morrow; there are evi- 
dently two actions, one of the mind, expressed by will, 
which denotes a present determination that somebody 
shall perform the other future action, denoted by execute. 

2. I will go to-morrow ; will denotes a present deter- 
mination of the mind, that my body shall perform a 
future action, expressed by go; to-morrow qualifies go, 
not will. "Will, denotes a present mental action. Go, 
denotes a future bodily action. 

3. I now will, or determine, that my body shall here- 
after go to New York, next week : Query. Does will and 
go express but one action? If so, which is it, present or 
future? of the mind or body? Am I to go to New York 
next week, and will it afterward ? 

4. You ought to write to your father ; ought denotes 
obligation, or duty. 

Ought is the obsolete past tense of the verb, to owe, 
and signifies an indebtedness. More properly, ought is 
the past tense of the obsolete verb ought. See "Web. Diet. 

5. She may be at home ; may denotes possibility. 

6. You may go home ; may denotes liberty or permis- 

7. I can strike the table ; can denotes possibility. 

8. May you find your friends well; may denotes an 
act of the mind, a wish. 

9. You must return ; must, denotes necessity. 

10. They might and should read ; might denotes that 
they have or had the power of performing an act, repre- 
sented as obligatory by the word should. 

11. I would that all men might be saved; would de- 
notes a desire or wish of the mind ; might denotes possi- 

VERBS. 115 

12. You should repent; should denotes obligation aris- 
ing from duty. 

13. He would not read ; would denotes a resolution of 
the mind. 

14. I do write; do signifies action, performance. 

15. If he be saved : be denotes existence. 

16. I shall conquer ; shall represents a future act as 
sure and certain. 

Do and its past form did are used to give greater em- 
phasis to the verbs to which they are attached. Shall 
and will are often used emphatically, and sometimes im- 
peratively ; as, you shall return, I will enter, etc. Can 
often signifies not only mere possibility, but great cer- 
tainty ; as, I can conquer my enemies. 


TENSE is the division of the verb in such a way 
as to express different periods of time. 

There are six tenses, the PRESENT, PERFECT, 

The PRESENT TENSE represents present time, or 
whatever is passing at the present moment; as, 
I walk, I am walking, I do walk, I am loved, etc. 

The Present tense may be, and very often is, used to 
denote future time; as, "I am going to town to-morrow" 
"you icill, doubtless, be gone when I arrive." Particu- 
larly when the Subjunctive Mood is used: as, "if you 

For what other purpose are the auxiliaries used ? What is tente ? 
How many tenses are there, and what are their names? What does 
the Present tense represent? How is the Present tense often used? 


sell the horse, return immediately;" "if yon do receive 
the money by the first of the next month." The words 
am going, is going, are going, etc., when joined to verbs, 
in imitation of the French always express future time ; 
as, I am going to leave my home to-morrow. I am going 
to study my lesson directly, etc. 

This tense is sometimes used by historians in animated 
descriptions, to bring past actions, as it were, in array 
before us ; as, " He enters the territory of the peaceable 
inhabitants ; he fights and conquers, takes an immense 
booty which he divides among his soldiers, and returns 
home to enjoy an empty triumph." 

The PERFECT TENSE represents time just now 
completed ; as, I have returned just now. I have 
completed my education, a little while ago. 

If we suppose the Present tense to represent the pass- 
ing moment of time, we shall then see that the Perfect 
tense brings all past actions up to the very present mo- 
ment ; as, I have just eaten my breakfast. 

The IMPERFECT TENSE represents any past time ; 
as, / returned this morning ; Noah was saved ; 
God existed before the creation. 

" This tense," says Noah "Webster, " is not properly 
named imperfect. All verbs of this form denote actions 
finished, past and perfect; as, 'In six days God made 
the world.' Imperfect or unfinished action is expressed 
in English in this manner: he was reading; they were 

There is much truth in the above. It would be much 
better to denominate this the indefinite tense, or the in- 
definite past, after the manner of French, or rather an 
impi-ovement on the French, who call this tense the pre- 
terite definite; the perfect of the English being called 
preterite indefinite. If these names were directly re- 

What does the perfect tense denote? The imperfect? What does 
Noah Webster say of this tense ? 

VERBS. 117 

versed, they would then indicate, with great precision, 
the time of the respective tenses. 

The imperfect or indefinite tense is very often used in 
the sense of the perfect ; as, " I went, just now, to the 
postoffice." " I went, a moment ago, into the other room." 
This tense may even be used to denote time much nearer 
the present, moment than the perfect ; as, I looked at you 
just now, and saw you smile as I have seen you smile 
many a time before." To convince any person that the 
above is good English, let him attempt to transpose the 
tenses in the above, " I have looked," etc. 

Might, could, would and should, the words used to indi- 
cate the imperfect of the potential (Latin subjunctive), 
are all occasionally used to represent future time, and 
almost always so used when placed after a subjunctive 
conjunction; as, "if it should rain to-morrow;" "if I 
might be permitted ;" " if I could translate the sentence;" 
" if he would pay me the balance of the debt," etc. It 
may be thought that some of the above indicate present 
time ; granted : yet no one, however stupid, could for a 
moment suppose that they indicate time that is past or 

The IMPERFECT is often used to express present time, 
in the indicative, when it is employed immediately after 
another verb of the same tense; as, "Then Manassch 
knew that the Lord, he was God (i. e., is God). "It 
was just remarked that marine fossils did not comprise 
vegetable remains." " Cicero vindicated the truth, and 
inculcated the value of the precept, that nothing was 
truly useful which was not honest." " He undertook to 
show that justice was of perpetual obligation." " The 
apostle knew that the present season was the only time 
allowed for this preparation." "I told him if he went 
to-morrow, I should go with him." This latter indicates 
future time. Webster declares that these are incorrect 
modes of expression, and contrary to the genius of the 
language ; nevertheless, they have the full sanction and 
approbation of every distinguished writer and speaker 

How is the imperfect, tense often used? How are might, could, would 
and should occasionally used? When particularly so used? Does the 
imperfect often express present time ? Give examples. Are these ex- 
pressions considered proper ? 


of the present age. It would be better, in nearly every 
case, to substitute the infinitive or present indicative for 
that tense ; as, " Manasseh knew the Lord to be God." 
" Jt was remarked that fossils do not, etc." " Cicero 
vindicated that nothing is useful, etc." " I told him if 
he should go to-morrow, etc." In this latter case the 
subjunctive, in the potential form, seems the better ex- 

Webster urges the adopting of this form of speech, 
and we would also heartily advocate it. 

But when both verbs point to a past action, the use of 
the imperfect is correct ; as, " he saw that his friend teas 
falling down the cliff;" " he held that the law of nations 
prohibited the use of poisoned arms" (i. e., prohibited at 
that time). 

The difference to be observed in the use of the perfect 
and imperfect tense is briefly this: The perfect tense 
should be employed when we speak of some period of 
time, not yet completed : as, I have written a letter to-day. 
I have paid my bills this month; I have studied French 
this year, etc. To-day, this month and this %~ear being 
periods of time not yet fully elapsed, we use the perfect 
tense. On the contrary, we use the imperfect tense in 
speaking of a period of time that is fully completed ; as, 
I went to town yesterday, or last week, or last 'month; but 
not correct to say this morning, this week, etc., unless fol- 
lowed by another verb in the imperfect, expressing a 
past action; as, "I went to town this morning, and met 
my friend." The perfect tense is also used in speaking 
of the past acts of a nation, people, tribe, class or. sect 
not yet extinct ; as, " The Jesuits have (always) claimed 
great power;" " The English have conquered many 
countries," etc. But of the Romans, we would not say, 
" they have subdued the Gauls," or the " Romans hare 
conquered the Britons," since they no longer exist as a 

THE PLUPERFECT TENSE is used to indicate an 
action that had taken place at or before the per- would be a better substitute for the imperfect, when used to 
express present time? Give examples. Should the imperfect be some- 
times used? When? What is the difference to be observed in the use 
of the perfect and imperfect tease ? For what is the pluperfect tense 

VERBS. 119 

formance of some other act; as, I liad finislied 
when you returned. 

THE PLUPERFECT must have existed prior to the IM- 
PERFECT : hence we never can use the pluperfect tense 
unless it precedes a subjoined clause containing a verb 
in the imperfect or pluperfect tense ; as, God had created 
the world when he formed man. This subjoined clause 
may be omitted, if it has been previously mentioned 
either interrogatively or in direct affirmation ; as, " What 
had you been doing previous to my return?" " I had 
visited the fair, and had been to the concert " The plu- 
perfect goes back to the very beginning of all time ; as, 
" if God had not existed prior to the creation,. the uni- 
verse would have been a blank." 

THE FUTURE TENSE simply denotes future time ; 
as, I will return (i. e., at some future time). 

THE FUTURE PERFECT denotes a period of time 
antecedent to the future simple ; as, I shall have 
accomplished my design before you will be able to 
baffle my efforts. 

This tense is generally followed by the present indica- 
tive, in the sense of the future; as, "I shall have com- 
pleted my studies when you return." The future perfect 
occupies a place nearer the present than the future sim- 
ple ; as, " I shall have finished this task (on which I am 
now employed) by the time you will come back." 
1 Shall, which indicates the first future, in the first per- 
son, simply foretells, as, I shall go. In the second and 
third person, shall promises, commands and threatens ; 
as, thou shalt not steal ; " ye shall surely die." In inter- 
rogative sentences, we find the reverse ; as, shall I return 

When ouly can we use the pluperfect tense? Give example. How 
far back does the pluperfect reach? What does the future tense de- 
note ? The future perfect ? By what is this tense sometimes followed ? 
What is said of shall ? 



to-morrow? i. e., may I (permission*)? Shall never ex- 
presses the will or purpose of its nominative. "We do 
not say, " I shall succeed," but " I- will succeed." " I 
shall be rewarded," indicates the purpose of some other 
person to reward. 










most remote 




future lime. 






nearest present. 





Line representing the passage of time. 


The person and number of the verb are gene- 
rally indicated by the nominative ; as, first per- 
son, / love, second person, tJiou lovest, third, lie 
loves, for the singular ; and we love, you love, tlicy 
love, for the first, second and third person plural. 

The second person singular is seldom used, except by 
the poets, the second person plural taking its place ; as, 
you owe me a shilling, instead of tliou owest, etc. The 
Quakers use the accusative of the third person singular, 
with the verb ; as, thee is ; this is an outrageous error. 
The second person is sometimes used without the pro- 
noun, in imitation of the Latin ; as, " Hearest me, Cas- 
sius?" Always interrogatively. 

What is said of will 9 Describe the scale of the tenses? How are 
the person and number of the verb indicated ? What is said about 
the second person singular? Is it sometimes used without the pro- 
noun ? 

VERBS. 121 



Moods. Tenses. Auxiliaries and Terminations. 

Indicative Simply indicates or declares. 

PRESENT, represents present time, 


preseut time completed, I have cd, 

past time, I ed, 

past time completed, I had ed, 

future time, I shall or will 

future time com., I shall or will have ed 

Imperative used for commanding, exhorting, entreating or permitting. 
PRESENT, thou or ye. 

Potential implies possibility, liberty, power, will or obligation. 

PRESENT, I may, can or must , 

PERFECT, I may, can or must have ed, 

IMPERFECT, I might, could, would or should , 

PLUPERFECT, I might, could, would or should have ed. 

Subjunctive represents an action as contingent and future. 


PERFECT, If I have ed, 


PLUPERFECT, If I had ed, 

FUTURE, If I shall or will , 

FUTURE PERFECT, If I shall or will have ed. 

Infinitive has no nominative case, consequently no person or number. 


PERFECT, To have ed. 

Participle partakes of the nature of a verb and adjective. 


COM. PERFECT, ing, ed. 


In English, reguLir verbs have but one conjugation ; 
that is, one form of the regular and fixed changes which 
a verb undergoes to express the different moods and 

Give a synopsis of the moods and tenses. How many conjugations 
have verbs in English ? 

* Or any other subjunctive conjunction; as, though, unless, etc. 



Transitive verbs have two forms, called the active and 
passive voice. Intransitive verbs have but one form ; 
as it has already been shown that an intransitive verb 
can not be changed to a passive. 

Verbs are regular when their past tense and perfect 
participle end in ed ; as 






walked, etc. 






I have, 
thou hast, 
he has or hath. 

I have had, 
thou hast had, 
he has had. 

I had, 
thou hadst, 
he had. 

I had had, 
thou hadst had, 
he had had. 





we have, 
ye or you have, 
they have. 

we have had, 
you have had, 
they have had. 

we had, 
ye or you had, 
they had. 

we had had, 
ye or you had had, 
they had had. 


Singular. Plural. 

I shall have, we shall have, 

thou shalt have, you shall have, 

he shall have. they shall have. 


Singular. Plural. 

I shall have had, we shall have had, 
thou shalt have " you shall have " 
he shall have " they shall have " 





I may or can have, 
thou mayst have, 
he may or can have. 

I may have had, 
thou mayst have had, 
he may have had. 

I might or could have, 
thou mightst have, 
he might or could have. 




We may or can have, 
you may or can have, 
they may or can have. 

we may have had, 
you may have had, 
they may have had. 

we might or could have, 
you might or could have, 
they might or could " 

How many forms has the transitive verb? What are these forms 
called? 'How many forms has the intransitive? When are verbs 
regular ? Give examples. 




Singular. Plural. 

I might, could, or would have had, we might, could or would have had, 
thou mightst, couldst, etc., have had, you might, could, etc., have had, 
he might, could, would, etc., " they might, could, etc., have had. 






If I have, 
If thou have, 
If he have. 

If I have had, 
If thou hast had, 
If he has had. 

If I had, 
If thou had, 
If he had, 

If I had had, 
If thou hadsl had, 
If he had had. 





If we have, 
If you have, 
If they have, 

If we have had, 
If you have had, 
If they have had, 

If we had, 
If you had, 
If they had, 

If we had had, 
If you had had, 
If they had had. 

Future and future perfect like the indicative. 



Have thou. 

Have ye. 



To have. To have had. 

PRESENT, having. PERFECT, had. COM. PERFECT, having had. 

Do, have done, 


May do, 



did, had done, will do, 


might do, 


may have done, 


shall have done. 


might have done. 


If I do, if I have done, if I did, if I had done. ( like indicative. 


PRESENT, to do ; PERFECT, to have done. 

PRESENT, doing. PERFECT, done. COM. PERF., having done. 




1. Wo arc loved, 

2. You arc loved, 
3. They are loved. 

d, 1. We have been loved, 

xved, 2. You have been loved, 
il. 3. They have been lovod. 

1. Wo wore loved, 

, 2. You wero lovod. 

3. They wero lovod. 

, 1. Wo had been loved, 

ovod,2. Ynii liml lircn lovod, ' 
d. 3. They had been loved. 





*~ > 
a o 





f J 




& 5 

Hi art l"v< 
is loved. 



1 5 

)ii hast bc( 
has boon 



ju wast lo 

w<u loved 




.S = 

11 hadHt be 
had boon 


-S * 


5 a 

00 M 

JS (O 

H a 

S f 

t - 





2 s, 

H a 


oi co 


ei co 





:i co 


( i 


^ t3 



o > 




( i 






1. Wo love, 

2. You lovo, 
3. They lovo. 


1. Wo have lo^ 

2. You have lo 
3. They have 1 


1. Wo loved, 

2. You loved, 

3. They lovod. 


1. Wo had lov( 

2. You had lov 
3. They had lo 


i i 

K X 

w < 









H * 













o 1 

1 . 
= 1 

3 2 

O S 

C - 





-H o 

" 3 

s -s 

H ~ 



O "~ 

js o 






.5 o 


tS - 

H a 

iS M 

H a 

S 1-1 




H a 



ci co 


ti eo 





oi co 



- a 



1 1 


E y 


t 2~ 

b c! 


^ .= 


^ 2" 




1 1 



o S 

o ^ 

O d 

ft t 



e P 

O ^3 

S ^ 

>< H 


w H 





^ H 

C - 

oi to 


oi co' 





oJ co 

= a 

M P H 


lil J 

o5 M H a 

i I 

is 1-1 P a 

r-i 04 CO 







-a "2 


fl 5 

| > 






"" "s> 




""aj * 

c 2 

> ' 

J) s- 3 




J:~ ! 

S * 









l"^" 2-g S-g 

s.g = >?^s 



















<N CO 








i . 





I . 

1 a 




"~* *g 


9 O 





b ^3 








iS ? 


0) +* S? 




>-i M O 


,a rs "^ 



u 5 ? 












G "^ 3 5* 




S-a" ^-d 


S 5^ a> 







<c hHH 



H H 









<N CO 



We shall love, 
You will love, 
They will love. 



s. -: 

u g 


You will have 




9 -1^1 

* Ii s 
3 g^^^S 


We may have 

You may have 
They may have 

, " it had been bette: 


K n 






^ H ^ oi co 



oi eo 


PS e 


tj pq 





p H 




PS i 





I shftll love, 
Thou wilt lov 
Ho will love. 



I shall have 

> 3 
_ X 


He will have 

* J? 

CH S. >-. Q 



to MH3 


I may have 

Thou mayst h 
He may have 

< would have b 






oi co 



O u 




> a 




r ^ 


a S 







, We shall 

You will 1 

* > 




We may h 


a" - _ 

sJa t"J 







1-4 O) CO 


ci co 







a o 







-' > 






u . S 1 - 




s *3 





c S a' 




S c g d 





^w" 3 

Q MHw 



H n 









11 it 

U r*rHH 


3J' S 

. = JB ..y 
"S a'2'i'o 5"S 
5; H > ^>> 
>S Op o g^ S 1 ^ 


5; o 



, ||S 

e *->> 

S ?^ 

~ ? ^>- 

H < V-! 

b 'oi " 

00 " 

rH Ci CO 

rn c4 co 


3 f 


* Jl 

a g 

S - 



jg J3 

.8 * o 

^ i* "^ 


.2 to 

1 Ifl 

o g 

o *^ > 


t> o 

S ^-4-* 

, J3 _M 5^ 

. o ^ *^ 

P 9 

f u ;a 

ts^i = .y"% 

5 "ffi 3 J 

8 * 2 

_ g 5 jj 

.Sf3 a 

~ 5 o S g 

|> 2-a 

* M M 

cc S|.| 

5 l-l H ~ 

1 SES 


rH oi CO 




> S 


I * 'i 



S | 



. s!J> 


J a - * 

E j 5 J 

w 'Si -.? - 
?5 s 5>_>>> 

~ O3o3 

H a, ^"^"g" 1 




| ^^5 

, > '- 3. 

% g"! = f 
fc 5 > ? - 

H J J^ *" 

H rn^S 






o _: <N M 





H f- 1 ^" 

5 -"*" 



H o 


t 1 " 3 5f 

~ > 


S 5 
3 g $ S 
^ 5 3 J 

" * s 

J S.^fBlzS^ 




s . 

c > 
t ZgS 


1 ,- 

M S_; 



CQ . 

g *f> 3 >'a > 
" o o o H o 
.2 S - ja 
CD M H 3 

E 5 - 2 








1 1 1 


2 1, i 

. .-^ 


"I "f S 3 

1 i s |f,S 

1 =* g 

H o = " 


61 fe u 


1 iz 



tO rH H B 

t-< ei *i 

iS Sww 



>5 ^ 

H > 

^ 2 

H g 







S ^ 

< H 

fc s 

r-i 00 



E-l P< 


e, a 


Verbs in the active or neuter voice may be conjugated 
through all their moods and tenses by adding their pre- 
sent participle to the various inflections of the verb to be. 
This is called the progressive form, inasmuch as it ex- 
presses incomplete action, or a state of continuation ; as, 


I am loving, I have been loving, I was loving, 

Thou art loving, Thou hast been loving, Thou wast loving, 

He is loving. He has been loving. He was loving. 

The emphatic form is indicated by do or did, used in 
the indicative past and present only ; as, 


I do love, I did love, 

Thou dost love, Thou didst love, 

He does love. He did love. 


cause they are used only in the third person singular of 
each tense. The verbs used as impersonals are to rain, 
to snow, to freeze, to thaw, to lighten, to thunder and to blow. 

The following are also often used as impersonal verbs : 
to begin, to happen, to fall out, to seem, to become, to suit, 
to belong, to come, to amount, to appear, to suffice, to follow, 
to concern, to commence, to remain, to be, and a few others. 


The defective verbs are such as are used only in a part 
of their moods and tenses ; as, 











What are the defective verbs? How can we determine the tense 
of ought ? 

* Ought is often used in the pluperfect; a8, '! had ought to have 
known better." This use is very improper: it should be, "I ought to 
have known better." 



To wit, signifying to say, is also a defective verb, used 
only in the infinitive ; as, " to wit, namely," etc. 

Quoth and ought are used always as independent or 
principal verbs; as, "he quoth" "he ought to do it." 
We determine the tense of ought by the infinitive which 
follows it; as, " he ought to go," in which ought is pre- 
sent, because it precedes the infinitive present. " He 
ought to have gone," in which ought is past, as it pre- 
cedes the infinitive perfect. 


Irregular verbs are those which do not form their im- 
perfect tense and perfect participle by the addition of d 
or ed to the present tense ; as, 







Those marked r admit likewise a regular form. 

Present. Imperfect. 

Per/.or Pass. Part. 



Perf. or Pass. Part. 

Abide, abode, 





Am, was, 



crew, r. 


Arise, arose, 





Awake, awoke, r. 







Dare, Co eenture.durst, 
Dare, to chal- \ _ 


Bear, to carry, bore, 


lenge, j 


Beat, beat, 

beaten, beat. 


dealt, r. 

dealt, r. . 

Begin, began, 



dug, r. 

dug, r. 

Bend, bent. 





Bereave, bereft, r. 

bereft, r. 




Beseech, besought, 





Bid, bid, bade, 

bidden, bid. 




Bind, bonnd, 



dwelt, r. 

dwelt, r. 

Bite. bit, 
Bleed, bled, 

bitten, bit. 


eat or ate, 


Blow, blew, 





Break, broke, 





Breed, bred, 





Bring, brought, 





Build, built, 





Burst, burst, 





Buy, boucht, 
Cast, cast. 





forgotten, forgot 

Catch, caught, r. 
Chide, chid. 

canght, r. 
chidden, chid. 




Choose, chose, 





Cleave, to sh'ck\ _ . 


gilt, r. 

gilt, r. 

oraMere. ] regular. 


girt, r. 

girt, r. 

Cleave, to split, clove or cle 

ft, cleft, cloven. 




Cling, clung. 





Clothe, clothed. 

clad, r. 



graven, r. 

Come, came, 





When is a verb irregular ? Give examples. 
* Gotten is nearly obsolete. Its compound, forgotten, U itill in good me. 





Per/, or Pats. Part. Present. 

Imperfect. Per/, or Pott. Part. 














hung, r. 







hewn, r. 






hidden, hid. 








slit, r. 

slit, or slitted. 












sown, r. 








knit, r. 

knit, r. 














spilt, r. 

split, r. 






f pit. spat, 

spit, spitten. 






split, r. 







Let, let, 
Lie, to lie rfoirn.lay, 



sprung, sprang, sprung, 
stood, stood. 



laden, r. 
























mown, r. 


strode or stric 

, stridden. 







(struck or 
\ stricken. 















rode, ridden.* 

Strow or strew. 

/strewed, or 
\ strewed, 

j gtrown, strowed, 
\ ftrewed. 


rung, rang. 









swet, r. 

sn et, r. 






swollen, r. 





swum, swam, 




sawn, r. 










f* e L 




























throve, r. 










shaped, shapen. 






shaven, r. 









waxen, r. 



































wrought, r. 

< wrought, or 
\ worked, r. 








ung, sang, 
lank, sank. 






Many verbs are often used both transitively and in- 
transitively; as, " he sings well ;" in which sings, having 
no accusative after it, and requiring none, is intransi- 
tive. "Can you sing a song?" in which sing is transi- 
tive, governing the accusative song. To dance, to lire, to 
eat, to drink, and some others, are included in this class. 
To do and to have are sometimes used intransitively ; as, 

Are some verbs used both transitively and intransitively ? 

Ridden it nearly obsolete. 

t Shrank is nearly obsolete. 

VERBS. 131 

"you would do better there;" "how do you do?" "I 
have enough to do;" " you had better go," etc. 

Some intransitive verbs seem to be used (improperly) 
in a passive form; as, John is arrived, instead of has 
arrived. If, however, we consider arrived an adjective, 
belonging to John, and is intransitive, this mode of 
expression may not be regarded as wholly improper. 
" He is returned," and " he is alive," may be considered 
as sentences having relations similar to one another. 

Prepositions are sometimes added to intransitive verbs, 
thereby rendering them transitive ; as, to give up, to lay 
out, etc. Prepositions thus annexed sometimes give quite 
another signification, as in the words to cast, which sig-< 
nifies to throw ; and, to cast -up, which signifies to compute. 
Prepositions joined to transitive verbs sometimes render 
them intransitive ; as, to hold on, to get tip, to call out, to 
cry out, etc. The verbs to grow and to lie should never 
be used transitively. 

There is a peculiarity about the verbs teach, tell, ask, 
forbid, deny, and one or two others of this class that de- 
serves notice. They may all be used transitively, under 
a passive form ; as, / was taught the language ; I have been 
told the secret ; he was asked a question ; I have been for- 
bidden an entrance ; they were denied the privilege, etc. 

Some of these verbs may also be used intransitively, 
under a passive form ; as, / have been well taught. Here 
have been taught is not a passive verb, for a person can 
not be taught or communicated like knowledge or edu- 

He TEACHES (well), intransitive verb. 

I TEACH LANGUAGE, transitive verb. 

Language is TAUGHT (by me'), passive verb. 

I am taught the language, transitive verb. 

I AM TAUGHT (better), intransitive verb. 

Compare the last form J am taught with the passive 
form language is taught, and the difference is at once ap- 
parent. Nevertheless, as this is the passive form of the 
verb, there might be no great impropriety in calling it 

Are prepositions sometimes added to intransitive verbs? Does this 
render them transitive? Does it sometimes change the signification 
of the verb ? What peculiarity is there about the verba teach, tell, 
ask, etc.? 


passive, particularly as it may be changed to the active 
form, he taught me better. It is of little consequence 
what name we bestow upon a part of speech if we un- 
derstand its syntax or relation. 


AN ADVERB is a word having a single relation 
to a verb, being used to modify it ; as, John walks 
slowly ; the bird flies swiftly, etc. 

An adverb can not be joined to any word except a 
verb, for the moment it is added to any other word it 
ceases to be an ad-verb.* 

Adverbs may be compared like adjectives ; as, 


Often, oftener, oftenest. 

Much, more, most. 

Soon, sooner, soonest. 

Quickly, more quickly, most quickly. 

Adverbs may be formed from adjectives by 
adding ly ; as, quick, quickly ; wise, wisely, etc. 

All words ending in ly are not adverbs, as many ad- 
jectives are formed from nouns by adding ly ; as, man, 
manly, etc. 

The numeral adjectives, first, second, third, etc., are 
converted into adverbs by adding ly ; thus: jirst-ly, 
second-ly, etc. (First-ly, improper. See dictionary.) 

The first three numerals, one, \wo and three, are 
changed into once, twice and thrice, when used as adverbs. 

Adverbs are formed from nouns by adding a as a pre- 
fix; as, aboard, aground, afoot, etc. 

And, nevertheless and notwithstanding, may be called 
adverbs when they open a sentence. 

What is an adverb ? Can an adverb be joined to any word except 
a verb? How may adverbs be compared? How may they be formed ? 
How are numeral adjectives converted into adverbs? AVhat other 
words are adverbs? 

* See auxiliary adj., adv. and prep., page 68. 


No and yes are adverbs, qualifying the verbs to which 
they reply. 

Some nouns and adjectives, when used with a prepo- 
sition, may be called adverbs, or adverbial phrases; as, 
on board, on hand, in general, in fact, etc. 

Man}' prepositions are used as adverbs; as, "Now 
came still evening on;" "he went up into an exceeding 
high mountain," etc. 

To-day, yesterday and to-morrow may not improperly 
be called adverbs, inasmuch as they always sustain a re- 
lation to some verb. Lennie recommends to call them 
nouns, governed by some appropriate preposition under- 
stood ; as, on or during. 

In short, any word holding an indisputable relation to 
a verb, in a modifying sense, must be an adverb. 


An auxiliary or secondary adverb is a word 
which is added to an adverb for the purpose of 
modifying it; as, very, more, most, etc. 

These words, like auxiliary adjectives or prepositions, 
have always been considered as adverbs, by old writers. 
We can not see the propriety of the name. The general 
term adjective would have been more appropriate. 

Adverbs can not qualify nouns. 

(See adjectives, page 96.) 

A PREPOSITION is a word placed before a noun 
or pronoun, and serves to connect the phrase in 
which it occurs, to the verb, noun, adjective or 
adverb preceding it; as, John is in the room; 
this is the house of my father. 

What is an auxiliary adverb? What do old writers call these 
words ? -Can adverbs qualify nouas ? What is a preposition ? 


Grammarians do not seem to have understood tho 
nature and use of the preposition. Smith says " a pre- 
position is a word used to connect words, and show the 
relation between them." A more vague or unsatisfac- 
tory definition could not have been given. We may say 
the same of the conjunction, the transitive verb, or the 
pronoun. Here, is one-half the number of "parts of 
speech," actually shewing a relation between words, and 
connecting them together. Says Lennie, "a preposition is 
a word put before nouns and pronouns, to show the rela- 
tion beticeen them!" By which we are to suppose that 
prepositions show a relation between nouns and pro- 
nouns only! But, say the learned grammarians, "a 
preposition shows the relation between words." Now, if 
the is a definite article and defines the word relation, it 
must point out to us the kind of relation that exists be- 
tween the object of a preposition and the preceding sen- 
tence Does it? What relation is "the relation?" Can 
Mr. Murray, Kirkham, Smith, Lennie, or any other dis- 
tinguished grammarian tell ? No ; not one of them 
They have but just been able to discover that such a 
relation exists, but what is its nature they have not 
ascertained, or if they have, they have never defined it. 

If we consult the genius of language, we shall learn 
that the use of the preposition was, originally, to con- 
nect all sentences back to the verb; as, John is in the 
room ; he returned from school, etc. Afterwards the 
preposition o/* was used to connect phrases back to 
nouns or pronouns, and give the phrase in which it 
occurs, an adjective relation to the noun or pronoun 
preceding. For, in, among, and some other prepositions, 
may occasionally be found holding a syntax to a noun 
or pronoun in the preceding sentence i 

This seems to have been the original office of the pre- 
position ; but a higher refinement of language rendered 

Is the relation of the preposition generally understood? What do 
we learn from the language? Does of generally give its phrase an 
adjective relation to the preceding noun? What has been rendered 
necessary by a higher refinement of language ? 

* Of is not always used to denote the genitive. When it signifies 
about or concerning, it has a relation to a preceding verb instead of a 


it necessary that tho preposition should sometimes con- 
nect its phrase back to an adjective or adverb, in which 
case the relation would be either that of an auxiliary 
adjective or adverb ; as, " The soul, uneasy and confined 
from home;" "Full of its original spirit;" "Essential to. 
the cause;" "He answered evasively, in a measure;" 
(i. e., somewhat evasively.) 

Hence we see that the preposition has four relations, 
and four only, as follows : 

1. ADVERBIAL; as, the table stands o;rthe floor; the 
bird flies over the house,* etc. 

2. ADJECTIVE ; as, the bark of a tree ; " the regard of 
Heaven on his ways," etc.f 

3. AUXILIARY ADJECTIVE ; as, disagreeable to the ear ; 
anxious in his behalf, etc. 

4. AUXILIARY ADVERBIAL; as, he moved sloidy, in 
truth ; t he writes well, beyond dispute, etc. 

There are but few instances of prepositions being 
construed under the latter form : in almost all cases 
prepositions following adverbs do not modify those ad- 
verbs, but hold a relation back to the verb ; as, he sat 
silently in doubt; i.e., he sat in doubt. "The moon 
smiles serenely o'er nature's soft repose ;" i. e.', smiles o'er 
repose. No preposition can hold a relation to an adjec- 
tive or adverb, unless the phrase in which it (the prepo- 
sition) occurs, clearly modifies the adjective or adverb 
to which it may be joined. 

All prepositional phrases qualify the words to which 
they are joined, like other adverbs, adjectives or auxilia- 
ries. For further consideration of this subject, see Eela- 
tions of Phrases. 

How many relations has the preposition? What are they? \Vhat 
do all prepositional phrases qualify? 

* The relation is adverbial also when the preposition has a syntax to 
a participle. 

t The relation is adjective when the preposition is referred to a pro- 
noun, since the pronoun is only the represeutative of the noun itself. 

+ In truth can not be an adverbial phrase qualifying moved; as that 
would not express the sense of the sentence. 



The following list presents most of the prepo- 
sitions : 


as touching 



























out of 














instead of 



according to 





as for 




as to 





An auxiliary preposition is a word holding a 
single relation to a preposition, and is used to 
modify its sense or restrict its extension ; as, he 
went almost to Albany; he stood far above all 
others ; the house is quite near the river. 

A few words only are used as auxiliary prepositions. 
They belong to the heterogeneous class of words de- 
nominated adverbs by most authors ; although, in gene- 
ral, they do not seem to have observed the peculiar 
construction of these few words at all. It is impossible 
to say what they would denominate such words as almost, 
far and quite, in the above sentences, as they have no 
rule by which an adverb can be made to qualify a prepo- 


CONJUNCTIONS are used to join words and sen- 
tences together. 

Hence the conjunction is a word of a double relation. 
The conjunction and preposition both belong to the class 

Repeat, the list of prepositions. What is an auxiliary preposition? 
What is its relation? What is a conjunction? What is its relation? 

Not toward see note ( g ) page 172. 


/>f words denominated " connectives j" but there is this 
difference : a preposition connects nouns or pronouns 
only, on one side ; to verbs, nouns, adjectives or adverbs 
on the other. The noun or pronoun which follows the 
preposition mist be in the objective case ; and the words 
which precede it may be of any case if a noun, or of any 
mood or tense, person or number, if a verb; but we 
must observe that 

Conjunctions usually connect the same moods 
and tenses of verbs ; the same cases of nouns ; 
verbs governed by the same nominatives; adjec- 
tives belonging to the same nouns ; and nouns or 
pronouns having the same or similar syntax, rela- 
tion or construction in a sentence, generally. 


An auxiliary or corresponding conjunction is 
one that holds a relation to another conjunction; 
as follows : 

Both and; both ho and his brother have come. 

Neither nor ; neither he nor I did it. 

Whether or; I know not whether it be so or not. 

Though yet ; though he was rich, yet for our sakes, etc. 

Either or ; either you or I must yield. 

As as ; as wise as a serpent. 

As so ; as he sows so shall he reap. 

So as ; I am not so rich as thou. 

So that ; he was so lame that he could not walk. 

In parsing, we usually say that the first of these words 
(as neither or whether) is a corresponding conjunction, 
and corresponds to the second, (nor or or, etc.) 

This is only a partial consideration of these words; 

What is the difference between the preposition and conjunction ? 
What do conjunctions usually connect? What are the corresponding 
conjunctions? How do we parse them? 


for, in addition to their office as corresponding conjunc- 
tions, they can, in almost every case, be construed as 
conjunctions, adjectives, auxiliary adjectives or adverbs: 
As 16 the young bears seized on the repast, so 16 we snatch our fill. 

Now, this word as is a corresponding conjunction, cor- 
responding to so; and expressing a comparison, of 
equality between the two sentences, like the sign of 
equality (not plus, nor minus) in Mathematics; thus: 

2, as 16 bears seized repast =, 
1, so 16 we snatch fill . 

If yon wish to make as a conjunction, invert the terms 
2 and 1, thus : 

1. Sols we snatch our fill, 

2, As 16 the bears seized on the rich repast. 

In all cases, one of the corresponding conjunctions must 
be exiled or thrown out of its proper place. Both these 
conjunctions may be inserted between the two sentences, 

The bears seized on the repast, so = as we snatch our fill. 
By rendering this sentence plenary (full}, both conjunc- 
tions will have their proper place and relation: 

The bears seized on the repast, so 16 we snatch our fill; 

We snatch our fill, as 16 the bears seized the repast. 
In the following sentence : 

2, IP 16 you wish to be a grammarian, 
1, You must study, 

IF is exiled from its proper place. Now, invert the sen- 
tences, thus : 

1 , You must study, 

2, IF you wish to be n grammarian. 

and If occupies its proper place between the sentences it 

Again : "Both he and his brother returned." Eela- 
tion of both: both persons; i. e., both is an adjective, be- 
longing to persons, understood. 

Neither he nor I did it. That is 

1, NEITHER he did it; 

2, NOR I did it. 

How can corresponding conjunctions be construed? Give examples. 


1st relation (of nor) : he did it nor I did it. 
2d relation (of neither) : I did it neither he did it. 
Or neither may be construed as an adjective by joining 
it to persons understood. 

I know not whether it is so or not. 
Eel. of whether : I know not whether it is so, (con/.) 
Eel. of or : it is so or it is not so, (con/.) 

Though he slept, yet he dreamed not. 
*Eel. of yet: He slept, yet he dreamed, (con;.) 
1. Eel of though : He dreamed not, though he slept, (con;.) 

Either you or I must yield. 
Eel. of or: you (must yield) or I must yield, (con;.) 

1. Eel. of either : I must yield either you must yield, (con/.) 

2. Eel. of either : either person, (adj.) 

Be thou as wise as a serpent. 
Eel. of 1st as : as wise, (aux. adj.) 

Eel. of 2d as* be thou wise as serpent (is wise), (con/.) 

I am not so rich as thou. 
Eel. of so : so rich, (aux. adj.) 

Eel. of as: I am not rich as thou (art rich), (con/.) 

He was so lame that he could not walk. 
Eel. of so : so lame, (aux. adj.) 

Eel. of that : he was lame that he could not walk, (con/.) 
"Neither sometimes closes a sentence in a peculiar 
manner, thus : " Men come not to the knowledge of ideas 
thought to be innate, till they come to the use of reason ; 
nor then neither." Locke. 

[That is, not either when they come to the use of reason, 
nor before.] 

" Formerly in English, as in Greek and French, two 
negatives were used for one negation. But in such 
phrases as that above, good speakers now use either in- 
stead of neither. 1 ' Webster's Dictionary. 
Eel. of neither : come not neither, (adv.) 
Eel. of either : come not either, (adv.) 


In accordance with the Table of Relations on page 28, and the axioms on 
page 74. 

From the following observations it will be seen that 
the adverb, preposition, conjunction and pronoun so fre- 


quently change their position, office or signification, that 
unless we have some surer guide than a mere list to be 
committed to memory, we never can be fully secure 
against falling into error. The figures indicate the part 
of speech of these variable words \>y referring them to 
the table of relations. These exercises should also be 
used in connection with those on page 62, 63, 64, etc., 
the class being required to parse and give the relation 
of all the words marked with figures until they are 
thoroughly understood, as this is one of the most im- 
portant exercises in English grammar. 

As is a conjunction when used to connect sentences or 
words; as, "he paused s 16 he spoke." 

As is a relative pronoun when it relates to an antece- 
dent and can be construed in any one of the six positions 
or cases of the noun; as, " Much s as 6 man desires, a little 
will suffice." 

As is a compound relative when it is equal to that 
which; as, he speaks s as 6 ' 6 he thinks. 

As is an auxiliary adverb when joined to another ad- 
verb; as, he drinks as 70 well as* I (drink). 

As is an auxiliary adjective when joined to another 
adjective; ae, he is as 19 good as* I (ani). 

(As can not be used as a preposition ; it is incorrect to 
say, " I am as good as him, etc.) 

BUT is a conjunction when used as a connective; as, 
" I can go, but 1 * I will not (go)" 

BUT is a preposition when it governs a noun or pro- 
noun in the objective case, and connects its phrase back to 
some noun, pronoun, verb, adjective or adverb ; as, "All 
have gone but 13 me." Eolation, " All but me." if 

BUT is an adverb when it holds an adverbial relation 
to a verb, in the sense of only ; as, " lam but 1 * doing my 
duty;" (qualifies am doing.) 

* The second ax a conjunction. 

t But me, is a complement of all; i. e., all, less me. 


BOTH is a corresponding conjunction when it is fol- 
lowed by and; as, " I both saw and admired the men."* 

BOTH is an adjective when it can be joined to a noun ; 
as, " both 1 boys seem happy." Did you both* see and 
admire the man? " I did both 1 (i. e., both things'). 

(Both can never be. construed as a conjunction.) 

ALSO is a conjunction when used as a connective ; as, 
" you are well ; so am I also 16 ;" i. e., you are well ; also 16 
I am well." 

But it is better, in all cases, to construe also as an ad- 
verb ; as, " He came also, 12 " etc. 

AND is a conjunction when used to connect words or 
sentences; as, " John and 15 James are happy ;" "awhile 
and 15 red cow." 

AND is an adverb when it qualifies a verb' (in which 
case it usually heads a paragraph) ; as, " And 12 it came 
to pass" (i. e., now 12 it came to pass.) 

EITHER is a corresponding conjunction when followed 
by or; as, "Either you or I shall stay.f 

EITHER is an adjective when it holds a relation to a 
noun; as, "Take either 1 book." 

EITHER is an adverb when qualifying a verb.f 

NEITHER is a corresponding conjunction when it pre- 
cedes nor ; as, " Neither 16 you nor I can remain. "f 

NEITHER is an adjective when joined to a noun ; as, 
"Neither 1 boy could say his lesson." 

YET is a conjunction when it serves to connect sen- 
tences ; as, " He may be innocent, yet 16 shall he be tried." 

YET is an adverb when it qualifies a verb ; as, " We 
shall see him yet. 12 " 

FORE, ALTHOUGH, are usually adverbs. 

THEN is a CONJUNCTION when used to connect ; as, " If 
he commands, then 16 will I obey." 

* BOTH, when used as a corresponding conjunction, may be con- 
strued either as an adjective or adverb. In this sentence it may be 
called an adverb, qualifying saw and admired; i. e., also admired. 

t See page 139. 


THEN is an adverb when it modifies a verb ; as, " lie 
will return then. 12 " 

THAN is a conjunction when used to connect ; as, " He 
is wiser than 16 1 (am). 

THAN is a preposition when it governs a pronoun in 
the objective ; as, "He was a man, than 14 whom no wiser 
has written."* 

THAN seems sometimes to hold the relation of a rela- 
tive pronoun; as, "My punishment is greater s than G I 
can bear."f 

WHAT is a relative pronoun when used to ask a ques- 
tion ; as, ". 8 What 6 do you say?" 

WHAT is a compound relative pronoun when it repre- 
sents "that which, "or "the thing which;" as, " 8 What 6 -* 
thou bidst unargued, I obey." 

WHAT is an interjection when it has no relation to any 
other word ; as, " What ! n can you do it ? " 

WHAT is an adjective when joined to a noun ; as, 
" AVhat 1 questions did he ask you?" 

[In all the above cases what may be construed as an 
adjective ; thus : 

1st. What (words) do you say? 
2d. What (commands^) thou bidst, etc. 
3d. What (words you say!) can you, etc. 
4th. What questions. 

Nor is what ever used in such a manner that it can not 
be construed as an adjective."] 

FOR is a conjunction when it signifies because; as, 
"He believed, for 16 he perceived the truth." 

FOR is a preposition when used as such ; as, " There 
is a home for 1 " 1 all (persons')." 

MUCH and SUCH are adjectives, though often used 

* Thau should never be used as a preposition, except in sentences 
of this construction: in all other cases, than must be used as a con- 
junction; as, "he is wiser than 1" (not me); "I am older than he" 
(not him), etc. 

t Since bear is a transitive verb, it must have an object ; and as 
punishment is the nominative to is, it can not be made in the accusative 
after bear: hence it seems that than is a relative pronoun, relating to 
punishment, and in the accusative, governed by bear. 


without a noun ; as, " We give much 1 for charity ;" i. e., 
much money. 

MUCH is sometimes used as an auxiliary adjective; as, 
" He is much 1 older than I." 

MORE and MOST are used like much and such. 

WHEN and IF seem sometimes to be used in cases of 
similar construction ; as : 

.. f When he comes I shall receive my money. 
' | If he comes I shall receive my money. 

2 f I shall receive my money when he comes. 
' { I shall receive my money if 16 he comes. 

If the word if is a conjunction, why is not ichen also? 
" Words having the same syntax or relation should have 
the same etymology ;" for which reason we should think 
when as much a conjunction as any other word used to 
connect sentences. 

But if when is an adverb, qualifying comes, rendering 
that verb in a manner contingent, why is not if an ad- 
verb also? What is the distinction between the two 
words beyond their etymological signification? 


AN INTERJECTION" is a word that holds no rela- 
tion to any other word, and is used as an ejacula- 
tion to express some emotion of grief, joy, sorrow, 
pain, etc. ; as, ! alas ! 

THE INTERJECTION expresses, in a single word, the 
sense of an entire sentence. It derives its name from 
the two Latin words inter (between), and jacio (to cast), 
signifying that it is a word " cast between" other words 
or sentences in a detached manner, holding no relation 
to them. But if we translate the interjection into intel- 
ligible language, we shall be able to give to eat;h word 

What is an interjection? What does it express? From what is it 
derived ? Can we translate the interjections into more intelligible lan- 


its syntax or relation just as we would in any other sen- 
tence. Take, for instance, the word adieu. Its deriva- 
tion is French, d Dieu, signifying "to God;" i. e., "I 
commend you to the care of God," is the complete sen- 
tence translated into intelligible English. Alas, from 
the Persian halaka, perdition, destruction, if translated, 
might mean something like " I perish," "I am lost," etc., 
etc. The interjection 0, may be made to mean any thing 
the speaker desires. It may express fear, joy, sorrow or 
pain ; and, what is also remarkable, it is a word intelli- 
gible to almost all nations, and common to all language's. 
Many interjections may be construed with some other 
word understood ; as, "strange!" in which case the rest 
of the sentence may be supplied ; it is strange. " Well ! " 
i. e., it is well, or you say well. "Away !" i. e., go away. 
" Welcome I" i. e., thou art welcome, etc. 

Many words used as interjections are mere verbs in 
the imperative mood ; as, hark ! hist ! hush ! list ! lo f 
behold ! hail ! etc. 

The following is a list of the principal interjections, 
with their translation : 

O! flam hurt. I am pained. 

Oh ! < I am glad. I am astonished. 

Ah ! (^ I am surprised. I am delighted, etc. 

Alas ! I perish. 

Halloo ! ho ! I call you. 

Fudge ! pshaw ! That is nonsense. 

Fy ! for shame ! It is for a shame. 

Pish ! tush ! I am disgusted. 

Language is full of these little ejacnlatory expressions; and each 
lias its appropriate translation or signification. Inasmuch as some of 
them may be used to express various emotions, the signification nuut 
depend on the words that follow. If a person were to exclaim 0! V3 
should at once ask him the cause (t. ., the meaning) of such ejacula- 
tion, particularly if the .interjection were not accompanied by any 
other word or expression ; and his reply would be the appropriate 
translation of the interjection used. 

Translate adieu and alas. What is said of O? May interjections 
be construed with some word understood? What are some interjec- 
tions? Give the list, with their translation. 


SYNTAX, from the Greek jiw and tieqpt, to put together, 
treats of the relation* of words in a sentence. There 
are, generally speaking, three kinds of relations : 

1st. The relation which every subject must have to its 
predicate ; as, John 3 walks. 

2d. The relation which every predicate has to its sub- 
ject; as, "John walks; 9 "John shot 10 a bird;" "a bird 
was shot. 11 " 

3d. The relation which all other words and phrases as 
complements hold to the subject or predicate. 

The complements of the subject have the 1st, 8th or 
13th relation. The complements of the predicate have 
the 12th. 14th and 16th relation. 

Words, based on the 3d, 4th and 17th relation, are in- 

A sentence is formed by the correlative f relation of 
the subject and predicate. 


Is a law for the proper union of subjects, predicates and 

* Relation, from the Latin re, affain, and latum, the supine of fero, 
to briny, signifies a bringing together again; so that the word Syntax and 
Relation mean one and the same thing. 

t Terms are said to be correlative when they mutually depend on 
each other; as, husband and wife; father and ton. The relation be- 
tween the nominative and verb is correlative ; for no predicate can 
exist without a subject; and, vice versa, no subject can exist, as a sub- 
ject, unless connected with some predicate. This correlative relation 
exists only between the nominative and verb, while all other words 
have but a simple relation as complements (words of the 3d, 4th and 
17th relation excepted). A subject may exist without a complement, 
but a complement or attribute can have no existence whatever independ- 
ent of a subject or predicate to which it is attached, and on which 
it depends. 

13 ( 145 ) 


TRUE SYNTAX is the true relation of words, in accord- 
ance with the table on page 28 ; and a conformity to the 
rules of syntax; as, "John walks in the field;" True 
syntax: JoHN 2 WALKS. 9 

FALSE SYNTAX is the union of words which have no 
relation to each other; or a nonconformity to the rules 
of syntax, in the following pages ; as, WALKS FIELD (false 

J RULE 1. Every adjective belongs to a noun or 
pronoun ; as, a good boy ; a large book. 


[Supply the nouns to which the following adjectives belong.] 
The good* are truly happy. It is not the rich that are 
always prosperous. The wise, the generous, the noble, the 
good and true do not strive for vain distinction. Let 
each of you endeavor to learn. The more you give the 
more he wants. He did not say much. Much as man 
desires, a little will answer. 

OBSERVATION 1. The adjectives this, that, each, every, 
either, etc., agree with singular nouns, verbs and pro- 
nouns; these, those, many, all, etc., with plural nouns, 
verbs and pronouns. 

Examples. These kind of indulgences injure the mind. 
I have not seen him this ten years. How manyf a sorrow 
should we avoid if we were always to live virtuous and 
temperate lives. I saw one or more persons* enter the 
house. He would not exercise economy, and by these 
means he became poor. He had abundance of capital, 
joined with sterling integrity and business tact ; and by 
this means he grew rich. Every one of the letters bear date 

* There is no serious objection to calling these words nouns. 

t " How many sorrows.' 1 The above is a common expression. It is 
admissible only in poetry; as, "Many a time." "Many a furrow in 
my grief-worn cheek," etc. 

% " One person or more." We may say "two or more persons," etc. 

When the word means refers to a single thing, or act, it should be 
singular, " this means;" when it refers to two or more circumstances, 
it should be plural, " these means." Mean is never used as a noun, but 
often as an adjective. 

SYNTAX. 147 

after his banishment. Neither of those men seem to have 
any idea that their opinions are ill-founded. Are either 
of these men your friend ? By discussing what relates 
to each particular in their order, we shall better under- 
stand the subject. Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, 
took either* of them his censor. Industry is the mean of 
obtaining competency. This is the means^ between two 

OBS. 2. This and these refer to things near or present ; 
that and those to things distant, absent or removed. This 
refers to the latter noun ; that to the former. 

Ex. Vice and virtue are directly opposed to each 
other ; that elevates us ; this degrades. Honesty and 
deceit can not dwell together ; that renders a man con- 
temptible, this makes his existence a blessing to himself 
as well as others. We are having beautiful weather now 
in those days. Washington and Napoleon were generals 
of the highest renown ; this* was illustrious for his in- 
nate goodness of heart, that\ for the brilliancy of his 
militarj 7 exploits. 

OBS. 3. Adverbs are sometimes improperly used for 
adjectives ; as, " his hands feel coldly" instead of " his 
hands feel cold," etc. 

Ex. How delightfully the country appears. How si- 
lently they are! She always appears^ neatly. Charles 
has grown greatly by his wisdom. They now appear 
happily. That behavior was not suitably to his station. 
The rose smells sweetly. The clouds look darkly. How 
bitterly the plums tasted. 

OBS. 4. Auxiliary adjectives generally require the ter- 
mination ly; as, he is tolerably well, and not tolerable 

* Every and either should not be used for each. It is quite correct to 
say, " every six years ;" i. e., " every period of six years." 

t That is, the mean difference; mean, an adjective. 

t This and that should not be applied to persons. Say the former and 
the latter. 

Any verb that can be changed to is, or any part of the verb to be, 
requires the adjective and not the adverb. 

|| The termination ly is not always required, as we say, " There was 
no stronger proof." " It is a very probable case." " He was the mart 
sensible of the fact," etc., etc. 


Ex. He was exceeding* careful not to give offense. 
She was exceeding* upright in her dealings. They are 
miserable poor. He was extreme prodigal, and his pro- 
perty is now near exhausted. They were admirable 
adapted to the task. Suclrf distinguished virtues seldom 
occur. Such-f an amiable disposition is universally ad- 

OBS. 5. The use of double comparatives or superla- 
tives is highly improper ; as, " Yours is a more better 
Look than his ; but mine is the most best," should be 
"Yours is a better, etc., but mine is the best." 

Ex. She was the most beautifulest woman I ever saw. 
James is a worser scholar than John. He was the 
chiefest% among ten thousand. A more serener temper I 
never knew. After the most strictest sect, I lived a 
Pharisee. The tongue is like a race-horse, that runs 
the faster the lesser I weight it carries. 

OBS. 6. The comparative degree, and the adjective 
other require than after them. 

Ex. He has little more of the scholar besides the name. 
They had no sooner risen but they applied themselves to 
their studies. He is no better nor I. He is wiser nor 
me. This is none other but the gate of paradise. To 
trust in him is no more but to acknowledge his. power. 
James is the icisest\\ of the two. He is the weakest\\ of 

* "Exceedingly careful.'' Nevertheless exceeding is often used with- 
out the adverbial termination ; as, '' he went up into an exceeding high 
mountain." The termination is especially suppressed when the adjec- 
tive ends in ly ; as, " Her appearance was exceeding lovely," etc. 

t"<Sb distinguished;" "so amiable a disposition,' 1 etc. Neverthe- 
less, such may not be considered very inaccurate. Very good writers 
use it in similar constructions. 

J Words which convey a superlative idea in themselves, do not 
admit of comparison; nevertheless the word lesser is often used; as 
' the Lesser Asia,' ' Lesser lights,' etc. 

g But is frequently used after other, and, indeed, in some cases, it 
would sound exceedingly stiff to use than. " I know no other man in 
all this town but (than) you. 1 ' "There is no other business but (than) 
this in which I would succeed." "I could not see any other persou 
but (ihan) him," etc., (not he.) 

|| When two objects are compared the comparative is generally used ; 
and when more than two, the superlative. Many respectable writers, 
however, use the superlative in comparing two objects; as "He was 
the youngest of the two," etc. 

SYNTAX. 149 

the two. He is the likeliest* of any other to succeed. 
This is the besf-f way and the most likely to bring our 
journey to speedy issue. Napoleon and Wellington were 
great generals, but, in ray opinion, Washington was the 

OBS. 7. The natural position of the adjective in 
English is before the noun, although the contrary is 
the case in nearly all other languages: nevertheless the 
adjective is often placed after the noun to which it be- 
longs, particularly when it is emphatical, when several 
adjectives follow in succession, or when the verb to be 
intervenes between the noun and adjective. In some 
cases adjectives should not be separated from the nouns 
to which they belong, particularly when the adjective, 
thus separated, would come before a noun which it does 
not qualify. A due regard to the successive position of 
adjectives should also be observed. 

Ex. Thomas has bought a new pair of shoes.% a new 
pair of gloves, and a. fine dozen of collars. This is a new 
gentleman's hat.$ I have found an old girl's gaiter. 
Have you read the long president's message? He has 
for sale an extensive gentleman's plantation. He is the 
servant of an old rich man. She is a young beautiful 

RULE II. The Nominative case is the subject 
of the verb ; as, / am ; John is. 


Him and / will go together. Them are the same 
persons. Whom, among all the people, will make the 

*The comparative is very often elegantly used in comparing more 
than two objects, particularly when the comparison is instituted 
between different classes ; or when we have a doubt as to the exist- 
ence of a superlative. 

t Not the best of all ways ; but better than any known, and more 
likely, etc. Washington was greater than these, but perhaps not the 
greatest man that ever lived. 

J A pair of new shoes. A gentleman's new hat, etc. 

j A rich old man. A beautiful young woman, etc. When an 
adjective forms, as it were, part of the noun, it must not be separated 
from it. 


sacrifice? Her and Susan are good girls. The general 
and him barely escaped. 

OBS. 1. The nominative case is often placed after the 
verb, when the sense is not thereby obscured; but in 
parsing it is necessary to construe it before the verb, 
according to Rule I. 

Ex. There was him and one or two others present. 
There goes him and his sister. The great end of life is 
happiness, (correct construe}. \ 

OBS. 2. The various inflections of the verb to be, and 
some other intransitive verbs, admit a nominative or 
accusative after them when in apposition with a nomi- 
native before them ; as, ' he is a scholar.' ' I took that 
person to be him.' 

Ex. It is only me. It was him that did it. He resem- 
bles his brother so much that I took it to be he* I saw 
a lady whom I took to be she* Let him be whom he 
may. Who* do you think him to be? Whom do they 
say they are? It was them-\ indeed. 

OBS. 3. If the verb to be is understood, it does not 
change the general rule ; as, in fact, all nouns in appo- 
sition (or meaning the same thing or person) must be in 
the same case. 

Ex. They appointed I leader. Him shall remain 
governor of the Provinces. Her lived a Christian. Him 
died a beggar. 

RULE III. All nouns of the second person are 
in the independent case ; as, 0, John ! Ah ! thou 
excellent man ! 


O, thee, slaves ! Ah, thee, deceiver ! 
OBS. 1. All nouns in the independent case are of the 
second person, and all pronouns, except the first singu- 

* He should be him, the accusative in apposition with it which is 
accusative after took. She and who follow the same rule, 
t Them should be they, nom. after the impers. verb w. 

SYNTAX. 151 

lar, which takes the objective or accusative form ; as, 
"Ah! me!" 

Ex. O, they, miserable beings ! Alas ! them, pitiful 
creatures! Ah // O, thee scoundrel! What! thce 
indeed ! 

OBS. 2. The third person seems sometimes to be used 
as an independent ; as, " Alas ! those miserable beings I 
Alas ! what cruel tortures! Ah ! those cruel fiends ! 

RULE IV. The absolute case precedes a parti- 
ciple ; as, " the general being killed, victory was 


Solomon made as wise and true proverbs as any other, 
him only excepted who was much greater and wiser than 
he. The wind's rising, and Ami being lost, we resolved 
to return. The trunk was heavy, and its being over- 
turned, the contents rolled out. Their going home, he 
was detained. 

OBS. 1. When the noun or pronoun is the accusative 
of a verb, it can not be made in the absolute; as, " him, 
rising, they struck." 

Ex. And this man, who, being my uncle, I have re- 
vered, reviles me. He, liberated, they drew in a chariot 
through all the streets. He, being known, they resolved 
to persecute. (It is better, in such cases as this, to add 
him, and make he abs. before being, etc.) 

RULE V. The possessive case possesses a noun ; 
as, John's book. 


This is Pompeys pillar. Such is virtues reward. A 
mans manner's frequently influence his fortune s. I will 
not destroy the city for ten sake. Asa his heart was per- 
fect with the Lord. 

OBS. 1. When several nouns in the possessive come 
together, the apostrophe and s are annexed to the last, 
and omitted in the rest. 

Ex. Peters, John's and Andrew's occupation was that 


of fishermen. It was the men's, women's and children's 
lot to suffer. This is John's, Jame's and Williams house. 

OBS. 2. When any words intervene, or when the noun 
to which the possessive holds a relation comes before it, 
the possessive sign should be annexed to each. 

Ex. This gained the king, as well as the people's admi- 
ration, is this book John or Eliza's? He asked his 
father, as well as his mother's advice. 

OBS. 3. The possessive of pronouns is used without 
the apostrophe. 

Ex. Every tree is known by it's fruit. Whos'e house 
is this? Is this book hefs or his" f It is iheir's. Is this 
house our'sf 

OBS. 4. To prevent too much of the hissing sound, the 
s, after the apostrophe, is usually omitted in nouns already 
ending in s. 

Ex. Righteousness' s sake. For conscience's sake. Mo- 
seses' rod was turned into a serpent. For Herodias's 
sake, his brother Philips's wife. 

OBS. 5. In many instances it is far more elegant to use 
of instead of the possessive ; as, " the wisdom of Soc- 
rates" for " Socrates' wisdom :" "the reward of virtue" 
for "virtue's reward." It seems better to say, "She 
married the brother of my son's wife," than " She mar- 
ried my son's wife's brother. The successive use of "of" 
is often unpleasant ; as, " The distress of the son of the 
king touched the nation. It would be better to say, 
"The distress of the king's son," etc. 

Ex. The world's government is not left to chance. 
This is my wife's brother's partner's house. It was 
necessary to have both the physician's and surgeon's 
ailvice. The extent of the prerogative of the king of 
England is sufficiently ascertained. 

OBS. 6. Nouns in apposition should have the same 
case ; as, I bought it at Brown's the cutler's.* 

* That is, at Brown's store, the cutler's store. 

SYNTAX. 153 

Ex. I lived at Wilson's, the farmer. These works are 
Cicervs, the most eloquent of men. 

OBS. 7. But in many instances, the use of the apos- 
trophe and s is inelegant ; as, " These Psalms are David's 
the king, priest and pi'ophet of the Jewish people " is 
better than " David's the king's priest's, etc." 

Ex. Give me John's the Baptist's head. This is the 
emperor's Leopold's palace. This is my brother's John's 
Juit. Prince's William's sound.* 

OBS. 8. In some instances, both of and the possessive 
are used ; as, " It is a discovery of Sir Isaac Newton's ; 
i. e., one of Newton's discoveries. " A picture of the 
king" means simply a portrait of him; but "a picture 
of the king's," means a picture of any description be- 
longing to the king. 

Ex. That picture of the king's does not resemble him. 
These pictures of the king were sent from Italy. This 
estate of the corporation's is much encumbered. That is 
the eldest son of the king of England's. 

OBS. 9. The possessive case frequently conies before 
" participial nouns ; " as, " much will depend on the pu- 
pil's composing, but more on his reading, f 

Ex. What can be the cause of the Senate adjourning 
at this time? The time of Eliza entering the class, at 
length, arrived. Such will ever be the effect of youth 
associating with vicious companions. I think the object 
of the assembly being called was to clear a doubt of the 
king about the lawfulness of the Hollanders throwing off 
the monarchy of Spain, and the withdrawing their alle- 
giance to that crown. 

RULE VI. Transitive verbs govern the accusa- 
tive (or objective) ; as, We love him; he loves us. 

;: All such harsh and inelegant sentences may be made smooth and 
elegant by the use of " of; " or by changing the words as indicated by 
the rules given. 

t When the phrase in which the participle occurs is, in effect, llie 
nominative, the noun preceding the participle is in the possessive ; but 
when the noun is absolute, or nominative to some other verb, or the 
accusative after a verb, it can not be put in the possessive. 



He and they we know; but thou we know not. -He 
who committed the offense shouldst thou correct, and 
not / who am innocent. Ye only have I known. And 
I, who never did him an injury, he would endeavor to 
destroy. Who should I esteem more than the wise and 
virtuous? Who should I see the other day but rny old 
friend ! 

OBS. 1. Intransitive verbs do not admit an accusative 
after them. 

Ex. Go ! flee thee away to the land of Judea. Repent 
thyself of thine iniquities. Let him repent him of his 
designs. Lie the book down on the table.* Now I lie 
me down to sleep. I can not agree (reconcile} his conduct 
with his professions. Return you at once. I inquired 
the cause of it. 

OBS. 2. The participle, being a part of the verb, 
governs the accusative. 

Ex. Esteeming theirselves wise, they became fools. 
Having exposed hisself, he took cold. 

OBS. 3. The participial noun may also govern the 

Ex. Upon seeing 7 he turned and fled. On meeting he, 
I explained the matter. After consulting 7, they left 
the house. . 

OBS. 4. When of is used after a participle, the parti- 
ciple is parsed as a noun, and the preposition governs 
the following word. This construction is always indi- 
cated by the word the, or some other adjective, which 
immediately precedes the participle; hence, when the 
precedes the participle, of must follow it, and when the 
is not used, of must be omitted. 

Ex. The storming th castle was no easy task. On 
taking of the cars, we whirled rapidly through the 
country. Nothing could have made her so unhappy as 
the marrying a man who possessed such principles. 

*The verb to lie is intransitive, and, as such, can not admit an 
object after it. Lie should be lay, which is transitive, and can govern 
the object, book. 

SYNTAX. 155 

OBS. 5. Transitive verbs should not be used as intran- 
sitive; nor should they admit prepositions between 
them and the accusatives which they govern.* 

Ex. I shall premise icith these general observations. 
I will lay here until you return. If all the States would 
iinite in prohibiting the issue of notes of a less denomi- 
nation than twenty dollars, much of the viciousness of 
banking would be done away with. " Of this rule thero 
are many variations to be met with."\ 

OBS. 6. The accusative is often understood. 

Ex. {Supply the appropriate objects.) The Lord is 
mighty; he can create, and he can destroy. He taught 
last winter. She studies diligently, I understand. 

RULE VII. Prepositions govern the objective 
case ; as, ' To whom much is given, of him much 
shall be required ;' ' on him and not me, etc. 


To who will you give it? He can do nothing ofhisself. 
He laid the suspicion upon somebody in the compan}-, I 
know not u~ho.\ They willingly, and of theirselves re- 
solved to return. 

OBS. 1. The preposition should be placed immediately 
before the relative which it governs. 

Ex. Who were you speaking off Who did John go 
with ? Who do you serve under? Who didst thou 
receive that intelligence from ? 

OBS. 2. It is regarded as inelegant to connect two 
prepositions, or a preposition and a transitive verb, with 
the same noun. Thus, " They were refused an entrance 
into, and driven from the house," should be " They were 
refused an entrance into the house, and were driven from 

* Except where the preposition is compounded with the verb ; as, 
"Do not give vp the ship," etc., etc. 

t Verbatim, from Smith's Grammar, page 130. 

JThis sentence is correct if we supply 'it teas' after 'who.' 

In familiar conversation the preposition is almost invariably used 
after the relative; but as this gives rise to error, it is better to use it 
before the pronoun ; and in writing this rule should always be observed. 


it." " I wrote to and warned him," should be " I wrote 
to him and warned him." 

Ex. He is quite unacquainted with, and consequently, 
can not speak, -upon that subject. He had an altercation 
with, and afterward struck the man. 

OBS. 3. It is also inelegant to close a sentence with a 
preposition, when it is possible to avoid such a construc- 

! Ex. There was an island which it was difficult to sail 
around. This problem I did not know what to do with. 
His services I no longer had occasion for. 

RULE VIII. Pronouns must have the gender, 
person, and number of the nouns for which they 
stand ; as, John is a good boy, because he studies 
attentively. Helen is a good girl, because she be- 
haves well. The book is on the table : bring it to 


Take handfuls of ashes and let Moses sprinkle it to- 
wards heaven, and it shall become small dust. Can any 
person on their entrance into life, be fully secure that 
they shall not be deceived?* Answer not a fool accord- 
ing to their folly.f They which% seek wisdom shall cer- 
tainly find her. The boat was wrecked, and every man 
and woman endeavored to save themselves. The wheel 
killed another man, which is the sixth that have lost their 
lives by this means. || 

* " Can any person, on his entrance ;" but as this would exclude en- 
tirely one of the sexes, a better method of expression would be : ' Can 
any person on entering life be fully secured against being deceived ?" 

t " According to ha (or her) folly." 

j Which may sometimes relate to persons. 

It is always good policy to avoid the use of sentences which seem 
to involve the necessity of using pronouns that do not agree with their 
antecedents. It would sound peculiarly awkward to say, "Every man 
and woman endeavored to save himself and herself; and, hence, we are 
almost brought to the conclusion that " themselves " is correct. It would 
be better to say, "All the men and women endeavored to save th-m- 
telves." In this way we correct the sentence by introducing a plural 

I "That has lost his life," etc. It certainly would be better to say, 
" The wheel killed another man, making six that have lost their lives." 

SYNTAX. 157 

OBS. 1. A pronoun should not be used in a sentence 
when it has no case-relation to any other word ; as, 
"The Lord, he is just." We should say, "The Lord 
is just." 

Ex. There are many persons, who, instead of doing 
good, they are intent on doing mischief. Whoever* en- 
tertains such an opinion, he judges erroneously. He 
that hath ears to hear, let him hear.f You have griev- 
ously offended, and that not only myself, but God. And 
myself, do you not think I have suffered ? Mr. D. II. 
Taft, having associated with him Mr. S. P. Green, they 
will continue the business at the old stand. 

OBS. 2. Who relates to persons, which and that to per- 
sons or things, what and as to things only. 

Ex. I am the man what made it. You are the woman 
what I wish to see. You are the very man as I came 
for. This is the child whom J I saw at the gardens. It 
was this faction who endeavored to subvert the govern- 
ment. And France, who formed an alliance with Eng- 
land, espoused the cause of the Turks. He is like a 
beast of prey, who destroys without pity. Having once 
disgusted him, he could never regain the favor of Nero, 
who was but another name for cruelty. || TFAo^j of 
these men came to his assistance? Which** among 
you dares approach? 

OBS. 3. As the relative pronoun does not change to 
express distinction of person, number or gender, it 

* Compound relative, equivalent to ' he, who' or ' the person who.' 

t 'lie' is obviously redundant, and yet some word seems to be re- 
quired before that. If we supply sotue such words as " Whoever he is 
tlmt hath," etc., the word he might with propriety be retained: or we 
may consider the word him a redundancy, in which case we should 
Bay, " He that hath ears to hear should hear." 

J Which or that is generally applied to children; nevertheless whom 
may not be deemed a violation of language. 

% Such words as people, nation, country, faction, clan, company, body, 
parliament, senate, congress, etc., etc., require which or that instead of 

|| " AVhose name was but another word for cruelty." 

*~ Which (i. e., which one) of these, etc. 

** " Who, among you," etc. Observe the effect of the prepositions. 


should be placed next its antecedent, to prevent am- 

Ex. The king dismissed his minister without any in- 
quiry, who had never before committed so unjust an 
action.* The boy beat his companion, whom everybody 
believed incapable of doing mischief.f This man and 
his neighbor quarrelled, who never had been known to 
speak an angry word before. J 

OBS. 4. As the relative pronoun who, and its com- 
pounds ichoever and whosoever, are declinable, particular 
attention should be given to their construction in regard 
to case. 

Ex. These are the men whom, as you might suppose, 
icere the authors of the work. If you were to go there, 
you would find one, at least, whom, }-ou would say. passed 
his time pleasantly. Whoever % he appoints, I shall re- 
ceive. I shall attack ichoever \\ comes this way. Whom- 
ever || comes this way shall be attacked. Whomsoever he 
is, I shall be pleased.^]" Whomsoever book it is, I shall 
appropriate it. 

OBS. 5. The noun or pronoun that is used in answer 
to a question, must be of the same case as the relative 
pronoun used in asking. 

Ex. Of whom did you get your books? Of a book- 
seller: he who keeps on Main street. Who told you 
this? Both him and the clerk. TFAo** was the money 

* "The kinrr, who had never," etc.; or if it be the minister who is 
regarded as culpable, then, "his minister, who had never," etc.; and 
" without any inquiry" should follow "king.' 1 

t "The boy, whom," etc.; or, if it was his companion that was 
deemed incapable, the sentence is correct as it stands, 
i J This is an extremely ambiguous construction: avoid it. 

Whomever is seldom used. Webster excludes it entirely from his 
dictionary; nevertheless, it%eems consistent to use it here. 

|| When whoever is used as a compound equal to " he who" or "him 
who," it should have the case which its position in the sentence would 

* Whoever and whomsoever are not always resolvable into " he who," 
etc.; as, "Whoever hath eyes to see, let him see." 

** We must first correct the error in the question, by changing the 
nm. who to the obj. whom. 

SYNTAX. 159 

paid to? To the teacher and he who lives with him. 
Who lias done this? Not me. IFAo* did you meet? 
He and his sister. 

OBS. 6. The pronoun should be generally referred to 
its nearest antecedent. 

A'./:. I am the man who command you.f I am the per- 
son who adopt this sentiment. He fired the gun twice, 
and having secured two birds, he resolved to carry it to 
the house. I He walked through the fields, and having 
discovered the truant lambs, recrossed them. 

OBS. 7. In some cases, the pronoun seems to be referred 
to its first antecedent ; as, ''I am the man who command 
you :" when such is the case, that agreement must bo 
continued through the entire sentence; as, -"I am the 
man who command you, who entertain these opinions, 
and who adopt these sentiments. 

Ex. Thou art a friend that hast often relieved me, and 
has not deserted me now. Thou art the man icho di<l$t 
revile my sentiments, despised\\ my counsels, mocked my 
words, and have now come to want. I am the person 
irlio have received thy kind favors, and hast come to re- 
munerate thee. 

OBS. 8. The pronoun you, whether it is used to repre- 
sent a noun in the singular or plural, always requires 

* We must first correct the error in the question, by changing the 
nom. who to the obj. whom. 

t / is first person; man is third. Who should be in the third person, 
as man is its nearest antecedent. Now, as there is nothing about who 
to determine the person, we must change the form of the verb, and say 
" who commands." So, we see it is in reality the verb and not the pro- 
noun that is wrong. 

J Pronouns should also be referred to the nearest word for an ante- 
cedent; or rather should be placed nearest their antecedent in con- 
sf.U'.-ting the sentence. It would certainly refer to gun; and if that 
was the object he resolved to carry to the house, we should say: "He 
fired i he gun twice, and resolved to carry it to the house, having se- 
curcil, ' etc. Otherwise, we should change it to them. 

% It would be absurd to refer them to lambs: hence we should say: 
'lie walked through the fields, and recrossed them, having discov- 
ered, ' etc. ; or, " He walked through the fields, and having discovered 
the truant lambs, resolved- to return." 

U "Didst despite:'' "didst mock.'' 


the verb to which it belongs to be plural, (except in 
cases where the verb is preceded by it; in which case it 
must be singular, in the same manner as any impersonal 

Ex. Where was you when the roll was called? John ! 
was you at the gentleman's house ? William ! I think 
you told me you was at New York last spring. It were* 
you who assembled to hear me. Were* it not j-ou that 
threatened to attack the fortress ? Are * it ye who wor- 
ship false gods? 

RULE IX. A verb agrees with its nominative 
case, in number and person ; as, I live, thou livest, 
he lives ; we live, you live, etc. 


The frequent commission of crimes harden his heart.f 
A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. There is 
more than ten thousand men advancing upon us. A ju- 
dicious arrangement of our studies facilitate the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge. There's several articles left. There 
teas but a few persons present. Every hundred years 
constitute a century. J Every few days bring a recurrence 
of the malady, t Every twenty-four hours afford us the 
vicissitudes of day and night. J The/ooA', and not the 
fleece, are the objects of the shepherd's care. The meeting 
were well attended. The people was very numerous.^ 

* Impersonal verbs should always be third person, singular. 

t The introduction of a phrase or sentence between the nominative 
and the verb frequently induces this error. 

i The word period understood is the real nominative to these verbs. 
The rule which some grammarians give that "plural nouns after fi-cry 
require a tingular verb," is a libel upon language. These plural nouiis 
are governed by the preposition of understood. 

$ All nouns, whether "of multitude 1 ' or otherwise, that have both a 
singular and plural form, follow the general rule, and require verbs to 
agree with them in person and number. The word flock is singular 
number, and hence requires a singular verb. The plural of flock is 
flocks. The plural of meeting is meetings ; but the word people has but 
one form, being plural in idea: hence all nouns of multitude thai have 
but one form, must be regarded as plural nouns, and, as such, require 
a plural verb. In fact, these nouns (people, public, etc.) are plural as 
much as the words long*, scitsors, arms, etc.; and instead of regarding 
them as nouns in the singular, having no plural form, the contrary is 

SYNTAX. 101 

When the nation complain, the rulers should listen to 
tln'fr voice. The regiment consist of a thousand men. 
The multitude eagerly pursue pleasure as their chief good.* 
I believe the government^ have a right to do this. J/.^/i 
are an accountable being. % The following set of exer- 
cises are arranged on a new plan. A part only of the 
individuals are meant. || The crowd were great. The 

the truth. There are but a few words belonging to this class that 
require a plural verb. Grammarians do not seem to have explainel 
the nature of these words. When the student has been told that nouns 
of multitude, expressing unity of idea, require a singular verb, and 
nouns expressing plurality of idea require a verb in the plural, he has 
a confused idea of the true intention of the rule, but yet is unable to 
tell when plurality or unity is expressed. For instance, he learns that 
nation is a noun of unity, but council is one expressing plurality ! As- 
tonishing perception that could make so minute a distinction ! The 
fact is, both of these words are in the singular, the plural being 
nations and councils. The rule, as generally laid down, is no guide iu 
distinguishing the singular from the plural form. 

* Multitude is in the singular; plural, multitudes. We say the 
multitude is ; and the multitudes are. If multitude is a plural noun, re- 
quiriag a plural verb and pronoun to agree with it, it will also require 
a plural adjective: hence we should say ' these multitude;" "those 
multitude;' 1 "several multitude;" "many multitude/' etc., instead of 
" this multitude;" " thai multitude," etc. The absurdity of calling 
multitude a plural noun must be apparent to any person of ordinary 

t Government is in the singular. It is right to say the government 
is, and governments are. 

I Let us inquire of any respectable grammarian if the word man 
here does not express plurality of idea? Does it not include all man- 
kind? Is there a single human being that is excepted? Certainly 
not. If it is plural in idea, why not have a plural verb? It is simply 
because the word man has a plural form, i. e., men. We say, " Man is 
an accountable being ; but "Men are" etc. Do we say "The bee are an 
industrious insect," or "the bee is," etc.? Any noun, taken without 
an adjective, is used in its broadest extension, and is, in every sense 
of the word, a noun of multitude, being used to indicate a whole clus* ; 
as, man, beast, bird, etc. 

{} Copied verbatim from Lennie's grammar; page 53. The plural 
of set is sets. See dictionary. 

|| This highly elegant sentence is from Smith's grammar, being part of 
a rule which teaches the monstrous falsehood that " A verb in the plu- 
ral will agree with a collective noun in the singular when n part only 
of the individuals are meant," adding as example, "The cf> mcil were 
divided in their sentiments;" as if, not being satisfied wuh the error 
in tin- rule, he would add one still more preposterous by way of ex- 
ample. It should be, " The council was divided in sentiment." The 
T:!ui-;il of council is councils. The plural of part is parts. We can not 
join a plural adjective to council or part. 


parliament are dissolved. The army are destroyed. The 
parliaments of different nations makes laws. The armies 
of Xapoleon was victorious. The multitude are clamor- 
ous for liberty. The multitudes is eager for the fray.* 
The committee were divided in their sentiment. The com- 
mittee was agreed in its sentiments. f The public is jealous 
of its rights. The Republic stand on a firm basis. These 
Republics is built on the principle of self-government. J 
Congress^ are composed of the representatives of the 
people. The country are filled with fanatics. The flock 
of birds fly past the door. The flocks of sheep grazes on 
the hills. The herd of cattle are heard bellowing loudly. 
A large drove of cattle are coining to market. A great 
collection of men are in the street. The crowd press for- 
ward. The crowds is as numerous as the sands on the 

OBS. 1. The impersonal verb " it is " and " it was,' 1 may 
be followed by nouns or pronouns in the plural ; as, " It 
teas they who did it ;" " it was the heretics who first began 
to rail," etc. They may also be followed by pronouns 
of the first person ; as, " It is I who told him j" it is we 
that have come," etc. 

Ex. It were the soldiers that made the noise. It am I. 
It are they. It is strange, the (how) few letters I now 
receive (i. e., how few are the letters which, etc.). It were 
these arguments that decided the question. 

EULE X. The Infinitive Mood is governed by 
the preceding word in construction. It is desig- 
nated by the word to, which precedes it, either ex- 

* If it is correct, as many grammarians allege, to say, " the multi- 
tude are clamorous," then is it equally correct to say, " the multitudes 
is" etc. 

t The sentence is perfectly correct according to the rule usually 
given ; for if committee in the singular is made to agree with were in 
the plural, then may we violate the rule with equal propriety when 
the nominative is plural. 

% The word public is in the plural, and has no singular form ; but its 
compound Republic may be used in the plural. 

Congress is not, strictly speaking, a noun of multitude. It simply 
means the "coming together" of persons; and, as such, is a noun in 
the singular, having no plural form. 

SYNTAX. 163 

pressed or implied. The verbs, bid, dare, need, 
see, mate, hear, feel, let, observe, perceive, and beJioId, 
usually require the infinitive to be used without 
the sign to.* 


Permit me examine the book. I shall endeavor learn. 
Consider if you are able overcome the difficulty. Ho 
can not be said have accomplished the feat unaided. 

I dare not to proceed so hastily. Bid the man to ap- 
proach. I need not to converse with him. He has gone 
out to see the sun to rise. Make me to know thy laws.f 
He made the boat to cross the stream.! Do you not hear 
him to call? I felt the wind to blow upon my cheek. I 
felt ashamed think I had done so. Did you. observe the 
man to raise up his hands ?j| 

I perceived the clouds to rise, and the waves to dash 
violently about. We beheld him to mount aloft. He was 
seen cross the stream.^]" He has been heard utter such 
words. ^[ Men of research have denied, or at least 
doubted them to be genuine.** 

OBS. 1. The infinitive is often used without a govern- 
ing word in a sentence; but in parsing, some suitable 
word must be supplied. 

Ex. To confess the truth I was at fault.ff To begin : 
I will relate what befell my friend. ff To acknowledge 
the fact, it was as the gentleman says. 

* To is used after the passive of all these verbs except let. 

t To is admissible sometimes after make. This sentence may not be 
regarded, therefore, as incorrect. 

% " He made the boat cross the stream " would mean, he forced it 
across; but, "he made the boat to cross," etc., would indicate that he 
constructed a boat for the purpose of crossing the stream. In the for- 
mer case, to cross would be governed by "made," in the latter, by boat, 
or " with which," understood after the word boat " the boat, zcith 
which" etc. 

\ Here to is required, because to think does not hold a relation io/elt, 
but to the adjective, ashamed ashamed to think. 

D It must be confessed that to does not appear improper here. 

f To is required here, because the verbs are passive. 

s * It should be, " have denied them to be genuine, or doubled if they were 
to ;" because doubted is intransitive, and can not govern tlicm. 

tt Supply " If I am," or some similar words. 


OBS. 2. In many cases the infinitive is used as a nom- 
inative to a verb, in which case the verb must be singu- 
lar where one infinitive is used, or where two are used, 
connected by or or nor ; and plural where two infinitives 
are used, connected by and. 

Ex. To will are present with me, but to perform that 
which are good, I find not. To be deprived of his pres- 
ence, or to be denied his wise counsels are trials almost 
insuperable. To exhibit a cheerful temper, and to be 
guarded in our expressions is our highest aim. To de- 
termine the true signification of these various words, to 
classify and arrange them was & work of no inconsiderable 

OBS. 3. It is highly improper to introduce an adverb, 
an adverbial phrase, or any other words between to and 
the infinitive verb. It is also improper to use for before 

Ex. It was thought better to first open the box. He 
determined to henceforth leave the intoxicating cup. 
Arrange the box so as to partially exclude the light. lie 
was so assiduous as to, in a measure, injure his health. 
He intended for to cross the river. What went you out 
for to see ? For to plow, for to sow, for to reap, and 
to mow, for to be a farmer's boy. He set out for to ex- 
plore the country. 

OBS. 4. After the imperfect tense of a verb we should 
generally use the infinitive present instead of the infini- 
tive perfect.^ 

Ex. He icas seen to have entered the house. He always 
intended to have reproved his son. "\Ve have done no 
more than it icas our duty to have done. He rejoiced to 
have found once more his old companion. 

.*Tbis sentence may be considered correct as it stands, according 
to the 4th observation under Rule XVII. 

tTbe use of for before the infinitive seems to have been introduced 
from the French, in which language it is both correct and elegant. 
It is a common fault to separate to from the infinitive by nn adverb. 

J Because the action represented by the Infinitive Mood was pretent 
at the time represented by the imperfect tense. 

SYNTAX. 165 

OBS. 5. The infinitive perfect should be used after the 
present tense, when a past action is referred to ; and 
after the imperfect of ought, to be, and some other verbs, 
when the past tense is peculiatly indicated. 

Ex. The man ought to know better.* He thinks the 
English ought to spare* the life of the Maid of Orleans. 
The man was supposed to escape before the sheriff reached 
the place. He is known to spend the greater part of his 
fortune. He seems to know that this was the case, and 
to act in accordance with such knowledge at that time. 
I was to meet him there.f It would have afforded me 

frcat pleasure to be the bearer of such intelligence, 
'rorn the conversation I had with him, he appeared to 
study the classics a long time. 

RULE XI. When two negatives occur in the 
same sentence, they neutralize each other, and 
produce an affirmation ; as, " I am not unmindful 
of death." J Hence, when it is desired to express 
a negation, we should use but a single negative. 


I can not drink no more. He can not do nothing. 
He will never be no better. Covet neither riches nor 
honors, nor no such perishing things. Do not interrupt 
me yourself, nor let no one disturb me. 1 have resolved 
not to comply with the proposal ; neither at present, nor 
at any other time. I can not, by no means, allow this 
to be the fact. !Nor is danger to be apprehended, no 

* This construction would indicate the present tense; but if the 
past is meant, the infin. perf. should be used It is by the infinitive 
only that the tense of ought can be determined.- 1 See page 129. 

t This may be regarded as correct, according to Obs. 4, ante. 

J An affirmation is elegantly expressed by the use of two negatives, 
when a former negation is denied; as, "1 did not discontinue the use 
of it/' etc. 

% "I have resolved neither to comply at present, nor at," etc. The 
above form of expression is admissible in speaking, when it appears 
that it is the first intention of the speaker to pause at the word "pro- 
posal," and adds the rest as a second thought. Thus, "I will have 
nothing to do with you. Neither at present, nor at any future time." 
Avoid it in writing. 


more than under the ordinary casualties of existence. 
I could not, although I listened attentively, neither com- 
prehend his words nor actions. I can not never do noth- 
ing with the child.* I $ould n't never understand no 
more about it. 

RULE XII. Adverbs qualify verbs; and should 
generally follow them ; as, the bird flies swiftly, f 


He unaffectedly and forcibly spoke, and was attentively 
listened to by the whole assembly. Not only he found 
her employed, but sweetly she was singing also. In the 
disposition of adverbs, the ear carefully requires to be 
consulted as well as the sense. 

OBS. 1. Adjectives should not be used as adverbs : ad- 
jectives qualify nouns; adverbs qualify verbs. 

[Adverbs that are formed from adjectives generally terminate in 1y. 
By poetical license* this termination is often omitted, but should be 
supplied in parsing. The ly is elegantly omitted when an auxiliary 
ending in ly precedes; as, "he speaks extremely loud.''] 

Ex. She reads proper, writes very neat, and composes 
accurate. He speaks very fluent, reads excellent, but .does 
not think very coherent. He acted bolder J than was ex- 
pected. They behaved the noblest, J because they were 
disinterested. He spoke truer J than the other. 

OBS. 2. Adverbs are often used as nouns; as, "Since 
then- the constitution has not been changed. In a little 
while I shall return. The line extends from there to here. 
From should not be used before hence, thence and whence, 
as it is implied. 

* Triple negatives are absurd. 

t Many adverbs require to be placed before the Terb, as nercr. /.' - 
ever, always, etc., when emphatic. Use discretion about the position 
of the adverb. We may say, "The women voluntarily contribiitt-il 
their rings;" or, "The women contributed, voluntarily, all their 
rings;" or, again, "The women contributed all their rings volun- 
tarily." Either may be considered correct. 

J More boldly ; most nobly and truly. 

\ It must be confessed that this use of the adverb is contrary to 
analogy, and is not a very elegant method of expression. It is better 
to avoid it in all cases. 

SYNTAX. 167 

Ex. From whence do you come? From thence he re- 
traced his steps. From hence I go, never again to re- 
turn. Where are you going to?* I intended to go 
there* this morning. Come here,* Charles, immediately. 
The place where I found him.f 

OBS. 3. Adjectives should not be used in the place of 
auxiliary adverbs, which should terminate in ly ; as, ex- 
tremely well done ; not extreme well, etc. 

Ex. The operation was exceeding well performed. She 
sings real well. He converses exceedingly fluently .J He 
talks astonishing rapidly, and his voice sinks imper- 
ceptible lowly. She dresses exceeding neatly. 

RULE XIII. Care must be taken to express the 
proper time by the appropriate tense. || 


I have compassion on the multitude, because they con- 
tinued with me now these three days. And he that was*\ 
dead sat up and began to speak. Next New Year's day 
I shall be at school three years. Ye will not come unto 
me that ye might have eternal life. His sickness was so 
great that I feared he would have died** before our arrival. 
It would have given me great satisfaction to relieve^ him 
from that distressed situation. 

OBS. 1. The present tense should be general!}" used 

* The use of where, there and here for whither, thither and hither, is 
not strictly proper. The signification of where is in or at what place; 
of there, in or at thai place; of here, in or at. (his place ; while the signi- 
fication of whither is to what place; of thither, to that place; and of 
hither, to this place; hence, after verbs of motion, whither, hither and 
thither should be used : nevertheless, we may use where, here and there 
after verbs of motion, if we assign to them a signification similar to 
that assigned to whither, etc. Custom sanctions this use of here, where, 
etc. See Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. 

t Better to say, "The place in which 1 found him." 
+ Exceeding does not take ly when the adverb has it. 
\ Better to change the /// from the adverb to the auxiliary, and say, 
astonishingly rapid, imperceptibly low, etc. This sounds more agreeable 
to the ear, and has the sanction of usage. It is not necessary that 
adverbs, derived from adjectives, should always terminate in ly. Low 
is an adverb; but lowly is an adjective. 

| See moods and tenses, page 116, 1f "That had been dead." 
* "That he would die." ft See Rule X, Obs. 5. 


after the imperfect or perfect, when the action is repre- 
sented as present at the time expressed by the imperfect or 

Ex. The apostle knew that the present was the only 
time allowed for this preparation. It could not have 
been otherwise known that the word had this meaning. 
I told him if he icent* to-morrow I should go with him. 
He said if he collected* the money in a few days he 
would pay the debt. The orations of Cicero and De- 
mosthenes have been^ brilliant productions; and were 
the admiration of every age.J 

RULE XIV. Care should be taken to express 
the proper relation and idea, with the appropriate 

The words accused, boast, independent, need, observance, 
worthy, tired, etc., generally require to be followed by 
" of" 

Adapted, agreeable, adverse, conformable, reconcile, op- 
posed, opposite, in regard, exception, resemblance, etc., 
should be followed by " to." 

Bestow, call, dependent, insist, wait, think, etc., require 
" on" or " upon " after them. 

Compliance, consonant, associate, provide, to fall in, dis- 
gust, plead, etc., require " with." 

Call, wait, change, taste, etc., generally have "/or." 

Derogation, differ, dissent, freed, swerve, etc., usually re- 
quire "/row." 


He was totally dependent of the papal crown. He 
accused the minister for betraying the Dutch. You will 

* Here we can neither use the present nor future; but rather the 
imperfect potential, inasmuch as that tense expresses the idea of fu- 
turity. See tenses. 

f Were then a long time ago. J Have been ever since that time. 

It is impossible to give complete rules for the use of the preposi- 
tion. After studying the rules, and correcting the errors here given, 
the student should study the character of the language, and use judg- 

SYNTAX. 169 

soon become adapted in our climate. lie came agreeable 
with his promise. The gentleman entertained an opinion 
entirely adverse against mine. This construction is con- 
formable with the general rule.* lie seemed reconciled 
with his fate. She is reconciled at her condition. He 
\vas opposed against the measure. He lives opposite o/f 
the church. My sentiments, in regard of that, are simi- 
lar witht yours. This is the only exception in the rule. 
He bears a strong resemblance with his brother. Ho 
was true for the interests of his constituents; and true 
in the cause of liberty. He bestowed curses against him, 
and called fo him to desist. He waited || icith his guests 
at the table. I thought about 9 ^ you very often. In com- 
pliance to your request, I send you the document. The 
character of his deeds was consonant to his professions. 
"\Vhy will you associate in** such company? The gov- 
ernment will provide the army in arms. He provides 
well toff his family. I am provided ojeJJ a long journey. 
He fell in among a band of robbers. He fell in to the 
ditch. I was disgusted at\\\\ his impertinence. She 
pleaded 0^[^[ him earnestly a long time. I shall call 
with*** you on my way to town. If 3*011 will wait fyf me 
at Mr. B's store, I will join you there. This is a change $ 

* With may be used here. Words commencing with con, generally 
require with. 

f " Opposite to." Opposite may be used without to. 

j Similar to. Always consider well the sense and meaning of the 
preposition you are about to use. 

% Called may be followed by to, though upon is probably better. 

jj " Waited on." Wait may be followed by other prepositions also. 

^[ About is sometimes used after thought. Custom has sanctioned its 
use, so that it may not be deemed incorrect. Of] as well as on, is used 
after thought. 

** " Associate with, or among." In is often used, but incorrect. 

ft " Provides for." JJ " Provided for." Provided may be used in 
mnny sentences without a preposition; as, "He provided (i.e., pro- 
cured) a long stick,'' etc. 

1 'onnect in and to (into) To fall in with means to meet, to encounter. 
nisted at' 1 may be sufficiently correct. 

* ' Plead may have for after it as well as icith. Plead is often used 
without a preposition. 

*** To call/or signifies to stop for a person or thing; to call on is to 
Tisit, or to cry to; to call in is simply to enter ; to call to is to cry to. 

ttt " Wait for me.'' Wait is often followed by other prepositions. 

JJt We say sometimes "a change from good to bad," etc. 



to the worse. He has a taste of reading. "Will yon tasto 
on* the bread? This act was a derogation to his merit. f 
I shall be obliged to differ with you. Why do 3-011 differ 
with me? There is a difference among % us. I must dis- 
sent to that opinion. He was freed of the chains of 
bondage. I am free o/ the charge. You are quite 
free in\\ y.our advice. He never swerves in the path 
of duty. I swerve 9 ^ to no man's opinion. You are con- 
versant in** that science, I think. This book was re- 
plete in errors. I find a difficulty of fixing my mind. 
This prince was naturally averse from war. Upon such 
occasions as fell into their cognizance. His abhorrence 
toff gaming was extreme. He was prejudiced toff the 
cause. He was followed with a great crowd. Certain 
words must be followed with appropriate prepositions.^: 
I have been engaged on this work a long time. 

The man actually died for thirst. He died of a Thurs- 
day. My house stands to the north-east side on the road. 
I have no occasion of his services. He has made no use 
with his talents. He is in want for provisions. He 
wants/or) || | provisions. See that the men do not want^f^T 
provisions. His excuse was admitted o/*** by his master. 
This construction admits fff the use of the preposition. 
It was admitted o/JJJ on all sides. All parties admitted 

* To taste of signifies to take into the mouth ; but a taste for, signi- 
fies a mental relish ; as, " a taste for reading." 

t " Derogation of or from." J " A difference between us." 

g Of and to are both used after free ; as, " He is free to act," etc. 

|| " Free with." ^[ " I yield to," expresses the obvious meaning." 

** Words compounded with con, generally require with " Conver- 
sant with." 

tt "Abhorrence of; " and, "prejudiced against." 

ft Copied verbatim from Lennie's grammar, page 111. To follow with 
5i to be embodied with the following word, or whatever it may be; as, 
* He followed with the multitude." 

j \\ " Engaged in." But on may be used with propriety sometimes. 
; HI! "To want" is to desire; but " to want for'' is to lack. 

H Here for is required after want ; otherwise the sentence would be 

** Of may be considered redundant in this place. " To admit," is 
to receive, to grant or allow ; to admit of is to permit or require. 

ttt " Admits of, i. e., permits, or requires. 

Jit " Admitted," fronted or allowed. 

SYNTAX. 171 

o/* the fact. We walked about intof the park a -while, 
and then went out. I am six feet high when I stand 
into my boots. Thrust thy hand in% the molten liquid. 
We went in the park. He passed rapidly from the 
room, and went in that. We soon arrived in New 
York. We stopped, in our way, in Albany. How long 
have you resided at America ? || I shall remain for some 
time at France. He has taken up his residence at Xew 
York. We went directly for Boston.*^ He is going for 
England. "They started to the gold region.** He de- 
parted to the west. I have been flfft London after hav- 
ing resided at France. I was in the place appointed, a 
long time before he arrived. There was a large number 
of passengers atQ the boat. He resides in Somerville.^ 
He has a residence in the small town of Centerville.||j| 
They have rented a house at State street. He lives in 
No. 14, at Bank street.^ 

OBS. 1. A preposition should not be separated from 
the noun which it governs by another preposition, not a 
compound of a preceding verb. 

Ex. He came through of the house. He thrust his 
head from*** out of the window. He withdrew the 

* " Admitted," granted or allowed. 

t Into is a contraction of in and towards, and generally follows a 
verb of motion, because it signifies from icithout to the inside. In de- 
notes a position already within, but may follow either a verb of rest or 

J Into, i. e., from without to the inside. 

\ At should follow a verb of rest or position, (arrived does not denote 

U Before large cities, countries, states, counties, provinces, etc., we 
should use in instead of at. 

^ After a verb of motion use to or towards. 

** After verbs of departure use for. 

tt At is generally used after the verb to be ; but there are many ex- 
ceptions to the rule. It is better to say "in London" or "to London." 
t " /,'' or " on " the boat. At is ridiculous here. 

$At is generally used before the names of villages or small towns; 
but not always ; as we may say, " He owns a house in the village of 
I* " " A house was burned in Cheltenham," etc. 

li'l This sentence is sufficiently correct as it stands. 

\\ In or on a street. At a number. 

** From is redundant. W e may say " he withdrew from out the 
fire," etc. 


iron from out of the fire. Place the book over* on 
the shelf. He went up f into an exceeding high 
mountain. Take the book from off the table. Put the 
stool in* under the table. Lift your book off of the 
desk. He carne frOm beyond your place.! I stood near 
ly the man at the time. He came near about the house. 
He -went acrosst over the stream. He approached to- 
icard || of the man. 

RULE XV. Conjunctions connect the same 
moods and tenses of verbs, when the nominative, 
is expressed but once. 


He stood near the door and has spoken to me often. 
Anger glances into the breast of a wise man, but will rc*t 
only in the bosom of fools. She has played and sang that 
same song many a time. And dost thou raise thy voice 
against me, and bringest^j" me to judgment! If a man 
have a hundred sheep, 'and one of them is gone astray, 
doth 9 ^ he not leave the ninety-and-nine and goeth into 
the mountain and seeketh*[ that which is gone astray. 
To be moderate in our views, and proceeding temperately 
in the pursuit of them, is the best way to insure suc- 

OBS. 1. But when the conjunction connects different 
moods or tenses, the nominative should be generally 

Ex. These people have indeed acquired riches, but do 
not command our esteem. The jury icas closeted a long 
time, but could come** to no agreement. He might 
been happy, and is now fully convinced of it. He 
have been rich, if industrious. ft Bank may confer influ- 
ence, but willQ not necessarily produce virtue. 

* Redundant. t Correct. Up, an adverb. 

J Correct. " He came from (the place which is) beyond," etc. 

There is no such word as acrost, or acrosst. Across is the word. 

|| Towards, not toward. Toward is an adjective, meaning apt, ready, 
etc., the opposite of froward. 

The same form of the verb must also be continued ; "thou dost 
raise and (dost) bring," etc. 

** " It could come :" i. e., the jury. 

tt Supply, " if he had been." \% " But it will not," etc. 

SYNTAX. 173 

OBS. 2. Conjunctions connect the same cases of nouns 
or pronouns, when the nouns or pronouns so connected 
have a relation to one and the same word. 

Ex. My brother and me are tolerable mathematicians. 
You and him, I believe, are leagued together. There is 
no person more industrious than him.* They have gained 
more than us. He is as good as her. I am not so skill- 
ful as. him. He is a better scholar than me.f There was 
no one there but him. J He was the only person but me J 
at the house. We know as much as them that profess 

OBS. 3. The conjunctions if, though, lest, unless, althouy7i f 
since, except, whether and provided, generally require the 
subjunctive form of the verb to follow, when both con- 
tingency and futurity are expressed. 

Ex. If a man smites his servant and he dies, he shall 
surely bo put to death. If he returns to-morrow, he will 
call on me. Though he becomes \\ poor, yet will he be 
rich. Take him away, lest he kills us.^j 1 can not 
hear unless he repeats it.** I shall not be able to tell 
whether it is white or black.** I will pay you every 
farthing provided I am liberated.** 

OBS. 4. When' had or were is used in the subjunctive 
without a conjunction, the nominative should follow the 
verb, the subjunctive conjunction being implied. 

Ex. "He had thy reason, would he skip and play." 
He had know me, he would have treated me differently. 
Was he ever so great and distinguished, this conduct 
would debase him. Was I to enumerate all her virtues, 
it would seem like flattery. 

* 'Than he is.' Do not call than a prep, in such cases. 

t ' Than I am.' J Correct if but is called a preposition. 

% The Indicative form is often used to express both futurity and 
contingency ; and the Potential more often. See page 107. 

|| Here the Imperfect Potential is obviously required ' though he 
should become (at some future lime.') 

1 "Lest he kill;" or, "lest he should kill;" (Potential Imp.) 

** We see no reason why these sentences are not correct as they 


OBS. 5. Some conjunctions require their appropriate 
correspondents, according to the list given on page 137, 
(which see.) 

Ex. I could neither understand his language or his 
gestures. It is so clear as I need not explain it. There 
is no condition so secure as can not admit of change. 
His raiment was so white as snow. So* as thy days, so 
shall thy strength be. I could not see whether it was 
white nor black. I did not know if he had come or nol.f 
Though he was lame, still he used to go about. J I could 
not either determine the sense or the construction. ZX'or 
"am I either a fool nor a knave. He told me he should go 
himself, or send a faithful servant. || He and his brother 
came.^f I could not see John nor James.** He took 
neither purse or script; no goods or money. I was so 
frightened as I ran away. He was so wise as he was 
eminent. I must be as ff candid as to own, I did it. 

OBS. 6. Such, though not a conjunction, generally re- 
quires as after it. 

Ex. He gave such sharp replies that cost him his life. 
Such of you that come to me I will assist. Such men 
that act treacherously ought to be avoided. 

OBS. 7. But when such signifies 'so great, 1 'so good, 1 or 
' so bad,' it requires that to follow it. 

Ex. He is suth (so great) a knave as I left him. His 
behavior was such (so bad) as I expelled him. Such (so 
good) was her angelic disposition as we all loved her. 
He was suchll an apt scholar as he soon overcame all 

* So is redundant; it should be omitted. 

t Whether he had come, etc. It does not seem improper, however, 
to use if before or sometimes. 

J When still means yet or nevertheless, we think it should be retained. 

% Not either is equivalent to neither. The same may be said of 
eilhrr." || Hither or. f Both and. 

** Neither nor. But we see no reason why these last three sen- 
tences are not sufficiently correct as they stand. The correspondent 
need not always be used. 

tt &> The use of as and so must be governed by good taste. 

Jf Used in the sense of so. Some grammarians recommend the use 
of so instead of such: "So apt a scholar;" "So brave a general;" but, 
as custom, has sanctioned the use of such, we see no utility in the 

SYNTAX. 175 

difficulties. He was such * a brave general as he won 
the esteem of his army. He was such an indolent fellow 
that to lose all respect.f He had such an ambitious mind 
as,t to reach his goal, he toiled unceasingly. "For of 
such is the kingdom of heaven. " Such conduct is ex- 
tremely reprehensible. 

OBS. 8. It is improper to use what for that when pre- 
ceded by the adverb but. \\ 

Ex. I caft not say but what he did do so. I do not 
know but what the act was intentional. I have examined 
the work closely, and I do not see but what every thing 
is correct. I do not know but what that was what I 

OBS. 9. Conjunctions are often implied. 

Ex. Intemperance, vice, crime, all*ft lead to destruc- 
tion. Honesty, virtue, integrity make a man respected. 
I think (that) he will return to-night. I know he is the 

OBS. 10. Conjunctions are often redundant, and should 
be omitted. 

Ex. The relations are so uncertain as that they require 
much examination. He has too much sense and prudence 
than to become a dupe to such an artifice. He is far too 

* In the sense of so. S* note bottom of page 174. 

t Stick requires as before an infinitive not used in a parenthetical 

t But before an infin. used in a parenthetical section it requires that. 
(The parentheses are sometimes indicated by commas.) 

$ Such is often used without the corresponding as or that: neverthe- 
less, one of these words is always implied; such as these, etc. 

|| Because what can not be called a conjunction ; nevertheless, it 
seems as if what could sometimes be construed as a pronoun. " I do 
not know but what he did;" t. e., "but he did what." On the other 
hand, it will be contended that this is not in strict accordance with 
the meaning of the sentence. What is very often used for that even 
in other constructions; as, "For all what I can see, the thing is just." 
Here the word ivhat may be parsed as a relative pronoun, or an adjec- 
tive belonging to things understood;, so it is no grammatical error, 
but rather a violation of good taste. 

' All is often introduced after a number of nouns to render the ex- 
pression emphatic. It is not redundant. Where and is implied, the 
verb must be plural. 


wise as to commit such an error. He has little of the 
scholar than the name. 

OBS. 11. The poets often use or for either, nor for neither, 
and for both, etc. 

Ex. Nor Greek nor Turk shall ever wake again. Or 
Heroda or Eulalie would listen to the song. And horse 
and man plunged in the awful deep. 

RULE XVI. Singular nominatives, connected 
by and, in such a manner as to express more than 
one person or thing, require verbs, nouns and pro- 
nouns, agreeing with them, or placed in apposition 
with them, to be plural ; as, James and John have 
immortal souls : their bodies may return to dust, 
but they shall live.* 


Idleness and ignorance is the parent of many vices. 
Wisdom, virtue and happiness dwells with the golden me- 
diocrity. In unity consists the welfare and security of 
society. The day and night was spent. Great was the 
praise and applause he received. What causes this alarm 
and outcry? Out of his mouth cometh falsehood and 

OBS. 1. Singular nouns followed by etc., or etc., require 
plural verbs. 

Ex. The firing of the guns, the rattling of the drums, 
the popping of the muskets, etc., etc., was kept up a long 
time. The page, paragraph, verse, line, etc., was pointed 
out. The care of the young, the attention given to their 
education, etc., occupies much of our time. 

RULE XVII. Singular nominatives connected 
by or, ?ior, or any conjunction except and, require 

* This rule is not always observed, as we may see by the following 
quotations: "And so was also James and John, the sons of Zebedee," 
etc. "For thine is the kingdom, the power and the glory." In these 
cases each nominative is construed separately with the verb. 

SYNTAX. 177 

verbs, nouns and pronouns in the plural ; as, nei- 
ther William nor Henry is the boy. 


Neither pride nor envy give us happiness. Man is not 
such a machine as a clock or watch, which merely move 
as they are moved. Speaking impatiently to servants, or 
any thing that betrays inattention or ill humor, are cer- 
tainly criminal. None except a fool or madman do it. 
No person but he who is educated know the value of 
knowledge. John, as well as James, have returned. It 
maybe confessed that neither satire nor ridicule carry in 
them robbery or murder. 

OBS. 1. When singular pronouns, or a noun and pro- 
noun, are connected by any conjunction other than and, 
the verb must agree with the noun or pronoun placed 
nearest it.* 

Ex. Neither John nor I are sure about the matter. 
Either I or thou am greatly mistaken. You or he come 
every day now, I believe. 

OBS. 2. A singular and a plural nominative, connected 
by any disjunctive conjunction, require a plural verb to 
agree with the plural nominative, which should always 
be placed nearest the verb ; as I or they were oflended. 
Neither he nor they are happy. 

Ex. He or they was offended at it. Neither the king 
nor his ministers deserves to be praised. The cares of this 
life or the deceitfulness of riches has choked the seeds 
of virtue in many a promising mind.f Neither poverty 
nor riches was injurious to him. Heavy defalcations or 
the suspension of the bank has completed his ruin.f 

OBS. 3. "When a pronoun refers to two words of diffcr- 

* The verb, although expressed only after the last person, is under- 
stood in its proper place before each of the other persons; and the 
sentence " Thou or I am happy," when the ellipsis is supplied, reads 
thus : " Thou art happy or I am happy." " I, thou or he is the author 
of it; f. e., "I am, tliou art, or he is the author, etc. In parsing, or 
correcting, these verbs should be supplied. 

t Construe the plural nominative before the verb; thus, "the deceit* 
fulness of riches, or the cares of this life, have choked," etc. 


ent persons, coupled by and, it becomes plural, and is 
used in the first person when J or ice is mentioned, and 
in the second when /or we is not used ; as, " John and / 
will lend you our books." " You and James have got your 

Ex. Thou and he shared it between them. James and 
/are attentive to their studies. You and he are diligent 
in reading their books, therefore, they are good boys. 

OBS. 4. When the verb to be comes between a singular 
and a plural nominative, it agrees with the one placed 
next it, or with that one which seems to be more natu- 
rally the subject of it; as, " the wages of sin is death." 

Ex. A great cause of the low state of industry was the 
restraints put upon it. His meat were locusts and wild 
honey. His chief occupation and enjoyment icere con- 
troversy. The crown of virtue are peace and honor. 

[XOTE. It is of little consequence -whether we use the verb plural or 
singular in these cases: we may say, " virtue and honor are the crown 
of virtue," or " virtue and honor w, !l etc. When we come to construe, 
or give the relation of each word separately for parsing, we must use 
the singular form of the verb in all cases when the nominative is sin- 
gular, and the plural form when the nominative is plural.] 

RULE XVIII. The past participle of verbs 
should not be used for the imperfect tense, nor 
should the past tense of irregular verbs be used 
for the perfect participle. 


Do not lay the blame on me : I'm sure I never done 
it. You must have took it away, for I seen it here an 
hour ago. He begun to grow weary after having spoke 
so long. He drunk nearly a pint. We have wrote our 
copies, did our sums, and spoke our pieces. He had mis- 
took his road, and so was drawed completely out of his 
way. His resolution was too strong to be shook by every 
idle wind. He thinks the horse was stole. The stream 
was froze over; it has froze since last night. She has 
showed me her drawings. He has broke his slate. Ho 
would have went with us, if he had been invite. I do be- 

SYNTAX. 179 

lievo I had* ought to have went. She had* ought to 
have did it. Since then I have saw that I was mistaken. 
I have just eat my breakfast. He run to the nearest 
shop. He has durst'f to approach the house again. Has 
he so soon forgot what I told him ? He was took una- 
wares. He has not yet wore off his roughness of man- 
ner. Since you have forsook me I have wrote no more. 
They have bore no part in our labors. When he done it, 
I seen him. I see him do it yesterday.! The whole flock 
hasfleic away. The stake is drove fast into the ground. 
The school has began. The boys run quite fast just 
now. The thief has stole my watch. He was smote on 
his cheek. I was awoke by a great noise. He has came 
already : he come home yesterday. This book was gave 
to me. He has abode there a long time. He has bore 
his misfortune patiently. He has ate his breakfast. John 
has tore his book. 

RULE XIX. Care should be taken to preserve 
the natural order of the sentence, that each word 
may readily suggest its proper relation to the 
mind ; to prevent unusual fullness, or the repeti- 
tion of useless words; and to avoid an ellipsis 
that may render the sense ambiguous. 


He would not, it then appears, come up here to-day.|| 
Long he afterward, by midnight toil, by unceasing 
energy and indefatigable assiduity, this unfortunate 
habit, in a measure overcame. The reward is his due, 
and it has already or will be hereafter given to him.^f 
He was more bold and active, but not so wise as his com- 
panion.** Sincerity is as valuable, and even more valu- 

* Had should not be used before ought. See defective verbs, page 128. 

t Dare, to venture, is irregular; but dare, to challenge, is regular. 

t This is an error of frequent occurrence in the use of the present 
tense of the verb. 

Begin, began, begun. 

|| Do not separate the principal parts of the verb by a long phrase. 

If " Has been," and "will be." (" Has been already given to him, or will 
be hereafter.") 

** We can not say, " more bold as." " More bold than his companion, 
but not so wise." 


able than knowledge.* I should often be pleased to see 
you.f He would have sooner cut off his right hand. 
She might afterwards have corrected this fault. His for- 
tune being at stake, his fortune.% was in danger of being 
lost. He has an affectionate brother and an affectionate 
sister. His temper will be often ruffled, and will be often 
disturbed. A house and orchard. An animal and man. 
A learned and amiable young man. I gladly shunned 
who gladly fled from me. I must, however, be so candid 
to own I have been mistaken. The captain had several 
men died in his ship of the fever. Several alterations, 
additions and corrections have been made in the work.|j 
The court of France or England was to have been um 
pire.^[ Which rule.** if it had been observed, the stu- 
dent would have found no difficulty in correcting the 
sentence. Two sentences, when they come together, and 
do not signify the same thing, the former must be in tho 
genitive or possessive case. 

Ofcs. 1. It is improper to place a clause of a sentence 
between a possessive case and the noun to which it be- 
longs, when the clause so interposed is parenthetical. 

Ex. They implicitly obeyed the protector's, as they 
called him, imperious mandates.ff These are David's, 
the king, priest and prophet of the Jewish people's 
psalms. %% This is Paul's, the Christian hero, and great 
apostle of the Gentile's advice. This was the venerable 
father's (for thus they all loved to call him) paternal 

* "As valuable as;" and, "more than.' 1 

t It is quite inelegant to interpose an adverb between the members 
of a verb, unless usage gives it that place, as in the case of "not," etc. 

J " // was in danger/' 

\ The adjective must be repeated when it assumes a different form. 
"A house and an orchard." "A learned and an amiable," etc. 

y "Alterations and corrections m;" "additions to;' 1 or, "The work 
has received several alterations, corrections and additions." 

t " Or thai of England." 

** "If which rule had been," etc.; otherwise " ruh'' will have no 
verb following it, as every nominative must and should have, llule 
can not be redundant, since it must have an antecedent. 

tt "Implicitly obeyed the mandates of the protector, as they. 

jj "These are the Psalms of David, the king, priest, and prophet of 
the Jewish people." 


Being a guide to elegant composition and correct punctuation. 
HITHERTO we have principally considered the relations 
of single words only ; their peculiar properties, and the 
positions they occupy in a sentence. But language af- 
fords another distinct division of sentences, into sections 
or phrases, by means of which ideas are extended beyond 
their primary conception, and continued to almost any 
length at the will of the speaker : thus, " John went to 
Boston and purchased an assortment of goods." Here 
we have two separate ideas, (i. e., two sections,) com- 
prised in one sentence, the latter being connected to the 
former by the conjunction and. But what is a sentence? 
It is necessary that the student should be able to answer 
this question before proceeding further. 


A sentence is a complete idea, or connected 
succession of ideas, included within a period : as, 
" John is." " John went to Albany." 

In other words, a sentence is the union of any num- 
ber of words, sufficient to make sense. " John went " ex- 
presses a complete idea, (of motion,) hence it is a sen- 
tence; but, "to Albany," although it contains a secondary 
idea, is not a perfect sentence, because it does not con- 
ttain a complete idea independent of the preceding part 
I of the sentence. Again: "John went to Albany; and 
he will return to-morrow," is a complete sentence in- 
volving two propositions, the latter being a secondary 
idea, dependent on the first ; for if we say, " and he will 
return to-morrow," it is evident the sense is incomplete ; 
not because an idea is not expressed, but because we do 



not kno\v the antecedent of the conjunction and* nor of 
the pronoun he. Hence : 

Every complete principal sentence must con- 
tain a noun in the nominative case ; and a verb, 
fully expressed. 

For, if the nominative be a pronoun, or if either the 
nominative or the verb be implied, it is a secondary 
section, and must relate to a primary that contains the 
nominative or verb implied in this. 

. Thus it will be seen that sentences are of two kinds, 
simple and compound. 

A simple sentence is the union of its being 
(nominative noun,) to its existence, (verb ;) and is 
composed of not less than two, nor more than 
three principal words, as, "John walks." "John 
shot a bird." 

For, although a simple sentence may contain a greater 
number of words than three, it must be remembered 
that all words except the nominative, the verb and its 
object are in no wise essential to the formation of the sen- 
tence. They may limit or extend, modify or general- 
ize and yet if they be all stricken out, the sense remains 
complete. Thus, " The black iron stove stands on 
the floor," expresses but one general idea, the two words 
that form the sentence being stove and stands. The ad- 
jectives black and iron form but part and parcel of the 
noun stove, and the adverbial phrase, " on the floor" is 
part of the verb " stands" 


By introducing a space between moon and serenely, we 
shall divide the first sentence into its logical subject 
and predicate. 


ThemidnightMoon serenelysmileso'erXature ssoft Repose. 

Here we see, that a logical subject is the nominative, to- 

*The conjunction, as well as the pronoun, requires an antecedent 
word or sentence. 

T The ancients used neither points nor spaces in their sentences. 


gothcr with all other words having a relation to it, and 
the logical predicate is the verb, and all those words 
which modify or hold a constructive dependence upon 
it. Now we will, by introducing into this sentence 
three more spaces, and a point, draw out the grammati- 
cal nominative and verb, and divide the sentence : 


Themidniglit moon serenely smiles, o'erNature'ssoftRepose. 

The grammatical nominative is the single noun or pro- 
noun preceding, (in construction,} and having a single 
relation to the verb ; as, moon 2 smiles ; and the gram- 
matical predicate is the single verb used to assert the ex- 
istence or action of that nominative ; as, moon smiles. 9 
Hence, words in a sentence naturally fall into this two- 
fold division : sentensic, or subject and predicate w'hich form 
the sentence ; and insentensic, or complements which have- 
no sense until they are united to the sentensic. 

Insenlensif. The midnight serenely o'er Nature's, etc. 

Sentensic. MOON 2 SMILES 9 

If the sentence contain a transitive verb it must bo 
recollected that the accusative, and all the modifying or 
limiting words belonging to it form a part of the verb, 
i. e., the logical predicate: thus: 


A certain man built a long, broad, stone wall. 

A compound sentence is formed by the union 
of two or more ideas joined by a conjunction or 
pronoun, into one period. 



William will return to-morrow. 

A broad, high, long, 

stone wall was built by John. 

John, James, and Henry study their lessons diligently. 
A good son will always yield obedience 

to his parents. 




John, who loved his father strove to conciliate his regard. 

Washington crossed the Delaware, and won the victory. 

GOD, WHO, at sundry times and in di- "j f HATH, in these latter days 
vers manners SPAKE, in times past I J SPOKEN unto us by his 
unto the fathers by the prophets, J ( Son. 

Our father who art in heaven. 


A section is a part of a sentence, constituted by 
having a word of the 2d, 3d, 4th, 7th, or 17th re- 
lation, for a trunk or base, and a branch word to 
give it a case relation ;* as, " John struck James.". 
" William is a good scholar (1st sec.) because he 
studies well, (2d sec.) 


Sections are divided into two orders, 1st, Pri- 
mary, 2d, Secondary. 

A Primary section must always contain a nom- 
inative noun and verb expressed. 

Hence a Primary section is similar to a simple sen- 
tence. There is, however, this difference, that while a 
simple sentence admits a prepositional phrase in connec- 
tion with either its nominative or its verb, a Primary 
section does not ; for every phrase thus following, forms 
a new section of a secondary order; and while a sen- 
tence of a simple form does not admit of the compound 
form the Primary section may be followed by any num- 
ber of consecutive secondary sections. 

A section containing an independent case must of ne- 

* The essentials of a section are 
1st. The subject and predicate; as John 2 tcalksP 
2d. The case independent; as John? 
3d. The case absolute; as, the general* being slain. 
4th. The objective case and preposition ; as, in silence."? 
5th. The interjection; as, Ah.m alas in 

It will be seen that the accusative*case can never occupy the trunk 
position, as it entirely differs, in construction, from the objective. 
the sections, aa they are found on the plate, page 33. 


cessity be a primary, since it can not hold a relation to 
any other section, nor be dependent on any other word 
for sense. 

A secondary section is one that follows a pri- 
mary, and is connected to it by a conjunction or 
a pronoun; a preposition, an adverb, or a par- 

As has been already shown, a secondary section can 
make no sense until united to the primary section which 
should naturally sustain it. 


Heaven hides the book f of fate, 

( from all creatures. 

The first of these secondary sections, ' of -fate' has 
an adjective relation to book (i. e., fatal book), and the 
second holds an adverbial relation to the vertT hides. 
Hides thus. 


"Julius Caesar would not disband his army, 


AND return a private person to Rome,* 
BECAUSE he was very sensible he should bo called to an 
account for extravagant management, in the time of his 
consulship, in his province, which would have blasted 
his ambitious designs, of destroying the liberties of 
Rome, AND taking the government to himself." 

The first and is a conjunction, uniting the two actions, 
expressed by the respective verbs disband and return, to 
a common nominative, Julius Caesar, and shows that he, 
who was unwilling to perform the first of these actions, 
was equally unwilling to perform the last ; and that the 
reason was, because he did not will that either should be 

because is a conjunction, uniting the latter part of this 
period to the former, arid shows the relation it has to it, 
viz: that of a cause, producing the effect mentioned in 
the former part of the period; for, what is affirmed in 
the latter part is by the conjunction because, represented 

* " And return," etc., is, in effect, part of the primary section, not- 
withstanding its secondary position. 



as being the cause, reason, or motive, which, induced 
Caesar, not to will the disbanding of his army, and his 
private return to Rome; while the last and, by connect- 
ing "destroying the liberty," and "taking the govern- 
ment," shows that he designed both. 

" God will not finally let the wicked go unpunished, 
though he bear with them so far in this life, as to let 
them fare sumptuously, and go down to the grave in 
peace; for man, in this world, is in a state of trial; 
therefore, it would not be consistent with that intention 
of an all-wise God to punish wickedness, constantly and 
visibly, in this life." 

THOUGH shows the subjoined clause to hold a con- 
structive dependence on the former, so far as to signify 
nothing in the mind of the speaker without a regard 

The conjunction AS unites its clause to that which 
goes before, and expresses its relation by determining 
the extent of what was indefinitely expressed in the 
foregoing clauses of the period. 

AND connects "go down in peace" with "fare sump- 
tuously," and signifies that both of these actions are 
permitted by the Almighty for the reason expressed in 
the next section. 

FOR shows that the section which it heads holds a 
constructive union with the two preceding sections, and 
shows the relation to be that of a cause or reason why 
he suffers them to fare sumptuously, and to die in peace. 

THEREFORE shows that the part of the period which 
follows it, is construed with all that precedes it, as its 
cause, and implies that this world, being intended as a 
state of trial, renders it impracticable for him to punish 
vice consistently with that design, for that would not be 
to try them, but forcing them to be good, by destroying 
their power to be otherwise, since there can be no true 
virtue without liberty. 

The sentence which follows a conjunction, is not 
always a secondary section when it contains a noun 
in the nominative; for in that case it is not dependent 
on the former section for sense; thus, 'John has finished 
his task, and William is eating his breakfast.' A glance 
will serve to show that the section following l and' is a 
section of the primary order, since it does not depend 


on tho former for a completion of sense. " William is 
eating his breakfast" is a perfect and complete idea. 

"John is a good scholar, but William is a better." 
Hero the comparative adjective better indicates that the 
positive must have preceded it; hence, "William is a 
better" is a secondary section, depending on the pri- 
mary for sense. 

" He is a better scholar than I am." Here the posi- 
tive assertion follows the comparative, by which we see 
that " I am (a good scholar) is tho primary section, and 
" he is a better scholar," the secondary, depending on 
the primary " I am (a better scholar ") for sense. In the 
sentence, "John has learned his lesson, but William has 
not learned his lesson," both sections are primary; but 
when we say, "John has learned his lesson, but William 
lias not learned his," the ellipsis of the word lesson ren- 
ders the latter a secondary section. 

A relative pronoun may be used either in a sentensic 
or insentensic section, and shows that the section in. 
which it occurs sustains to the antecedent an adjective 
relation ; thus : 

Our Father who art in heaven. Here the two sec- 
tions, "who art" and "in heaven," sustain to the word 
Father an adjective relation, being equivalent in sense 
to "our Heavenly Father." Who art in heaven, re- 
stricts the word Father, by excluding from the exten- 
sion of that word all earthly fathers. 


GOD, (who, at sundry times, and in divers manners, 
spake, in times past, unto the fathers, by the 

HATH, in these latter days, 
SPOKEN, unto us by his Son. 

In this example, that part of tho period included in 
parentheses has an adjective relation to God, and withal 
restricts the extension of that noun by excluding from 
it tho other g.ods, of the Greeks, Eomans, etc., and is 
equivalent to the adjective Jewish; thus, "The Jewish 
God hath spoken," etc. 



A phrase is a secondary section of a sentence, 
connected to its primary by a preposition, an in- 
finitive mood, or a participle. 

The midnight moon serenely smiles (primary sec.) 
O'er nature's soft repose (secondary sec.) 

" O'er nature's soft repose " is a section of the second- 
ary order, and holds an adverbial relation to the verb 

The stove stands (primary sec.') 

in the room (secondary sec.) 

"In the room," is a secondary section, holding an ad- 
verbial relation to the verb stands. 
Heaven hides the book (prim, sec.) of fate (second, sec.) 
" Of fate " is a section of the secondary order, holding 
an adjective relation to the noun book. 
We are satisfied (prim, sec.) with our lot (second, sec.) 
" With our lot " is a section of the secondary order, 
holding an adverbial relation to the logical predicate 
" are satisfied," or an auxiliary adjective relation to the 
adjective satisfied. 

He answered gravely (prim, sec.) 
in a measure (second, sec.) 

" In a measure," section, secondary order, and holds 
an adverbial relation to the predicate ' : answered grave- 
ly," or an auxiliary adverbial relation to the adverb 
" gravely." 


Primary sections have no relation. 

For, since a primary section does not depend on any 
other section for its existence in the sentence, it follows 
that it can not hold a dependent relation to any other 
member of the sentence. 

Every secondary section must hold a relation 
to its primary. 

Although, in general, all the secondary sections in 
a sentence hold a relation to the same primary section, 


yet it sometimes happens that when two or three sec- 
tions or prepositional phrases follow in succession, each 
seems to hold a relation to that which immediately pre- 
cedes it ; as, " The extent of the prerogative of the king 
of England is sufficiently ascertained." 


Extent OF THE PREROGATIVE (adj. rel. to extent.) 
Prerogative OP THE KING (adj. rel. to prerogative.) 

King OP ENGLAND (adj. rel. to king.) 

Nevertheless, it must be obvious that since the pri- 
mary section sustains the first of these sections, it sus- 
tains them all ; hence, all hold an indirect relation to it. 

There are three principal sectional relations, 
adjective, adverbial and conjunctive. 

From what has already been stated, it will be seen 
that the prepositional phrase has the same relations aa 
the preposition itself, as given on page 135 ; yet, for con- 
venience, it is perhaps better to make but two relations 
for the prepositional phrase, adjective and adverbial 
adjective when it holds a relation to the subject, and 
adverbial when it holds a relation to the predicate of a 
sentence; thus, "A man bent with age was seen to ap- 
proach." "With age," strictly speaking, holds an aux- 
iliary adjective relation to the adjective bent; but it 
would be more concise to say, it holds an adjective rela- 
tion to the subject " a man bent." Either way is correct ; 
since, in one case, the phrase is referred to a particular 
word, and in the other, to the general subject. 

A section containing a relative pronoun holds 
an adjective relation to its primary section. 

This has been explained already ; but, for the better 
understanding of the subject, one or two more examples 
are subjoined. 

" And who but wishes to invert the laws 

Of order, sins against the eternal cause." 
Prim. sec. And (he} sins against the eternal cause. 
Second, sec. Who wishes to invert the laws of order. 

" Who wishes to invert the laws of order" is a sec- 
ondary section, holding an adjective relation to its pri- 


mary section, because it limits or restricts the signification 
or extension of the word he (or of the persons referred 
to) to a particular class. 

" Blest is the man who dares approach the bower." 
Blest is the man (primary section.) 

who dares approach the bower, (secondary section.) 
"TVho dares approach," etc., holds an adjective rela- 
tion, because it restricts the extension of the noun man 
by prescribing a class. 

All relations not adjective, adverbial or aux- 
iliary adj. or adv., must be conjunctive. 

Sections connected to their primaiy by a personal 
pronoun do not give an adjective or adverbial relation ; 

John is a good boy ; he is industrious. 
John is in town ; he is going to Boston. 

"He is industrious" is not a section of an adjective 
relation, notwithstanding it has at first that appearance, 
for we see by the second sentence, the construction of 
which is similar, that the relation must be conjunctive. 
It is, therefore, the occurrence of the adjective only in 
the first sentence that gives the secondary section the 
sense of an adjective relation. 

Phrases, connected to their primary sections by verbs 
in the infinitive mood, are, in reality, part of tbe pri- 
mary to which they belong ; as, " He sins against the 
eternal cause who wishes to invert the laws of order." 
"To invert the laws" is so closely connected to "who 
wishes," as to form a part of that section. There are 
four sections in this sentence. "He sins" (primary sec- 
tion*) " against the eternal cause" (secondary section, 
adv. rel. to " sins.") " Who wishes to invert the laws" 
(adj. rel. to pronoun "he") "of order" (secondary section 
adj. rel. to "laics") 

" Blest is the man Primary section; no relation. 

who dares (to} an- ) 
proach the bower." } Second ' sec '> ** rel io man ' 

The adverb or adverbial conjunction is often used as a 
connective, by means of which office it gives the phrase 

* It is better, perhaps, to call this a primary section, since the ante- 
cedent is not specified. 


in which it occurs an adverbial relation to its primary j 
thus, " I will pay you when I receive my money." 
I will pay you (primary sec. ; no relation.*) 

when I receive my money, (second, sec., adv. rel. to "pay.") 

" I can not tell you how soon he may return." 
I can not tell you (primary sec.; no relation.") 

how soon he may return, (secondary sec., adv. rel. to " tell.") 

" His follies had reduced him to a situation where he 
had much to fear and nothing to hope." 
His follies had reduced him (primary section ; no relation.} 
to a situation (secondary sec., adv. rel. to " reduced") 

where* he had much (second, sec., adj. rel. to " situation." 

(which) to fear (mfin. phrase, rel. to " much." 

and (where* he had) nothing (secondary tec., adj. orconj. rel. to "situation.") 
(for which) to hope. (infin. phrase, rel. to "nothing") 

NOTE. When the proper relation, of either words or sections, is 
given, all the ellipses must be supplied, and all the words arranged in 
their natural prose order. 

The participle connects its phrase to its primary 
section, and holds an adjective relation to the noun 
or pronoun therein ; thus, " John, having opened 
the box, found nothing." 

" John found nothing," (primary section ; no relation.) 
" having opened the box." (second, sec., adj. rel. to " John." 

" And he, being destitute, renewed his efforts." 
He renewed his efforts, (primary section, no relation.) 
being destitute. (secondary sec., adj. rel. to "He") 

And the relation is invariably the same when the par- 
ticiple is the object of a preposition." 

" On opening the box, John found nothing." 
John found nothing (primary section, no relation.) 
on opening the box. (secondary sec., adj. rel. to "John") 

But it must be observed, that when the pronoun in 
the second section is neuter, and does not relate to the 
agent, the secondary section must be referred to the sec- 
tion containing the agent of the act, or to the agent 
itself; as, " On opening the box, it was found empty." 

* Where means in which; hence it gives its phrase an adjective rela- 
tion ; although the relation of the adverbial conjunctive phrase is 
usually adverbial. 


The participle opening holds no relation to the pronoun 
it, since this neuter pronoun is not the agent that opens 
the box. The participle must always be referred to the 
agent that performs the act; hence the section, "on open- 
ing the box" must be referred to the person who per- 
formed this act, "John," "James," or any other person, 
if known; and to "person" or "persons," if unknown. 
But in the above sentence " it" stands for box, by which 
we see that the section, "it was found empty," is a sec- 
ondary section, holding a conjunctive relation to " box," 
in the first secondary section, to which it is connected 
by the pronoun it. 

" On opening the box," (secondary sec., adj. rel. to "per- 
sons" understood. 

" It was found empty," (second, sec. conj. rel. to " box.") 

Having seen all we desired, it was resolved to return. 

Having seen all (things,) (second, sec. adj. rel. to "per- 
sons" understood. 

( Which) we desired, (second, sec. adj. rel. to "things") 

It was* resolved to return, (second, sec. conj. rel. to 
" having seen.") 

It,f being open, was found empty. 

It was found empty, (second, sec. conj. rel. to " box") 
Being opened, (second, sec. adj. rel. to "it.") 
A section containing an absolute case holds a conjunc- 
tive relation to its primary. Nevertheless the principle 
of the participle will remain the same, since it must 
hold an adjective relation to the noun or pronoun in its 
own section. 

"The general being killed, the army was routed." 
The army was routed, (prim. sec. no rel.) 
The general being killed, (second, sec. eonj. rel. to "was 

" It having ceased to rain, we resolved to return-." 
We resolved to return, (primary sec., no rel.) 
It having ceased to rain, (second, sec. conj. rel. to 1st. 

When the participle is used alone, without an object 
or a preposition, it may be considered merely as an ad- 

* " It" has no antecedent here " was" beiiig impersonal, 
t Here it refers to the agent of the passive verb " was found." 

FORM. 193 

jcctive, and be incorporated into the section which it 

" John, having returned, received the visitors " a pri- 
mary section, no relation. 

All the relations of phrases and sections may be enu- 
merated as follows : 


The primary section has no relation. 

The relative pronoun gives its section an adjective 

The conjunction and personal pronoun give conjunc- 
tive relation. 

The adverb, or adverbial conjunction, generally, gives 
an adverbial relation. . ^ 


Prepositions mve I an ad J ective or ailx - ad j- relation. 
8 S lve ( an adverbial or aux. adv. relation. 

The participle gives an adjective relation to its noun 
in all cases, and to its primary section also, except when 
the preceding noun is absolute, in which case the rela- 
tion to the prim. sec. is conjunctive. 


All sections have two forms, first, Sentensic: 
second, Insentensic. A sentensic section contains a 
nominative and verb, as " John walks/' " John 
shot a bird." 

Hence all simple sentences and all primary sections are 
sentensic, since they must of necessity contain both a 
nominative and verb. 

An insentensic section is one that has no nom- 
inative case ; and, generally, no verb. 

All secondary sections, connected to their primary by 
a conjunction, a relative pronoun, a personal pronoun, or an 
adverb, are sentensic. 

All secondary sections connected to their primary, or 
to other secondary sections, by a preposition, or a parti- 
ciple, are, in all cases, insentensic. 

"John is in the room, and he will remain there." 

John is, primary sec. ; no rel. ; sentensic. 


In the room; second, sec. adv. rel. to "j's," insentensic. 

and he will remain there. Second, sec. ; conj. rd. to 
" is;" sentensic. 

" John, who was expected, has returned." 

John has returned, primary sec. ; no rel.; sentensic. 

who was expected, second, sec.; adj. rel. to ''John;' 1 

" John is in the room ; he has just returned." 
j John is in the room; prim, sec.; no rel.; sentensic. 

he has just returned. Second, sec. ; conj. rel. to "John ;" 

" I shall be satisfied when I receive my due." 
I shall be satisfied, prim. sec. ; no rel. ; sentensic. 
when I receive my due. Second, sec.; adv. rel.; sen- 

" The table stands on the floor." 
The table stands, prim, sec.; no rel.; sentensic. 
on the floor. Second, sec.; adv. rel. to "stands;" insen- 

"Napoleon resolved to make the attempt." 
Napoleon resolved, prim. sec. ; sentensic. 
to make the attempt. Injin. phrase; insentensic. 
"James returned, having accomplished his design." 
James returned, primary sec. ; sentensic. 
Having accomplished his design. Second, sec.; insen- 

Sections are also either positive or negative, in- 
terrogative or affirmative. (See page 106.) 

"John is in the house;" positive, affirmative. 

"Is John in the house?" pos. interrogative. 

"John is not in the house;" negative affirmative* 

"Is not John in the house?" negative interrogative. 

Sometimes a single section contains an interrogation, 
and sometimes it requires a number in succession to 
form the interrogation. "When the latter is the < 
each section should be considered as interrogative, ii 
much as it contributes to the general understanding of 
the question. 

A negative assertion may be affirmed; as, John did not thoot a bird, 
An affirmation is an answer of any kind. 

COURSE. 195 

"Do you think that John will return in a few days?" 
Do you think (prim, sec.; no rel.; sent., interrog.) 
That John will return (second, sec.; conj. rel.; sent., 

inter rog.~) 

In a few days? (second, sec.; adv. rel.; insen. inter.') 
All sentences that ask a question are interrogative, 

and those that reply, affirmative. 
All sentences stating a fact are positive, and all that 

deny the fact, are negative. 


1. Direct. 2. Circumflex. 
The course of a section is direct, when the 
words stand in their natural prose order ; as, 

Law is a rule (of action.) 

Law is a rule, a section of the primary order, direct 

Of action, a secondary section, direct course. 

The course of a section is circumflex, when the sense 
flows back, owing to the words not being arranged in 
their prose order : as, 

Whom 3 ye l ignorantly worship, 
Him 3 declare 2 I 1 unto you. 

Whom ye ignorantly worship, a section, secondary order, 
circumflex course, because the sense commences at the 
word ye, proceeds forward to worship, then flows back 
to whom. 

Him 3 declare* I 1 ; a section, primary order, circumflex 
course. The direct course would be: I 1 declare 2 him. 3 
The words in these two sections are not only circumflex, 
but the sections are so likewise. 

Circumflex. Whom ye ignorantly worship, Him de- 
clare I. 

Direct. I declare Him ye ignorantly worship whom. 
When the words of a single section only are circumflex, 
it does not affect the order of other sections. 

" The night winds sigh, the breakers roar, 

And shrieks the wild seamen." 

The night winds sigh: a section, primary order ; no re- 
lation ; sentensic ; direct course. 


The breakers roar : primary order, no relation ; senten- 
sic ; direct course. 

Jind shrieks the wild seamen : section, secondary order, 
conjunctive relation to "sigh" and "roar;" sentensic, 
circumflex course. 

"When the sections are circumflex, and the words them- 
selves direct, we may take cognizance of the fact by 
calling the first primary section circumflex; or the 
course of the general sentence may be disregarded, and 
each section be called direct. 

" Until you return, I shall remain." 
" I shall remain," {primary section, circumflex course.') 
" until you return," (prim, sec., direct course.) 

Sentences containing a relative in the accusative, are 
always circumflex. " This is the man whom 3 1 1 met 2 on 
my journey." 


-. f Plenary, ~ f Implenary, 
\ Broken. \ Unbroken. 

The plenary state arises from that degree of 
fullness which admits of solution without supply- 
ing words ; as, [ 0, ] John ! give [thou to] me an 
an apple. It is at the ninth hour on the clock. 

The implenary state arises from the elliptical 
omission of any word or words necessary to a so- 
lution of the sentence; as, 

John, give me an apple. 

It is 9 o' clock. 

An elliptical or implcnary section should be considered 
in the same light as if all the words were supplied; thus, 
" He that believes and is baptized shall be saved." 

He shall be saved (1. sec., no rel.; sent., plenary.) 

that believes (2. sec. ; adj. rel. to " he ;" sent., plenary. 

and [THAT] is baptized. (2. sec., ADJ. REL. TO "HE;" sent., IMI-LEXARY.) 

If we had not supplied the word "that" in the hist 
section, we should have supposed it to be connected to 
the former by the conjunction and, and to hold onl}- a 
conjunctive relation to the former section by mem. 
that connection. But when we make the section plenary 

STATE. 197 

by supplying the ellipsis, the true relation becomes ap- 
parent. The conjunctive relation, nevertheless, exists 
in addition to the adjective relation to the antecedent 

A section is broken when a part of a sentence, 
another section or part of a section intervenes be- 
tween its parts ; as, 

Law (in its most comprehensive sense) is a rule. 
And varying schemes (oflife) no more distract the will. 
The unbroken state of a section is the uninterrupted 
continuation of all its parts; as, 

Law is a rule (of action). 

Varying schemes no more distract the laboring will. 

It sometimes happens that the nominative is separated 
a long way from its verb by a great number of interven- 
ing sections. 

" HE, who through vast immensity can pierce, 
See worlds on worlds compose one universe, 
Observe how system into system runs, 
What other planets circle other suns, 
What varied being people every star, 
MAY TE^L why heaven has made us as we are." 

" He may tell," section, primary order ; broken state. 

Sometimes two or more nominatives follow each other 
successively, but this, although it separates the first 
nominative from its verb, does not constitute a broken 
section, since each nominative is but a part of -the gene- 
ral whole. 

" Wisdom, virtue and happiness dwell with the golden 

Wisdom, virtue and happiness dwell, (sec. prim, ord.; 
unbroken state.} 

" Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him." 

Neither poverty nor riches were injurious, (prim, sec., 
unbroken state.) 

But when either of these nominatives is connected 
with an entire phrase or section, the primary section is 


'' When some brisk youth, the tenant of a stall, 
Employs a pen less pointed than his awl." 

"Youth, the tenant, employs," etc., prim, sec., broken 
state; i. e., broken by the phrase "of a stall." "A pen 
less pointed than his awl" is accusative of employs. 

CLASS. 1. Literal. 2. Figurative. 

The literal class is that which expresses the meaning 
according 10 the words (or letters) used ; as, 

The midnight moon serenely smiles. 
A ship sails on the seas. 

A section is figurative when one or more words in it 
convey a different meaning from what the words literally 

The principal figures of speech are PERSONIFI- 


PERSONIFICATION is a figure of speech by which we 
attribute life and action to inanimate objects ; as, The 
midnight moon serenely smiles. 

A SIMILE is a comparison, by which one object is made 
to resemble another; as, He is like a giant; she is as a 
modest lily. 

A METAPHOR is a simile without the sign of compari- 
son (like as, etc.*) He is a giant ! She is a modest lily. 

AN ALLEGORY, PARABLE or FABLE is a figure by which 
speech and intelligence are attributed to animals and 
even inanimate objects; as, 

A hog, beholding the horse of a warrior, rushing into 
battle, says : " Fool, whither dost thou hasten ? Per- 
haps thou mayst die in the fight;" to whom the horse 
replied: "A knife shall take life from thcc, fatted 
amongst mud and filth, but GLORY shall accompany my 

A HYPERBOLE is a figure that represents things much 
better or worse, greater or less than they really are : as, 
" They are swifter than eagles; they were .stronger than 
lions." This exaggeration is often improperly em- 


ployed; as, "Ho told me so more than a thousand 
times." " There were a million people there." 

IRONY is used to express quite the contrary to that 
which our words would import; as, " O, yes; I dare 
say, you are a philosopher, forsooth ; a poet, and an 
unrivaled genius. You will some day be made a 

METONOMY is a figure by which we put the cause for 
the effect, or the effect for the cause; as, " He reads Mil- 
ton," (i. e., Milton's works.) " Gray hairs should be re- 
spected," (i. e., old age.) " The kettle boils," (i. e., the 
water in the kettle,) etc. 

SYNECDOCHE is the putting of a part for the whole, or 
the whole for a part; a definite number for an indefinite, 
etc.; as, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear hath heard," (i. e., 
no person hath seen or heard.) " The waves have borno 
him safely home," (i. e., the ocean.) 

[METONOMY and SYNECDOCHE are very similar; yet 
there is this difference any one thing may be put for 
another by Metonomy, when the resemblance is suffi- 
cient to render the meaning intelligible; as, He keeps a 
good table, (i. e., good fare.) He has a clear head, (i. e., 
understanding.) A ship sails o'er the salt or deep, (i. e., 
the sea.) But Synecdoche only allows part of any one 
thing to be put for whole of that same thing, and vice 
versa. .] 

ANTITHESIS is a figure by which things are contrasted, 
in order to make them appear better or worse, larger or 
smaller, etc.; thus, "I, indeed, baptize with water, but 
one cometh after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am 
unworthy to unloose." 

CLIMAX is the gradual ascension of a figure, step by 
step, as one would climb a ladder, until the hight is 
reached; thus, "For I am persuaded that neither death 
nor life, nor angels nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present nor things to come, nor hight nor depth, 
nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from 
the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." 

APOSTROPHE is an address, generally to some inani- 
mate object or animal; as, "0, grave, where 'is thy 
victory! 0, death, Avhere is thy sting!" 

" O, factious viper! whose envenomed tooth 
Would mangle still the dead, perverting truth." 


[Persons, countries, cities, oceans, skies, etc., are often 
apostrophized by the poets.] 


""Woe unto you lawyers! for ye have taken away the 
key of knowledge" 

" The ground of a certain rich man brought forth 
plentifully: and he thought within himself, "What shall 
I do because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? 
And he said this will I do: I will pull down my barns 
and build gveater; and there will I bestow all my fruits 
and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou 
hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine 
ease, eat, drink, and be merry. But God said unto him, 
Thou fool! this night thy soul shall be required of 

" I have come to send fire on the earth, and what will 
I if it be already kindled?" 

"O, Jerusalem! Jerusalem! which killest prophets, 
and stonest them that are sent unto thee." 

" Sit thou on my right hand till I make thine enemies 
my footstool." 

"1 am the living bread which came down from heaven." 

" Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of 
this world; I am not of this world." 


..1st. A section. 

9 Order (Primary. . A/rv I Direct. 

2. Order, | Secondary . se, {circumflex. 

C Adjective. C ( Plenary. 

3. Relation, ] Adverbial. fi . . II Implenary. 

(Conjunctive. b * *- I (Broken. 

^ (Unbroken. 

f (Sentensic. 17/^7 I Literal. 

(Insentensic. ( Figurative. 

( Affirmative. 

4. Form, 



f Affirmative. 
' \ Interrogative. 



" The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold; 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
When the blue waves roll nightly on deep Galilee." 

" The Assyrian came down:" 

A section; primary order; no relation; sentensic and 
positive affirmative form; direct course; plenary and 
unbroken state; literal class. 

"Like* the wolf:" 

A section ; secondary order ; adverbial relation to 
came ; insentensic and positive affirmative form ; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ; figurative class. 

"On the fold:" 

A section ; secondary order ; adverbial relation to 
came; insentensic and positive affirmative form; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ; figurative class. 

"And his cohorts were gleaming:" 
A section ; secondary order ; conjunctive relation to 
came;\ sentensic and positive affirmative form; direct 
course; plenary and unbroken state; literal class. 

" Witb purple | and (with) gold:" 

Sections; secondary order: adverbial relation to gleam,' 
ing; insentensic ; direct course; implenary and unbroken 
state; literal class. || 

" And the sheen was :" 

A section ; primary order ; no relation ; sentensic and 
positive affirmative form ; direct course ; plenary state, 
broken by " of their spears ;" figurative.^]" Simile. 

" Of their spears :" 

Section; sec. ord.; adj. rel. to sheen; insen.; direct 
course; plenary, unbroken state; literal, class. 

* Like, a preposition. t Continuation of the figure. 

t Or primary order] no rel.; since the noun is expressed. 

| Pos. and neg. distiction may be omitted after the first primary sec. 

There is an appearance of Hyperbole here. 
t The simile commences with this section. 


" Like stars," " on the sea :" 

Sections; sec. ord. ; adv. rel. to was; insen.; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ; figurative class. 

" When the blue waves roll nightly :" 
Section; sec. ord.; adv. rel. to icas; sentensic; direct 
course ; plenary, unbroken state ; literal class. 

" On deep Galilee :" 

A section; sec. ord.; adv. rel. to roll; insen.; dir. co.; 
pi., unb. st.; lit. 

" Adieu, thou hill ! where early joy 

Spread roses o'er my brow; 
"Where Science seeks each loitering boy 

With knowledge to endow. 
Adieu, my youthful friends or foes, 
Partners of former bliss or woes; 

No more through Ida's paths we stray 
Soon must I share the gloomy cell, 
Whose ever-slumbering inmates dwell 

Unconscious of the day." 

" Adieu, thou Hill," 

Sec.; prim, ord.; no rel.; sent., pos. aff. form; direct 
course ; plen., unbroken st. ; figurative class apostrophe. 

" Where early joy spread roses :" 

Sec.; second, ord.; adj. rel. to Hill; sent.; dir. co. ; 
pi., unbr. st. ; figurative personification. 

" O'er my brow :" 

Sec.; second, ord.; adv. to spread; insent.; dir., pi. 
unb. ; fig. personification. 

" Where Science seeks each loitering boy, to endow (h im,)" 
Sec.; second, ord.; adj. rel. to Hill; sent.; dir.; plen. 
unb. ; fig. personification. 

" With knowledge :" 

Sec.; second, ord.; adv. rel. to endow; insen.; dir. 
plen. unb. ; literal. 

"Adieu my youthful friends or foes, partners" 
Sec.; prim, ord.; no rel.; sent. pos. aff.; dir.; plen. 
unb.; literal. 

"Of former bliss or woes :" 

Sec.; second, ord.; adj. rel. to partners; insent.; dir.; 
plen. unb. j literal. 


" No more we stray :" 

Sec. ; prim. ; no rel. ; sent. pos. aff. ; dir. ; pi. bro. ; 

" Through Ida's paths :" 

Sec. second.; adv. rel. to stray; insent. ; circumflex 
course ; pi. unb. ; literal. 

" Soon must I share the gloomy cell :" 
Sec. ; prim. ; no rel. ; sent. pos. aff. ; circ. ; plen. unb. ; 
fig . Metonomy* 

11 Whose ever slumbering inmates dwell, unconscious :" 
Sec. ; prim. ; sent. pos. aff. ; dir. ; pi. unb. j fig. Me- 

" Of the day :" 

Sec, second. ; aux. adj. rel. to unconscious ; insen. ; 
dir. ; pi. unb. ; literal. 

As two young bears in wanton mood, 
Forth issuing from a neighboring wood, 
Came where the industrious bees had stor'd, 
In artful cells, their luscious hoard ; 
O'erjoyed, they seized, with eager haste, 
Luxurious on J the rich repast. 
Alarmed at this, the little crew 
About their ears, vindictive flew. 
The beasts, unable to sustain 
The unequal combat, quit the plain : 
Half-blind with rage and mad with pain, 
Their native shelter they regain ; 
There sit, and now discreeter grown, 
Too late their rashness they bemoan; 
And this by dear experience gain, 
That pleasure's ever bought with pain. 
So,f when the gilded baits of vice 
Are placed before our longing eyes, 
With greedy haste, we snatch our fill, 
And swallow-down the latent ill: 
But when experience opes our eyes, 
Away the fancied pleasure flies. 

* The word cell is used for grave. 
tSee relation of as and so, as given on page 138. 
j Seized-on and sicallow-doien are compound transitive verbs. 
$ The phrases, with rage and vrith pain, have an auxiliary adjectiva 
relation to blind and mad. 


It flies, but oh ! too late we find, 

It leaves a real sting behind (it.) MERRICK. 


[The parallel lines divide the sections: the single lines divide broken 
sections, and separate the intervening phrases.] 

"A change came|| o'er the spirit|| of my dream. || 
The boy was sprung|| to manhood :|| in the wilds|| 
Of fiery climes|| he madei himself*) a home.)] 
And his soul drank their sunbeams :|[ he was girt[| 
With strange and dusky aspects ;|| he was not 
Himself || like what|| he had been ;|| on the sea|| 
And on the shore|| he was a wanderer. || 
There was a mass|| of many images|| 
Crowdedf]] like waves) | upon me,|| but he was 
Apart|| of all :J|| and in the last|| he lay 
Reposing] | from the noontide sultriness, || 
Couched^fH among fallen columns]] in the shade[| 
Of ruined walls|| that had survived the names]) 
Of those]] who reared them.]] By his sleeping side]| 
Stood camels] | grazing, || and some goodly steeds 
Were fastened || near a fountain ;|| and a man 
Clad i in a flowing garb did watch]] the while,**|| 
While many I of his tribe | slumbered around, |[ 
And they were canopied]] by the blue sky 
So cloudless, clear, and purely beautiful, || 
That God alone was to be seen in heaven. "|[ 

" Who shall attempt I with wandering feet | 

The dark, unfathomed, infinite abyss,ft|| 
And through the palpable obscure ft|| find out 
His uncouth way,]] or spread his airy flight 
Upborne] | with indefatigable wings,] | 
Over the vast abrupt || e'er he arrive]) 
The happy isle ?"^ 1 1 

' * For himself. t That crowded. 

J Of, in the sense of from: "from all persons." 

gLast image, (i. e., representation dream vision. 

\ Couched is an adj. and belongs to "he" in the section. "He LAY," 
etc. Or supply the words, "and he was couched," making a new sec. 

** Durinif the while. tt Attempt to explore the dark, etc. 

}: " Obscure," for " obscurity." % Abrupt, in the sense of " abruptness.'' 

\\At the happy isle. 



NOTE. No errors are of more frequent occurrence than those of 
arrangement, by giving the complementary sections a wrong relation 
or position; and this is an evil the more necessary to be considered in 
this work, as all other authors have touched so lightly upon it that 
scholars generally have but a meager idea of the subject. The rela- 
tion of the complement to the subject or predicate is little understood, 
even by professed grammarians, and the complement and section are not 
described in any of the grammars extant- In the following exercises 
the sections which should follow each other are designated by the 
letters. Bring the two as, &'*, c'f, etc., together, and place the inter- 
vening section in its proper place. 

RULE I. Every secondary section must be 
placed near its primary, and, if possible, should 
follow that word in its primary section to which 
it holds a relation ; thus, it is better to say, " All 
things in this world must eventually perish," 
than " All things must eventually perish in this 
world ; " because the section, " in this world" 
holds an adjective relation to the noun things, 
rather than an adverbial relation to perish. 


Noah," for his godliness, "and his family, were the only 
persons preserved from the flood. A great stone that I 
happened to find? after a long search, b by the seashore* 
served for an anchor. And how can brethren' hope to 
partake of their parent's blessing, 'that curse each other. f 
It is your light fantastic fools* who have neither heads 
nor heaa-ts, d of both sexes,\ who, by dressing their bodies 
out of all shape, render themselves ridiculous. Aure- 

Adv. rel. to find: or, if this section has an adj. rel. to search, the 
sentence is correct as it stands. 

t Adj. rel. to brethren. J Adj. rel. to fools. 

$ Adv. rel. to render ; and may stand as it is. 



lian defeated' the Marcomanni, a fierce and terrible na- 
tion of Germany, that had invaded Italy, 'in three several 
engagements* They slew* both him and his son, whom 
he had made his partner in the empire, 'without any op- 
position.^ The senate of Rome ordered that no part 
should be rebuilt of it; it was demolished to the ground, 
so that travelers are unable to say^ where Carthage 
stood, sat this day.% Upon the death of Claudius, the 
young emperor, Nero, pronounced his funeral oration, 
and he h was canonized among the gods h icho scarcely de- 
served the name of man. 

OBS. 1. It must be observed that, in many cases, a 
secondary section is separated from its primary section 
by an intervening secondary section, which has a closer 
union or relation thereto. It has already been shown 
that, in some instances, several secondary sections follow 
one another in succession, each having a relation to the 
same primary ; as, " God, who SPAKE, at sundry times, in 
divers manners in times past, unto the fathers, by the pro- 
phets." Here, each of these sections holds a separate 
adverbial relation to the verb spake. In such cases 
there is no particular order to be observed, as it is 
equally correct io say, " who spake in times past, unto 
the fathers, in divers manners, at sundry times, by 
the prophets," or "who spake by the prophets, in divers 
manners, at sundry times, in times past, unto the fathers." 

Secondary sections, of a conjunctive relation, are some- 
times placed at a great distance from their primary, in- 
asmuch as the intervening sections do not give a false 
construction to the sentence, since they are, generally, 
sections of an adjective or adverbial relation, and as such, 
naturally hold a place nearer their primaiy than sections 
of merely a conjunctive relation. It should be the aim 
of the student, when writing, to express his thoughts 
with all possible perspicuity ; hence, long sentences 

* Adv. rel. to defeated. t Adv. rel. to slew. 

t Adv. rel. to say. j Adj. rel. to he. He, who scarcely, etc. 


should be avoided; for, unless one be gifted with an un- 
usual memory, he will lose the. connection between the 
different members of the sentence, especially if the in- 
tervening sections do not follow in the natural order 
which their relation would indicate; and thus the sense 
becomes obscured, if not totally lost. In all long sen- 
tences, the student should not only observe the proper 
position of every section, but of every word in the sec- 
tion; and great care should, be taken to use pronouns 
and verbs of the same person and number as their ante- 
cedents or subjects.* Nouns in apposition should, if 
possible, be not only of the same case, but of the same 
number, in order that the verb to which they are both 
nominative may not sound harsh, which it always does 
when one is singular and the other plural. Conjunc- 
tions should also connect the same moods and tenses of 
verbs, etc., according to Eule XV, on p. 172. 


Let every one treasure up these lessons of charity and 
benevolence, which never fail to add happiness to the 
bestower ; and honesty and integrity also.f To be mod- 
erate in our views, and proceeding temperately in the 
pursuit of them, is the best way, to insure success. By 
forming themselves on fantastic models, and ready to vie 
with one another in the. reigning follies, the young be- 
gin with being ridiculous, and ending in vice and immor- 
ality. No person could speak stronger on this subject, 
nor behave nobler than our young advocate, for the 
cause of toleration.! But Thomas, one of the twelve, 

* See Rule VIII, page 156, and Rule IX, page 160. 

t This implenary section, commencing with the conjunction and. is 
entirely out of place, unless we use after it a qualifying phrase, in 
contrast to that which precedes. Correct by saying, " Lessons of chnr- 
ity, benevolence, honesty, and integrity, which never fail," etc. The 
sentence may also be corrected in various other ways. 

t Various errors in this sentence. Adjectives are used for adverbs, 
and the sections at the close of the sentence are out of their place. 


called Didymus,* was not with them. Truth and sober- 
ness are the test of honesty. The evidence of his guilt 
were his dogged silence and his defiant attitude. Such 
misdemeanors are a vice which all should avoid. 

OBS. 2. By the improper construction of sentences, 
an ambiguity sometime arises, against which the student 
should carefully guard. Avoid also the repetition of the 
same word in the same or consecutive sentences, unless 
for the sake of emphasis, or contrast. 


You suppose him younger than I.f Belisarius was 
general of all the forces under the Emperor Justinian 
the first, a man of rare valor. + Lisias promised his 
father that lie would never abandon his friends. In- 
temperance is a growing vice, and intemperance should 
be shunned. I visited the community once, and found 
it a very industrious community; in fact I know of no 
community more industrious, or more deserving of our 
high esteem than that community. 

OBS. 3. Tautology, or the repetition of a word or idea 
under a new form of expression, should also be avoided. 


It should ever be your constant study to do good. He 
plunged down\\ into the water. After he sat down*^ he 
rose up and departed. You must return back again soon. 

* Didymus is in apposition to Thomas, and should immediately fol- 
low that word. 

t The ambiguity arises from an ellipsis of the verb after the pro- 
noun, / "younger than lam," or "than I do suppose," etc. 

J Belisarius was the "man of rare valor;" hence this qualifying 
phrase should follow Belisarius "Belisarius, a man of rare," etc. 

? " Lysias said I will never abandon your friends '' or " my 

|| Such tautological expressions are often used, especially in poetry 
they can always be parsed, but arc, nevertheless, contrary to the 
genius of the English language. 

If "To sit down" and " to rise up," may not be considered as very 
improper. Custom has sanctioned the use of the superfluous ad- 


Ho repeated the words again* We descended down 
from the mountain. We found nobody else but him in 
the room. He raised up -'his arm. 

RULE II. Every complete sentence or para- 
grapht must contain a sentensic section. 

[NOTE. There is little possibility of the student's falling into the 
error of constructing sentences composed of insentensic sections only, 
inasmuch as they could not be made to express any definite idea.] 


In the room.J Upon the table.J When I have fin- 
ished my lesson.^ Then he sat down.J Being unable 
to reply. J To die, to sleep no more. 

OBS. 1. The replies to questions are generally insen- 
tensic sections, but in such cases the primary and sen- 
tensic sections to which they relate are implied, having 
been expressed in the question. 


[Supply the ellipses in the secondary sections.] 
Where did you lay the book? On the table ?|| Whom 
did you see? Your uncle. What are you studying 
now ? Grammar, arithmetic, and geography. 

RULE III. A negative sentence or section 
should employ but one word of negation. 


I have looked for the book, and I can't find it nowhere. 
There wasn't /lobody present when I entered. It was 

*The prefix " re" signifies again ; "de" signifies down; ascend should 
not be used with tip ; u pre " signifies before. 

t A paragraph is a collection of sentences, describing any one par- 
ticular subject, or branch of a subject. A paragraph should comprise 
all the descriptions of a subject that are closely allied, or that have, as 
it were, a tendency to one and the same end. 

t Supply any sentensic section agreeable to the general sense ; as, 
" John is in the room," etc. 

(jThis is not an insentensic section; as the omission of either the 
noun or verb does not constitute nn insen. sec. 

j] A secondary section, adverbial relation to lay. 


so dark I couldn't see nothing at all. Won't nobody 
come to my assistance? He could not solve the riddle 
by no means, lie would n r t never return. 

OBS. 1. There are many words, not absolutely nega- 
tive, but which denote possibility or impossibility, prob- 
ability or improbability, that require no other negative. 


I do not think the water is hardly warm enough yet.* 
He can not, in strict justice, be scarcely called a man of 
integrity. There were not but five men present.f The 
poor man was not scarcely able to move. 

OBS. 2. "When not signifies neither, we should use nor 
after it ; thus, " It is not very cold, nor very warm." 
Eut when either is implied after not, we should make use 
of or instead of nor; thus, "He could not be induced 
(either) to remain where he was or (not nor) to go 


He told me he could not go to-day or to-morrow. I 
could not find him in this room or that. I was unable 
to find him in this room nor that. I will not tell you, 
or give you the slightest clue to the desired information. 
He assured me he would not be able to visit my aunt 
nor uncle during vacation. He did not call my attention 
to the fact that we were falling nor sliding down into 
the pit. . She was never || known to smile from that 
moment, or to mingle again in society. He is not so 
eminent or so much esteemed as he thinks himself. She 
was seldom || found at home, or was she ever known to 
keep her house in order. 

* This form of expression is very common, and yet it is obviously 
incorrect, for the use of the negative denies the possibility of the fact, 
when the intention is to establish that possibility or probability. 

t "Not but" forms nn affirmation; thus, "He could not bnt see it" 
i. ., "He could not fail to see it," or, "He certainly must have seen it." 
A strong affirmation. 

| We should always endeavor to express ourselves in plain and un- 
mistakable language. In such cases as the above, the vrord either 
should be expressed, not implied. 

$ The word either is understood before in. 

\ Other negatives beside not follow the rule. 


OBS. 3. There are various forms of expression in which 
we are apt unconsciously to employ double negatives, or 
a negative and some word of possibility, as scarcely, seldom, 
etc.; which modes of speech it should be the constant 
study of the student to avoid, using his judgment and 
taste in determining whether the negative form should 
be used or not. 


He could scarcely read nor write. There was little of 
the scholar nor gentleman about him. I have not been 
able to find the word in Virgil or Caesar.* There is 
nothing genial or nothing attractive in the place.f There 
was no more bread or provision. There was nothing 
more that we could do nor say to relieve the unfortunate 


RULE IV. Avoid the too frequent use of the 

* It seems very often a matter of indifference whether we employ 
the negative or positive conjunction. If we supply either, and retain 
the first negative, we should use or; "either in Virgil or Coesar." But 
if we use neither in the place of the first negative, we should use nor; 
"neither in Virgil nor Caesar." We may say, "She was seldom found 
at home, or was she ever known to keep," etc.; or we may say, " She 
was seldom found at home, nor," etc. The meaning of the expression 
will be the same in either case. 

t It is well to observe that or generally indicates the possibility or 
probability of the truth of the assertion contained in one of the sec- 
tions which it connects; thus, the above sentence would seem to indi- 
cate that there was nothing genial, OR there was nothing attractive; i. <?., if 
there was nothing genial, still there might have existed something 
attractive, and vice versa; but this is not the probable intention of the 
sentence: hence, it would be better to say, "There was nothing geninl 
nor attractive;' 1 or, " there was neither any thing genial nor attractive;" 
or, " there was nothing that was either genial or attractive." Either 
of these forms of expression would immediately convey the idea that 
nrilher of these attributes existed at the place, though the preference 
should be given to the first two. 

t When the first negative occurs in one section, and a second nega- 
tive is used in the following section, the expression is wr<> ig; for the 
word either is then understood, and should be followed by or; as, 
'there was nothing that was either genial or attractive;'' "there was 
nothing more that we could do or say." " He assured me that lie 
would be unable to visit either my uncle or aunt during the vacation." 


circumflex course, particularly in narrative, descrip- 
tive, or simple discourse. . 


Him I hare just sent to the grocery for provisions, and 
her I have sent into the country. Them he endeavored 
to conciliate, by large reicards promising to them, and 
by granting that they their own fields might cultivate. 
A fresh wind arising, my back I turned upon the desolate 
beach, and springing into my bark, the unhappy island I 
left forever. 

OBS. 1. Nevertheless, in poetry and in animated dis- 
course, the circumflex course is nsed with much beauty 
of effect. There are also many forms of expression, 
even in the most common-place language, in which we 
should always use the circumflex course ; such as. when 
the relative pronoun is employed in the accusative, or 
when, in reply to a question, the accusative is first men- 
tioned for the sake of emphasis, etc., etc. 


This is the very man I met whom at Paris. This is 
the field I have sold which to your father. "Where is our 
dog? I have just killed the dog* .And how about your 
obligations? I have cancelled my obligations.^ Several 
men there were who entered the room with us.J 

RULE V. An implenary section is allowable 
when it requires the repetition of a word to make 
it plenary, or when the sense is not obscured by 
the ellipsis. 


By presumption and by vanity we provoke enmity and 
ice incur contempt. They must be punished and they shall 

* It is of little consequence whether we use the direct coarse or the 
circumflex in this case. 

t It will fire greater force to the reply to place the object before 
the verb. "Jfy obligation* I hare cancelled." 

t Impersonal Yerbs always require the principal nominative after 
them. I See Rule XLX, page 179. 


be punished. We succeeded, but they did not succeed. 
These counsels were the dictates of virtue and the dic- 
tates of true honor. Genuine virtue supposes our benevo- 
lence to be strengthened and to be confirmed by principle. 

OBS. 1. But when an omission of any word or words 
would obscure the sense or render the expression inele- 
gant, we should make the section plenary. 


That is a property most men have or may attain.* 
Then stood there up one in the council. a.Pha: 
named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, had in reputation 
among all the people, and commanded to put the ap; 
forth a little space. Neither has he nor any other per- 
sons suspected this deceit.f They now smiled at that 
which they were alarmed before.^ There is nothing we 
are so much deficient in as knowledge of oursei 

RULE YI. Whenever figurative expressions are 
employed, care should be taken to introduce them 
at the proper time and in an appropriate manner : 
all the parts of a figure should accord, and in no 
case should we introduce a figure, and immedi- 
ately abandon it for the literal expression; thus, 
it would be improper to say, " The Leviathan bat- 
tled long against the waves, and eventually sailed 
safely into port," because we first introduce a 
figure by representing the vessel as a combatant 
warring against the waves, and then dropping the 
figure, we represent the vessel in the light of any 
other boat, sailing into port. We should say. 
" The Leviathan battled long (or a long time) 

* Attain is an intransitive verb, and requires no object. We should 
ay, " a property most men have, or to trhich they may attain." 

t ' Nor have any other persons ;" verbs must agree irith their nomi- 
natives, etc. 

t " At that about which," etc.. as alarmed is intransitive and can not 
govern an object. 


against the waves, but eventually conquered and 
marched into (or entered] the port in safety and 


" And on his knees, 

That shook like tempest-stricken mountain trees, 

His heavy head descended sad and low 

Like a high city, smitten by the blow 

Which secret earthquake strikes, and toppling, falls 

With all its arches, towers and cathedrals 

In swift and unconjectured overthrow.* 

" To take up arms against a sea of troubles."f 

" As glorious 

As is a messenger from heaven, 
Unto the white, upturned, wond'ring eyes 
Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him, 
When he bestrides the lazy pacing clouds, 
And sails upon the bosom of the air." . 

RULE VII. In using hyperboles, care" should 
be taken not to introduce improbable exaggera- 
tion ; nor to employ them in simple or common 


He moves slower than a snail. We rode quicker than 
lightning. His muscles were harder than a rock, more 
vigorous than steel, and more powerful than an engine. 

In all the storm of grief, yet beautiful ! 

Pouring forth tears at such a lavish rate, 

That, was the world on fire, they might have drowned 

The wrath of heaven and quenched the mighty ruin." I 

* This figure is badly introduced. We can not. conceive any resem- 
blance between a man's "descending head " and the " swift and uncon- 
jectured overthrow " of some high city, with all its towers, arches, and 
cathedrals, by a secret earthquake. 

t This is called mixed metaphor, in which two metaphors are made 
to meet on one subject. 

J To drown the wrath of heaven or to quench a mighty ruin would 
require a greater effort than is possessed, we fear, by any modern poet. 


RULE VIII. Care should be taken in construct- 
ing a climax to preserve the natural order of gra- 
dation, placing the more insignificant ideas first, 
and closing with the grander and higher concep- 

The following, from Milton's Paradise Lost, is a fine example of the 
construction of a climax: 

Now glowed the firmament 

"With living sapphires : Hesperus, that led 
The starry host, rode brightest, till the moon, 
Rising in clouded majesty, at length, 
Apparent queen, un vailed her peerless light, 
And, o'er the dark, her silver mantle threw." 

First, the stars (sapphires) are seen shedding an equal light; then 
Hesperus (the evening star) "rode brightest," and held brief sway; 
"till the moon, rising in clouded majesty," appeared, queen of the 
night, " unvailed her peerless light, and o'er the dark her silver man- 
tle threw." This is one of the prettiest figures in the language; and, 
besides being a climax, is a metaphor, in which the stars represent 
the people or commonality. Hesperus then appears as a ruler, like a 
duke or governor; while the moon is made to represent the queen, 
majestic ruler over all. 

SENTENCE : " George studies his lesson." 

Relation; GEORGE studies. 

2. GEORGE is a noun, name of a person; 
proper, an appropriated name; 
masculine gender, denotes a male; 
third person spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one; 
nominative case to the verb studies. 

(Rule 2.) 


PROSODY, from the Greek rfp6$, about, -find. <ify, songs, or 
poetry, establishes laws which govern the quality, length, 
accent, and emphasis of poetical lines ; it also embraces 
the rules for punctuation. 


POETRY or YERSE is the arrangement of words into a 
regular succession of short and long, or of accented or 
unaccented syllables, like the measured beat of a clock, 
or the tread of disciplined troops. 

This resemblance to the motion of a person in walking, has given 
to syllables when they form poetical lines, the name of feet. 

Feet are either of tiro or three syllables : there are 
eight kinds of feet, four of two syllables, and four of 
three, as follows: 

Dissyllable. Trissyllable. 

1. A Trochee, - - 5. A Dactyl, 

2. An Iambus, 6. An Amphibrach, 

3. A Spondee, - - 7. An Anapaest, 

4. A Pyrrhic, - - 8. A Tribrach, 

The dash ( - ) indicates the long or accented syllables, 
and the breve ( - ) the short, or unaccented. 

A TROCHEE is composed of words containing syllables 
accented on the first, and every alternate sj'llable there- 
after, as, grateful, tuneful, malediction, veneration, etc. 

AN IAMBIC consists of words of two, four, or six syl- 
lables, in which the accent falls on the second, fourth, 
sixth, etc., as, account, restrain, reverberate, disinterested- 
ness, etc. 

A SPONDEE contains a succession of two long syllables, 
as, vain, hope, gdinsdy, etc. 

A PYRRHIC contains two short syllables, as, ever, 
wither' etc. 

A DACTYL contains a long and two short syllables, as, 
^oi;ernment, idleness, etc. 


AN AMPHIBRACH has first a short, then a long, then 
another short syllable, as, domestic, cosmetic, etc. 

AN ANAPAESTIC foot contains three syllables, the two 
first of which are short, or unaccented, and the last ac- 
cented or long, as, ovvraice, understood, overhead, In the 
room, by restraint, on command, etc. 

A TRIBRACH has a succession of three short syllables, 
(generally preceded by a long syllable,) as, (com)-fort- 
able, (disproportionately, ( considerately, etc. 

Four of the above, viz. : Trochee, Iambus, Dactyl, and 
Anapaest, are called primary, because whole compositions 
can be written in them without introducing other feet. 
The others are called secondary, being used occasionally 
to vary the monotony of regular composition. 




Sink to 



cease; *-^* | On a 

peace. ^* By a 


High a | bove thS | sun, ^* Task a | gain r5 | suming, j 

See his | chariot | run. ^* Midnight j oil con | suming, 

Lovely, | lasting | peace of | mind, -^* | 
Sweet de | light of | human | kind. ^* 


N5w the 
And th5 
Now the 

Through the | seams the | waters | pouring 

fearful J lightning | flashes, -| 
dreadful | thunder's | roaring; 
breaking | timber | crashes | 

On a | mountain, 
Lay a | shepherd 

stretched be | neath a | hoary | willow, | 
swain and | gazed up | on the | billow. | 

On a | distant I prairie 

Where the | heather | wfld^ | 
In Its | quiet | beauty | 
LIvedf | andt | smiled. | 

* The slur indicates the absence of a syllable. 

t It is frequently the case that one long syllable, like a prolonged 
note in music, occupies the space of a long and short one also. In 
the above we find a succession of three long syllables, the first two of 



Summer's | breath is | lightly | falling | 

On the | silent j vriiters | blue, *-* | 
And the | moonbeams I bright are | sporting | 
With the | drops of [ glitt'ring * | dew.^ | 

We passed | the hours, | 
In sha | dy bow'rs.t | 


And near | the moun- | tain, 

There gushed J a foun- | tain. 


Isles of I the south, | awake 1 | 

The song | of tri- | umph sing, | 
Let mount | and hill | and Tale j 
With hal ] lelu | jas ring. 

Thy pres | ence, ev \ erlast | ing God, | 
"Wide o'er | all na | ture spreads | abroad. | 

ThSre was | a sound | of rev I elry | by night, 
And Bel | gium's cap | Ital J had gath | ered there, | etc. 

"When the last line of a couplet is prolonged to twelve 
syllables, it is called Alexandrine verse. 

While thronged | the cit | izens | with ter ] ror dumb, | 
Or whisp J 'ring with | white lips, | 'The foe, | they come! | 
they come !'' | 

Many Iambic verses terminate in a short, or unac- 
cented syllable. 

'Twas now | the hour | wh5n night | had driv | en, 
Her car | half round | yon sa | ble heav | en. 
Christiansf | have burn'd | each oth | er, quite [ persua I ded 
That all | th' apos | ties would | have done | us they | did. 

which may be regarded either as a single Spondee foot, or as two Tro- 
chees, the second syllable of each being represented by the prolonga- 
tion of the first. 

* Two syllables are frequently contracted into one. by the elision of 
a vowel, when the second forms a Pyrrhic or Tribrach. 

fit is highly improper to introduce a word in which the accent nat- 
urally falls on the first syllable, while the nature of the verse requires 
it on the second: this, at once, changes the metrical measurement, into 
prose, and yet the most distinguished poets frequently fall into this 


The day | is past | and gone, | (three feet.) 
The eve | ning shades I appear, | (three feet. 
0, may | we all | remem | ber well, ] (four feet.) 
The night ] of death | draws near. | (three feet.) 

C5me ho [ ly spir | it heav | 'nly dove | (four feet.) 
With all | thy quick | ning pow'rs, | (three feet.) 

Kindle* | a flame | of sa | cred love, | 
In this | cold heart | of ours. | 

Verses like the above, containing lines of four and 
three feet, alternately, were formerly written in two lines 
of seven feet each. 



On the beach 
'Neath the ev 

by the sea, | 
ergreen tree. | 

O, ye woods, | spread your branch | es apace, | 

To your deep | est recess | es I fly; | 
I would hide | with the beasts | of the chase, | 

I would van | ish from ev J ery eye. | 


At the close [ of the day, | when the ham | let is still, | 
Andt mor | tals the sweets | of fSrget | fulness | prove, 
When nought | but the tor | rent is heard | on the hill, 
And nought | but the night | Ingale's song | in the grove. | 

Some lines take an additional short syllable. 

At the head | of thS dan | cers, 
Stood the val | oroiis Ian | cers. 

But in such cases the second, and every succeeding 
alternate line generally lacks a short syllable. 

"Tis the voice | of the slug | gard 
I heard | him complain | 

* It is highly improper to introduce a word in which the accent 
naturally falls on the first syllable, while the nature of the verse re- 
quires it on the second: this, at once changes the metrical measure- 
ment into prose, and yet the most distinguished poets frequently fall 
into this error. 

t The second short syllable is wanting. See Rule at top of next page. 

t This syllable, in reality, constitutes the first short syllable in the 
next foot. If the verse were written in two lines instead of four these 
syllables would occupy their proper places. 


You have waked | me too soon, | (/) 
I must slum | ber again, f 

Sometimes a syllable is omitted from the first foot of 
each line. 

Ye shep | herds, so cheer | ful and gay, [ 
Whose flocks j ever care | lessly roam, j 

And mem' | ry still hoards | 

As her rich | est of treas | ures,* 

Some few | blissful mo | menls, 
Some soul | thrilling pleas | ures. 



Take her up [ tenderly, j 
Fashioned so | slenderly, [ 

The last measure in Dactylic verse is not always full, 
but generally ends on the accented syllable. 

0, the deep | truth that looks | 

From those dark | eyes,t ^ ^ | 
Soul-lit with | radiance, | 

Caught from the | skies f * ' ^-. [ 

Sometimes an unaccented syllable opens or closes a 

Robed like an ] abbess, - 

TheJ | snowy earth | lies,f ^ ^- | 

While the red | sundown *~^ 

Fadesj | out 5f the | skies.f ^ ^ \ 

Dactyl verse sometimes glides imperceptibly into ana- 
paestic measure. 

*Thia syllable, in reality, constitutes the first short syllable in the 
next foot. See note bottom of page 219. 

t The two other syllables that compose the foot are wanting, and if 
the poetry be set to music the absence of these syllables must be de- 
noted by appropriate rests ; or the accented syllable must be prolonged 
to the full value of the foot or measure. 

J If this word had been placed at the conclusion of the preceding 
line, (where the measure requires it, though the sense does not,) we 
should have a pure Dactyl verse, thus : 

Robed like an | iibbSss, th5 

Snowy earth | lies - ^-* 
While the red | sundown fades 

Out of the I skies ~ <- 


Whirling and | gliding, like | summer clouds, [ fleet,* 
They flash | the white light | nlng from gilt | terlng feet; I 
The streams | hang congealed | on the face | of the falls, f 
Like mutef horns | of bright sil | ver hung ov | er dark walls. | 

The first line is sometimes in Dactyl, and each subse- 
quent line in Anapaest, thus: 

Nigh to a | grave that was | newly:}: | made ^ ^ | |J 
Leaned a sex | ton old {{ | on his earth | worn spade] | 
His work | was done.? [ and he paused | to wait || | 
The fun^[ | eral train | through the 6 | pen gate.|| | 

It is very improper to bring unimportant words into 
the unaccented parts of a measure : this is similar to the 
introduction of words where the accent will fall on the 
unaccented syllables. This is called impossible accent, 
and is liable to occur in all kinds of verse. The follow- 
ing extracts are erroneous : 

"Of every tree that in the garden grows 
Thou mayst | freely | eat; but | of the \ tree** 
That knowledge hath of good and ill, eat not." 

* See note (f) on page 220. 

tlf these words had been placed at the end of the preceding line, 
the verse would have been Dactyl. It is this running over of words 
from one line to another that causes the change from Dactyl to Ana- 
paest. The above may be changed to Dactyl, thus : 

Whirling and | gliding like | summer clouds | fleet, see they | 

Flash the white | lightning from | glittering feet, | and the | 

Streams hang con I gealed on the | face of the I falls like mute | 

Horns of bright | silver hung | over dark | walls, ^ -~-. \ 
This, of course, destroys the rhyme, and closes the linc% with unim- 
portant words, which is highly improper. 

J This is a Trochee foot, but when set to music it must be made to 
fill the same measure as a Dactyl. 

These two words belong to the last measure in the preceding line, 
and are so treated in the air to which they are sung, making the word 
" sexton" the first in a new Dactylic foot. 

|| These are Iambic feet, but fall into Dactylic divisions in the air. 

f This foot may be considered a Dactyl, commencing with an unac- 
cented syllable, or as an Anapaest, having a syllable retrenched. The 
above verse, when set to music, is divided thus : 

Nigh to a | grave that was | newly | made, Leaned a | 
Sexton | old on his | earth worn | spade, His | 
Work was | done and he I paused to | wait The | 
Funeral | train through the I open | gate. | 

Making each line wholly composed of Dactyls or Trochees; though 
each Trochee measure has the full value of a Dactylic foot. 

^This line may be properly accented by making two syllables of 
the word Mayst," thus: 

Thou may | est free | ly eat; | but of | the tree | 


-- "But the unfaithful priest, what tongue enough shall exe- 
crate ?" Pollok. 

-- " Ygt to | say truth, | too late 
I thus contest." 

~ "0, thought, 
Horrid \ if true !" - 

"All of | me then, shall die: let this appear." Milton. 

"Age thould | fly concourse, cover in retreat 
Defects of judgment and the will subdue." 

"Puff'd off | by the \ first blast | and lost | forev | er." 

"Mix'd with \ obrfw | rate pride and steadfast hate." 


" AngeZ* | and mm [ isters | of grace | defend | us, | 
"Thou hast | but power | over \ his mor | tal bo | dy." 



No verse can be composed entirely of Spondee, Pyrrhic, 
Amphibrach, or Tribrach feet, but an}-, or all of these 
may be introduced in other measures, to prevent monot- 
ony. Verses may also be composed of a mixture of 
Trochee, Iambic, Dactyl, and Anapffist, some examples 
of which are subjoined the figures designate the various 
feet, thus, 1 Trochee, 2 Iambus, 5 Dactyl, 7 Anapaest, etc., 
according to the figured arrangement on page 216. 

Not a drum' | was heard,* | nor a fun"' | ral note, 2 | 
As his corse? | to the ram? | part we hur? | ried* 

Nota % 861? | dier discharged? | his fare^ | well shot* 
er the grave 7 | where our he? | ro we bur? | ried.* 

God of the 5 | fair and 1 | op&n 1 | sky ^> | 

How | glorious 5 | ly a 1 | bove us 1 I springs ^i j 

The | tented' | dome of | heavenly* | blue, 7 | 
Suspen^ | ded In2 | the rain* | bow's rings. 2 | 

Miike me no5 | gaudy 1 I chaplet : 3 | weave it of 5 | simple 1 | flowers, 3 | 
Si'f-k them in* | lowly" | vallies, 3 | after the 5 | gentle* | showers ;3 
Bring m6 no* | dark-eyed 1 | roses, 3 | gay in the' | sunshine 1 | glowing. 3 1 
Bring me the 5 | pal'e moss' | rose bud, 3 | beneath the | fresh leaves' | 
| growing. 3 | 

I say,2 | methinks,* | that Phi^ [ 15-gen 2 | itiven6ss s | 
Might meet 2 | from men" | a lit* | tie more 2 | forgive 2 | nets. 

* Hurried and buried, and all similar terminations, should be con- 
tracted to the space or value of a single syllable. This verse would be 
purely Anapaestic throughout, if we give to each measure its true value. 



RULE I. Commence every line with a capital letter. 

RULE II. Having established a measure, continue the 
same throughout ; though, as has been already seen, 
Dactylic verse may sometimes run into Anapaest, or 
Trochee into Iambic, and vice versa. 

RULE III. Corresponding lines should be of an even 
length ; i. e., should be composed of an even number of 
feet. In blank verse, all the lines should be even in 
length.* In all other poetical compositions, those lines 
which rhyme should generally be even.j" 

RULE IV. It is improper to introduce an Alexandrine 
into the middle of a stanza ; and, in general, it is wrong 
to introduce a line containing an additional foot, into 
any verse, unless the accompanying verses have lines 

RULE Y. Avoid the use of Spondee, Pyrrhic, Amphi- 
brach and Tribrach feet, particularly in pieces intended 
for music. 

RULE VI. Do not close a line in Iambic (or Trochee) 
with a short syllable, nor a line in Anapaest (or Dactyl) 
with two short syllables, and commence the following 
line also with a short syllable, for this would make, in 
the former case, a Pyrrhic, and, in the latter, a Tribrach. 


The principal divisions of a sentence, as considered 
by rhetoricians, are the Comma, Semicolon, Colon and 

The Period is the whole sentence, complete in itself, 
wanting nothing to make full and perfect sense, and not 
connected in any way with a subsequent sentence. 

* If a paragraph, in blank verse, breaks off with a short line, the 
line that follows should commence where the other ends; thus: 

Judge. Therefore lay bare your bosom. 

Shylock. Ay, his breast: 

So says the bond; does it not, noble judge? SHAKSPEARE. 

t There are some exceptions to this, particularly in Alexandrine 
verse, and in stanzas where the liuea are nearly all of irregular 


The Colon is a secondary sentence, containing some- 
thing explanatory to that which precedes, and which is 
already complete in grammatical construction. The 
Colon may sometimes contain a personal pronoun, the 
antecedent to which is in the preceding sentence. 

The Semicolon contains that part of a sentence which 
commences with a conjunction or personal pronoun; and 
is a minor division of a sentence, in which the gram- 
matical construction is not fully complete. 

The Comma includes the principal secondary sections, 
which comprise the subdivision of the sentence. 

Grammarians have followed this division of the rheto- 
ricians, and have appropriated to each of these divisions 
its mark or point. 


RULE I. Use a Comma to separate the principal sec- 
tions of a sentence. 

Example. By skill and resolution, by caution and circumspection, 
by foresight and by penetration, I brought the enterprize to a fortu- 
nate conclusion. 

RULE II. A nominative should never be separated 
from the verb to which it belongs by a comma, unless a 
secondary section intervenes, and breaks the connection. 

Examples. God is love. Heaven hides the book of fate. HEAVEN, 
from all creatures, HIDES the book of fate. 

RULE III. When, however, several nominatives fol- 
low in succession, or are used in apposition, they should 
be separated from each other, but not from the verb, by 
commas ; thus : 

" Self-conceit, presumption, and obstinacy blast the prospect of many 
a youth." 

" Discomposed thoughts, agitated passions, and a ruffled temper 
poison every pleasure of life." 

[NOTE. The use of the comma, in this case, is to represent, the 
omission of the verb; thus, "Birds, bats, and beetles fly," t. e., "Birds 
(fly), bats (fly), and beetles fly." "Discomposed thoughts (poison, 
etc.,) agitated passions (poison, etc.,) and a ruffled temper poison," 



RULE IV. When several words, all being the same 
part of speech, and each holding, separately, a relation 


to the same word, follow one another in succession, they 
should be separated from each other (but not from the word 
to which they belong} by commas.* 

Examples. " To live soberly, righteously, and piously, comprehends 
**the whole of our duty." 

" Man fearing, serving, knowing and loving his Creator." 

" Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind." 

" The sun, earth's sun, and moon and stars had ceased 

To number seasons, days, and months, and years." 

" When first on this delightful land he spreads 

His orient beams on herb, tree, fruit, and flower." 

" To relieve the indigent, to comfort the afflicted, to protect the inno- 
cent, are noble employments." 

" Plain, honest truth requires no coloring." 

"A good, wise, and just king will endeavor to redress the griev- 
ances, wrongs, and troubles of his people." 

RULE Y. "When a secondary section of an adjective 
relation immediately follows the noun to which it be- 
longs, it is considered as part of the logical subject, and 
should not be separated from it, as this would virtually 
separate the noun from its verb.f 

Example. " The great end of a good education is to form a reason- 
able man." 

RULE VI. When a section of an adverbial relation 
immediately follows the verb to which it belongs, no 
point is required ; as, 

" With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." 

RULE VII. But when a section, not having an adjec- 
tive relation, follows a noun, or when any other than an 
adverbial section follows a verb, it should be separated 
from the main section by commas before and after it. 
And, in general, when a secondary section is out of its 
place, producing a broken section or a circumflex course, 
that section should be separated from the others by 

Examples. " Epicurus, we are told, left behind him three hundred 
volumes of his works." 

* Because each Comma is used to denote the ellipsis of the verb, 
noun, pronoun, preposition, etc., to which the word belongs, as in the 
previous Rule; thus, "A true, (man) honest, (man) and sober man will 
try at all times to fulfill his duty, (to- fulfil) his obligations, and (to 
fulfill) his promises." 

t The relative pronoun and participle form exceptions, which will 
be treated of in separate rules. 


" She let concealment, like a worm f ' th' bud, 

Feed on her damask cheek." 
" In arts, long since, has Britain been renown'd; 
In arms, high honored, and in letters, crown'd." 

" Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you," (circumflex 

RULE VIII. When two or more secondary adjective 
sections follow a noun, or when two or more secondary 
adverbial sections follow a verb, they should be separated 
from each other by commas, unless connected by a con- 

Examples. " His hopes for saving his credit, for redeeming his 
character, for obtaining redress, were blasted." 

" The man of virtue and of honor will be respected and esteemed." 
" The Christian religion is full of beauty, of purity and love." 
" He was sunk deep in sin, degradation and crime."* 
" He paced over the floor, in silence." t 

RULE IX. "When conjunctions connect words only, no 
point is required between them. 

Examples. "Truth is fair and artless." "We must be wise or 

RULE X. "When the conjunction connects sections, it 
should be preceded by a comma. 

Examples. "Romances may be said to be miserable rhapsodies, or$ 
dangerous incentives to evil." 

" Virtue is not rest, but action." J 

"Some people are impolite, because they do not know the world." 

"A man of sense soon perceives, whether his company be acceptable 
or not.' 1 

" Virtue is so amiable, that even the vicious admire it." 

RULE XI. The comma frequently indicates the ellipses 
of a verb or noun.|| 

Examples. " The aim of orators is victory ; of historians, truth ; 
of poets, admiration." 

" He lives at the corner of Mnin,^[ and Center st." 

* This rule also applies to secondary adjective sections. 

t But we may omit the comma when each secondary section has a 
relation to that word which immediately precedes it, thus: "He was 
famed for the observance of small things in his intercourse with 

t The principal part of the section is elliptical, having been already 

The comma may be frequently omitted before whether, if, that, and 
some other conjunctions, which seem to bind the sense too closely to 
ail in it a pause. 

H See Rule III and IV. f That is, "Main street. 


EULE XII%-"When a secondary section, commencing 
with a relative pronoun or a participle, intervenes be- 
tween the nominative and verb (thus making a broken 
section), it must be included in commas. 

" A man, who is of a detracting and malicious spirit, Trill miscon- 
strue the most innocent words."* 

" His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail to render 
him conspicuous." 

" What can be said of those, who, intoxicated with pleasures, become 
giddy aad insolent ? " 

RULE XIII. "When the relative immediately follows 
its antecedent, and docs not intervene in a broken sec- 
tion, no comma is required. 

Examples. "This was the man who betrayed him." "You have 
brought me every thing that I can wish." 

HULE XIY. !N"ouns, verbs, adjectives, etc., joined in 
pairs by a conjunction, are separated in pairs by commas. 

Examples. "Interest and ambition, honor and shame, friendship 
and enmity, gratitude and revenge, t are the prime movers of all pub- 
lic transactions." 

" Vicissitudes J of good and evil, of trials and consolations, t fill up 
the life of man." 

" Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and con- 

"Whether he moves or stands, speaks or holds his peace, eats or 
drinks, laughs or weeps, sleeps or wakes, he is watched with admi- 

RULE XV. Nouns in apposition, that denote the name 
of but one person, should not be separated by a comma. 
Examples. " The emperor Antonius wrote an excellent book." 
"John Quincy Adams was the President." 

RULE XVI. The case independent should, generally, 
be separated from the section by a comma. 

Examples. " My son, give me thy heart." 

" I am obliged to you, my friends, || for your many favors." 

, RULE XVII. The absolute case, together with the 
section in which it occurs, should be marked by the 

* See examples under Rule VII. 

t See Rule II. The nominative must not be separated from its verb. 
J See Rule V, and VIII. $ See Rule I, and XLV. 

I See Rule I, and also page 184. The clause containing the case in- 
dependent forms a separate section. 


Examples. " The general being killed, the army wj* routed." "His 
father dying, he succeeded to the estate." " At length, their ministry 
performed, their race well run, they left the world in peace." 

" This is the true version of the affair, Mr. Williamson to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

EULE XVIII. When the infinitive immediately fol- 
lows the word to which it holds a relation, no point 
should be used ; but if a clause or section intervenes, the 
infinitive should be preceded by a comma. 

Example. " He was seen to enter the house." 

EULE XIX. When a quotation, or other phrase, sec- 
tion, clause or sentence is the object (accusative) of a 
verb, such clause, section, etc., should be separated from, 
the verb by a comma. 

" God said, Let there be light." 

" Xo, no,'' replied the doctor. 

" The wages of sin is death," was the subject of his discourse.! 

EULE XX. When two prepositions, separated by a 
clause or section, govern the same noun or pronoun, a 
comma should be placed after the first. 

Examples. " Men are often found, not only in union with, but in op- 
position to the views and conduct of one another." 

EULE XXI. Words that stand in opposition to, or 
contrast with one another, should be distinguished by 
the insertion of commas. 

Examples. " Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull ; 

Strong, without rage ; without o'erflowing, full." % 
"Her strength, an idiot's boast; her wisdom, blind; 
Her gain, eternal loss ; her hope, a dream." \ 

EULE XXII. Compound adverbs, adverbial phrases, 
and the words nay, so, hence, again, first, secondly, form- 
erly, now, lastly, etc., should be separated from the section, 
in which they occur, by commas. 

Examples. "Here, all is bustle and tumult; there, all is peace and 

* Notwithstanding is a participle compounded of not, vith and standing. 
Williamson, by metonomy for Williamson's account or relation, is ab- 

t The rule also applies when the section or clause is nominative. 

j These are all implenary sections, and may be considered as 
pointed, according to Rule I, and X. \ See llule XI. 


" I proceed, secondly, to state that modesty is one of the chief orna- 
ments of youth." 

"Finally, in short, in your most secret actions, imagine you have all 
the world for witnesses." 

' It is, nevertheless, only from the actions of men that the public can 
judge of their probity." 

" He is obstinate, nay, willful, if he persists." 

" Hence it is,* we can not discover the error." 

RULE XXIII. "When, however, one of these adverbs 
heads a clause, and does not intervene in a broken sec- 
tion, or interrupt the natural relation of a noun or verb, 
the comma is omitted. 

Examples. " You are altogether at fault." 
" We shall all meet again, hereafter." f 

" The narrative, however intemperate in point of religious zeal,J is 
accurate in point of fact." 

RULE XXIV. When one or more sections intervene 
between a conjunction and the section which it connects, 
such intervening sections should be included in commas. 

Example. " We may rest assured that, by the steady pursuit of 
knowledge, we shall be benefited." 

RULE XXV. No point should separate the nomina- 
tive from its verb, the adjective from its noun, the verb 
from its object, etc., when no word or section intervenes; 
and, in general, when any two words, that hold a relation 
to one another, are found together, in their natural order, 
no point should be used. 

RULE XXVI. The comma is frequently omitted (con- 
trary to strict rule) before conjunctions that connect 
brief or implenary sections, or between other sections, 
when the sentences are short, and the connection of tho 
sections close. 

Examples. " The righteous shall shine as the stars." 
" Wisdom is more precious than rubies." 
"The righteous shall flourish like a palm tree." 
" I am now convinced that I was in error." 
" Blest is the man who dares approach the bow'r 
Where dwelt the muses at their natal hour." 

* See Rule XXIII. 

t The comma is used here because the word hereafter is separated 
from its verb meet by again. 

% The commas before however and is are in accordance with Rule VIL 



The comma is often used to denote an omission of one 
or more letters : it is then called an apostrophe, and is 
thus used: liv'd, flattering, glist'ning, icoiit, (for icill not,) 
can't, (for can not,~) etc. The apostrophe is also used to 
denote the possessive case of nouns. 

Double commas, and inverted commas are used for 
quotations; thus, "Let there be light." Double quota- 
tions are marked thus, "He said, 'Let there be light.' : ' 
Double commas are sometimes used ( Six pounds per day. 
to denote a repetition above; thus: { Five " " " 


RULE XXVII. "When conjunctions connect sections 
of considerable length, the semicolon should be used.* 

Example. " The conveniences of fraud are short, but the inconveni- 
ences are lasting \for, if a person be once detected in uttering a false- 
hood, he will not be believed again." 

RULE XXVIII. TThcn a personal pronoun commences 
a secondary section, it should be preceded by a semi- 

Examples. "Send, therefore, to Joppa, and call hither Simon, whose 
surname is Peter; he is lodged in the house of one Simon, a fanner." 

"But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; /, myself, also, am a 

RULE XXIX. "When, however, the personal pronoun 
is preceded by a conjunction or other connective word, 
the section in which it occurs should be separated from 
that which precedes it by a comma, in accordance with 
Rule I, X, and XI ; or *by a semicolon, in accordance 
with Rule XXVII. 

Examples. "Am I, therefore, become your enemy, became I tell you 
the truth?" 

" I foresaw the Lord always before my face ; for he is on my right 
hand, that I should not be moved." 

RULE XXX. Brief, simple sentences, in which the 
verb is understood, and represented by a comma, accord- 

* In many cases it is difficult to decide whether we should use a 
comma or semicolon; and, perhaps, it is of little consequence which 
we emploj': let the sense decide. 

t But should not be headed by a capital letter. 


ing to Rule XI, are separated from each other by semi- 

Examples. " Earth's cup 

Is poison'd ; her renown, most infamous ; 

Her gold, seem as it may, is really dust; 

Her titles, sland'rous names; her praise, reproach; 

Her strength, an idiot's boast; her wisdom, blind; 

Her gain, eternal loss ; her hope, a dream ; 

Her love, her friendship, enmity with God." 

"Honor gives us happiness; virtue, delight; contentment, peace; 
and religion, tranquility." 

* RULE XXXI. Short sentences, in which the verbs are 
expressed, are sometimes joined by semicolons, when 
they relate to one subject. 

Examples. " At thirty, man suspects himself a fool ; 
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan ; 
At fifty, chides his infamous delay ; 
Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve; 
In all the magnanimity of thought 
Kesolves ; and re-resolves ; then dies the same." 

RULE XXXII. Secondary, implenary sections are 
often preceded by the semicolon. 

Examples. " His mind seemed utterly unbalanced, teeming with 
rich thoughts, and overbearing impulses; the sport of the strangest 
fancies and the strongest passions ; bound down by no habit, re- 
strained by no principle; a singular combination of great conceptions 
and fantastic caprices; of manly dignity and childish folly; of noble 
feeling, and of babyish weakness." 


RULE XXXIII. The colon may be placed after a sen- 
tence, when a second sentence immediately follows, by 
way of illustration. 

Example. Suspect a tale-bearer, and never trust him with thy se- 
crets who is fond of entertaining thee with those of another: no wise 
man will put good liquor in a leaky vessel." 

RULE XXXIY. The colon is often used instead of the 
semicolon to connect consecutive simple sentences.* 

* Some writers use the colon almost indiscriminately for the semi- 
colon, before conjunctions, relative pronouns, participles, etc. It is a 
good rule, never to use a colon when a semicolon makes clear the dis- 
tinction; and, above all, never let a colon intervene between the sec- 
tions of a sentence. 


Examples. " And Luxury, within, 

Poured out her glitt'ring stores: the canvas smooth, 
With glowing life protuberant, to the view 
Embodied rose : the statue seemed to breathe, 
And soften into flesh : beneath the touch 
Of forming art, imagination flush'd." 

" Be wise, 

Ye fools ! be of an understanding heart : 
Forsake the wicked : come not near his house : 
Pass by : Make haste : depart, and turn away :" 

RULE XXXV. The propriety of using a colon or 
semicolon is sometimes determined by a conjunction's 
being expressed or understood ; if expressed, we use the 
semicolon j if understood, the colon. 

Examples. " Do not flatter yourself with the hope of perfect happi- 
ness : there is no such thing in the world. [ of perfect happiness ; 
for there is no, etc.] 

"Insult not another, because he lacks a talent which you possess: 
he may have others which you lack. [ which you possess ; since he 
may, etc.] 

XXXYI. The colon is often used between long sec- 
tions, when, according to Rule XXVII. we would use a 
semicolon, if the sections were shorter. 

Examples. " In misfortunes we often mistake dejection for con- 
stancy : we bear them without daring to look on them." 

" Visits made and received are usually an intolerable consumption 
of time: unless prudently ordered, they 9 are, for the most part, spent 
in vain and unprofitable discourses." 

RULE XXXVII. A colon is sometimes used before a 
quotation, instead of a comma, particularly if the quota- 
tion be adduced as an example. Sometimes, also, the 
dash accompanies the colon. 

Examines. " Milton, in his beautiful description of Eve, says : 
'Grace was in nil her steps, heaven in her eyes; 
In all her gestures, dignity and love.' " 

" Pollok begins his ' Course of Time ' thus : 
'Eternal Spirit! God of truth! to whom 
All things seem as they are.' " 

* Circumflex course ; if made direct, they would immediately follow 
the colon. 



KULE XXXVfll. Use a period at the close of a full 
and perfect sentence. 

Example. " It is the part of a wise man to see misfortunes, and to 
prevent them before they come;* of a valiant man, to struggle well 
against them when they do come." 

RULE XXXIX. Many writers use the period, instead 
of tho colon or semicolon, between short, simple sen- 
tences, f 

Examples. " Children, obey your parents. Honor your father and 
your mother. A wise son heareth his father's instruction." 
" Do not forget. This visitation 
Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose. 
But | look! amazement on thy mother sits. 
O, step between her and her fighting soul. 
Conceit in weakest bodies, strongest works. 
Speak to her, Hamlet." 

EULE XL. Periods arx> placed after abbreviations. 
In such cases they are not considered as marks of punc- 
tuation, and the usual points should be placed after all 
abbreviated words, unless they occur at the close of a 

Examples. " On the fifth of Aug., 1842,2 he commenced the attack." 
" He arrived on the 10th of Dec. ; but returned almost immediately." 
" The soldiers, officers, privates, etc., all united in the attack." " He 
purchased the sugar per cwt 


EULE XLI. The note of interrogation marks a ques- 
tion, and should be placed only at the close of a com- 
plete sentence. 

Example. " And which of you, by taking thought, can add to his 
stature, one cubit? 

* See Rule XXXI. 

t And some use the comma, as in the following, from Follok's 
"Course of Time:" 

"Satan raged loose, Sin had her will, and Death 
Enough. Blood trode upon the heels of blood, \ 

Revenge, in desp'rate mood, at midnight met 
Revenge, War brayed to War, Deceit deceived 
Deceit, Lie cheated Lie." 
But this use of the comma should be avoided: use the semicolon. 

t Many sentences commence with the conjunctions but, and, etc. 
See page 140 and 141. 

Figures should be punctuated aa well as words. 


EULE XLII. "When two or three questions, connected 
by conjunctions, follow one another in "succession, they 
may be separated from each other by a semicolon, the 
interrogation point being placed after the last. 

Examples. "Hath a dog money; and is it possible 

A cur can lend three thousand ducais?" 

" Say, shall we wind 

Along the stream, or walk the smiling meadj * 
Or court the forest glade, or wander wild 
Among the waving harvest?" 

EULE XLIII. Sometimes questions succeed in pairs^ 
the interrogation following each pair. 

Examples. " Be thou a spirit blest, or goblin dam'd? 

Bringst with thee sweet airs from heav'n, or blasts from hell'? 
Be thy intents wicked, or charitable?" 

" Shall we yield to the occasion, or shall we struggle against mis- 
fortune ? Shall we sit down in despair, or rise up with determina- 
tion ? Does victory come to the indolent, or to the brave ? " 

EULE XLIV. The interrogation should not be used 
when it is only said a question has been asked. 

Examples. " They asked me why I wept." 

" He inquired what road he should take to the town." 

"And they asked him, iWhat then? Art thou Elias?'"t 


RULE XLV. The exclamation point should be placed 
after words denoting surprise, admiration, etc.: it should, 
also, be used after ironical expressions, when they occur 
in the form of exclamations; and, sometimes, after names 
addressed, instead of the comma. J 

Examples. "0, void of faith!? of all bad men, the worst! 
Renowned for wisdom, by th' abuse accursed !" 

* The interrogation may be used here with equal propriety. 

t The interrogation is properly used here, since the questions are 
really asked. 

J The student should be cautioned against the too frequent use of 
the exclamation point, which, in prose, carries an air of pedantic 
bombast. It is better, even in animated poetical passages, to use the 
exclamation sparingly. 

# The exclamation point may occur nnywhere in a sentence, even 
where no other point could be placed; but when it comes where other 
rules require a comma, colon, semicolon or period, such comma, colon, 
etc., must be omitted. If the exclamation point occurs in t!ie middle 
of a sentence, the next word should not commence with a capital 


"Good heavens! What goblin shape is this!"* 
"0, excellent guardian of the sheep! a wolf!" 


EULE XLYI. The parentheses may be used some- 
times instead of commas, to include the clause that in- 
tervenes in a broken section. 

Example. " Did nature (lavish of her care) 

From her best pattern form you, fair?" 

RULE XLVII. In general, parenthetical marks de- 
mand every point which would be required if the paren- 
theses were omitted. 

Examples. " You will know by experience, (which is the best look- 
ing-glass of wisdom,:}:) that a private life is more pleasant and happy 
than public office." 

"The harmony, 

(What could it less, when spirits immortal sing?) 
Suspended hell." 

"And was the ransom paid? It was; and paid 
(\Yhat can exalt his bounty more!) for thee." 

EULE XLYIII. Parentheses are often used instead 
of brackets, to inclose a phrase or word of explanation. 

Examples. "The two met; and he, (Johnson,) repeated the question 

" Death-bed charities (says Bishop Sherlock) are too much like 
death-bed repentance." 

"Let every one exert himself (or herself) to acquire a thorough 
knowledge of English language." 


EULE XLIX. The dash should be used when a sen- 
tence is unfinished, and terminates abruptly; also, before 

* When a question is asked to which there is no reply, we usually 
employ the exclamation in place of the interrogation. 

t Be cautious about introducing too many parenthetical clauses, 
which are like wheels within wheels, and, when of considerable 
length, interrupt the connection of the sense, besides showing at once 
that the writer has not the art to introduce them in their proper 

t Place the proper points before (not after) each parenthesis. 

$ Brackets or Crochets [ ] are fulling greatly into disuse. They 
may be employed, however, to inclose a long note or paragraph of 
explanation; to precede a word that runs or/r, in a line of poetry, and 
is placed above; and to enclose any word, figure or clause that u en- 
tirely separate by itself. 


a word or phrase that forms the point of an expression ; 
and it is sometimes employed to denote an omission of 
the letters in a word. 

Examples. " I own it is in your favor, and I submit; but " 
" He said ; then full before their sight 

Produced the beast, and lo! 'twas u-hite!'' 
"He shook the fragment of his blade, 

And shouted ' Victory.' " 
" The brightest youth in all the town, 
By far, was this same Master B n." 

[NOTE. The immoderate use of the dash is highly censurable: 
some writers use it almost constantly in the place of points that 
should, properly, be employed.] 

" The secret enemy, whose secret eye 
Stands sentinel accuser judge and spy, 
The foe the fool the jealous and the vain 
The envious, who but breathe in others pain 
Watch every fault." 

If the ahove were properly punctuated, a comma would 
take the place of each dash; and if we inclose the words, 

" whose secret eye 

Stands sentinel, accuser, judge and spy," 

in parentheses, or separate them from the rest of the 
sentence by dashes, the grammatical construction would 
be more plainly apparent. 


THE HYPHEN (-) is used to divide words into syllables, 
and to connect compound words; it is also employed at 
the end of a line when a word is broken, to show that 
the rest of it is at the commencement of the next line. 
A hyphen can never divide a syllable, but should be placed 
between the syllables of a broken word, etc. 

THE CARET (A) is used to show that some word or 
letter has been omitted or interlined. 

THE SECTION () is used to divide a discourse into 
parts ; it is aiso used as a mark of reference. 

THE PARAGRAPH (^[) is used to mark the commence- 
ment of a new paragraph, when the division has not 
been otherwise made : the paragraph is used sometimes 
for reference. 

THE ACCENTS are (') acute, (^ grave, and ( A ) cir- 




In one Volume, Octavo, 572 pages ; 

With a Polyglot Arrangement of a part of the Gospel of 
St. Matthew; and 

An International and Commercial Dictionary of the 
English, German, Spanish, and French, 

Designed especially for the use of Families, Teachers, Clergymen, 
Business Men, and Private Learners generally. 

The above valuable work will be forwarded, post paid, to any 
part of the United States, on the receipt of 2.25 at the office of 
Higging, Bradley & Dayton, publishers, No. 20 Washington street, 
Boston, Mass. Postage stamps may be sent for the odd change. 

Recommendations and Notice* from the Press. 

From the Albany Academy. 

The system adopted by Mr. Barrett, for teaching the principles of Gram- 
mar, is, in our opinion, well calculated to promote an acquaintauce with that 
important branch of education. 

T. ROMEYN BECK, A. M., M. D., 

Secretary of the Regents of the State of New York. 
P. BULLIONS, D. D., Prof. Lang., Albany Academy. 
S. CENTER, A. M., Prin. Albany Classical School. 
A. CRITTENTON, A. 11., Prin. Brooklyn Fern. Acad. . 

Extract from a Report of the Committee on Literature of the Legislature 

of the State of New York. 

The undersigned, having examined Mr. Barrett's system of grammar, are 
of opinion that it is an improvement upon all methods heretofore adopted, 
and well calculated to facilitate the acquirement of a thorough knowledge 
of the languages on which it treats. AVe have also had the advantage of at- 
tending a public examination of his pupils, who had been instructed upon 
this plan. Their very creditable performances afforded the most gratifying 
and conclusive evidences, not only of the excellence of Mr. Barrett's theory, 
but of its eminence and unrivalled success in practice. 




From the Boston Carpet Bag. 

BARRETT'S GRAMMAR. Header, do not turn from this paragraph until yon 
have read it. We wish to ask your attention to a book recently issued by 
Solomon Barrett, which is calculated to overcome and simplify a thousand 
philological difficulties that have hitherto stood in the way of your children's 
progress. Their young heads and hearts have ached as, doubtless, your 
own have in conning over the complicated, and ot'ttiiues hopelessly unintel- 
ligible formulas, old and new systems of grammar, and any new step taken 
toward making the path of learning easier should be hailed as a blessing, 
and he who takes that step a benefactor. The grammar conies to us en- 
dorsed by names of the highest eminence, and we freely add our humble tes- 
timonial to theirs, commending it as the simplest, and, consequently, tho 
best system of grammar we have ever seen. It has not yet got inio tho 
schools, but we wish it might get there. 

From Professor Tenny, of Vermont University. 

Having spent a large fraction of life in pouring over lexicons, grammar?, 
and other articles of etymological compost for fostering the growth of mind, 
we may assume to understand, to some extent, the merit of this class of 
works. All grammars have been constructed on false principles, or rather 
without reference to principle. Grammarians seem to have forgotten tho 
evident fact, that language was a perfect thing antecedent to book-making, 
which, "having no law," was "a law unto itself," and as effective a me- 
dium of thought in the hands of Noah, as in the hands of a Gesenius, a 
Buttman, or a Bullion. Their office was to explain, not to make language 
not to dig artificial channels, but to survey that which mind hath worn, dur- 
ing centuries, for its own utterance. Mr. Barrett seems to have | creeived 
this, and adopts a different course. Under his guidance the pupil forms 
his own grammar having no rules except those which the immutable and well- 
defined relations of words and the universal laws of all language impose upon 
him. His system is simplicity itself, and wo are certain that it will save to 
all who use it, (as it might have done for us, had it appeared a few years 
sooner,) months of time which must otherwise be wasted in most irksome 
drudgery to no purpose. 

Mr. Barrett's method of analyzing the Greek and Latin rerbs, is of tho 
highest value. With Thiorsch's Tables and this work before him, a student 
must be stolid indeed, who can not master the Greek in a few months. This 
is no "Language without a Master," running wild among harmless children, 
in short, no humbug : but a thing which we never expected to see a new 
grammar which we could in conscience commend. 


of the University of Vermont 

From the Boston Olive Branch. 

Tho author of these principles of grammar, has nt length given to tbe 
public what it has long needed, a thorough simplified form of grammatical 
ttii'ly, commended by teachers, classical students, and men who would not 
lightly, or without a thorough understanding, give their signatures to a sim- 
ply new thing. There are in the book nearly six hundred pnges, nnd we 
do not hesitate to say that a student, by careful study, can acquire within the 
covers of this grammar, an essential knowledge of English, Gree!;, and 
Latin. It does not profess, like some modern improvements, that the lan- 
guages can be learned in five lessons, or eight lessons, or twenty lessons, but 
it does what they fail to do; it gives sound and permanent instruction, im- 
proving the memory, sharpening tho reflective faculties, and by even a 
thorough reading only, enables one to acquire a more correct knowledge 
of Syntax, Etymology, and Prosody, than years of study by the old method. 

We commend this work to heads of families, most especially to those 

whose children study nt home; for both parents and children will become 
purer speakers and writers, from the use of so excellent a book of iustruc- , 
tion. Besides these advantages, oilier languages can be learned with a 
facility that will seeia astonishing to the student. 

From the Ohio Statesman. 

We wish briefly to call the attention of our readers to this important work, 
a copy of which has just been shown us. It is a capital thing, and without 
entering -at this time upon any detailed description of it, we would merely 
aay that it has received the approval of some of the greatest scholars in 
America, including the entire faculties of several colleges, among whom are 
Dr. Nott, Alonzo Potter, Jared Sparks, Henry W. Longfellow, etc. Bavard 
Taylor and many other distinguished literary men hare' also added their 
names, in commendation of the book. We see also among the lists of sub- 
scribers, the names of John Van Buren, J. C. Calhoun, Winfield Scott, Dan- 
iel Webster, Millard Fillinore. and other notables. 

A Dictionary has been added to the last edition, containing all words of 
commercial importance or ordinary use in the four important modern 
tongues, English, German, Spanish, and French. 

From the Cincinnati Commercial. 

The author has accomplished something considerable, in making order 
amid the discord of the confusion of tongues. He has simplified the gram- 
mars of the languages named in the title page quoted above, and baa 
brought together the correspondencies of the language with marvellous in- 
genuity, and has constructed a system which is the key to the various lan- 
guages. He has condensed and made available the grammar of grammars. 

From the Cincinnati Enquirer. 

This is one of the finest works of the day. Professor Barrett stands be- 
fore the public in the light of a true philanthropist, for he has labored most 
earnestly to divest the study of language of innumerable technicalities, bor- 
rowed from the rigid rhetorical schools of classic antiquity. Avoiding the 
extremes of the ultra schoolmen, he has not descended on the other hand 
into the vulgar sphere of those elementary writers who have deprived the 
study of language of its dignity, without investing it with the characteristics 
of plainness and common sense. His object is to point out "the conttructire 
relation which exists among the words in a sentence, and by virtue of which 
they become parts of speech, acquainting the student by a single effort, not 
only with the general principles of language, but leading him, by graceful 
and measured steps, into the characteristic idioms of each language. 

From the Boston Cultivator. 

Within the compass of about six hundred pages, the author presents the 
principles of six languages the English, Latin, Greek, German, Spanish, 
and French. Instead of requiring the student, when he commences the 
Study of grammar, to learn scores of definitions and rules, as many philolo- 
gists do, Mr. Barrett's plan is to have the scholar learn them only so fast as 
he is taught their application. He contends that every one of the eighty 
thousand words in the English language, when arranged in a sentence, will 
sustain one of the twenty-one relations, exhibited in a table prepared to nid the 
learner in determining the different parts of speech. The design of the au- 
thor is to simplify the study of the languages, and thus facilitate their ac- 
quisition ; and he has received the most flattering testimoninls from tlirwe 
best qualified to judge respecting the work, that he has been highly success- 
ful in the accomplishment of his object. 

From, the Democratic Union, Watertown, N. T. 

This work is the result of years of most patient toil and research, an^ 
manifests more learning and real abilitj than any or all the otber grammar* 
yet printed. Fur instance, the idea that every letter in a Latin word, after 
the root, has a positive aud definite meaning, forming an indication to all 
the easts, moods, or tenses into which the word i-an be wrought, is certainly 
a novel one, and a suggestion that has doubtless caused many a learned 
professor to prick up his ears in astonishment. 

After an unusually thorough examination, we pronounce Barrett's Gram- 
mar the most complete work of the kind ever presented to the world, and a 
work that should be in the bands of every student and scholar in the coun- 
try. And not only this, but it should be owned and studied by all those 
who have once been scholars, but who are now immersed, no matter how 
deeply, in the every-dny affairs of life. Wo are not alone in our warm en- 
comiums. The work is recommended in the most flattering manner by such 
men as Beck, Bullions, Johnson, Terry, and hundreds of others. 

From the Northern Sentinel. 

The author has given us the key to the grammar of all languages that 
have ever been, or ever will be, by basing his work upon "the immutable 
principle of the relation which one word sustains to another ;" and that all 
beyond this, in learning a language, is a mere effort at remembering the 
meaning of the words holding these relations. It is a philosophy upon 
which no quarrel can be successfully waged j but whether Professor Barrett 
has succeeded in the happiest method of treating the subject, we will leave 
professional philologists to decide. Grammarians are generally an opin- 
ionated set of people (not entirely alone in this peculiarity) but Prof. 
Barrett has the merit of not asking us to believe any thing he says in his 
book, without a demonstration of its truth. The book is an excellent ene to 
aid the student in his own study of the science furnishing him with a key 
by means of which he may enter the wide domain of philology. If he do 
not prosecute bis work after entering, Prof. Barrett will not be to blame, for 
he furnishes in his own person an example of long, and patient, and ve hope 
profitable devotion to the science. 

From the St. Lawrence Republican. 

Solomon Barrett has given many years of study and unremitting labor in 
getting up a good, intelligent, comprehensive grammar. It is a book that 
should be always at hand in our odd leisure moments; for open it whero 
we will, we are sure to find something new, instructive, and engaging. 

From the Christian Ambassador, Avbvrn, N. Y. 

Amid the diversities of grammars which have been published, none hare 
yet been fonnd suited to the public mind, until Mr. Barrett'* appeared. It 
is a work calculated for the common people as well as for scholars. Any 
person, by close application a short time each day, may become conversant 
in a good degree, at least, with any of the above mentioned languages. Mr. 
Barrett starts with the axiom that "one word belongs to another." True, 
this is nothing new. But we have never seen it practically applied in the 
formation of a grammar, until it appeared in Mr. Barrett's. His table for 
the conjugation of the Greek verb, for briefness and conciseness of manner, 
is excellent. 

From the Boston Daily Times. 

The author of these elementary principles of language has succeeded in 
clearing the science of grammar and language of its obstruse mysteries, and 
presenting it to the learner in a new and attractive dress. We consider it 
& work of great practical utility and hope it may continue to receive a lib- 
eral support. 







ALL will agree that he is a good Latin and Greek 
scholar, who has acquired a knowledge of the roots of all 
the declinable words in those languages, together with the 
adjuncts, which can be associated with each radical, and 
understands their import and use, in giving to the noun, 
pronoun and adjective, gender, number, and case and to 
the verb, voice, number, person, conjugation, mood, and 
*ense and has acquired a knowledge of the indeclinable 
parts of speech, with the ability to give every word its true 
syntax, or relation to the other word or words in the sen- 
tence, by which it is, in reality, " constituted a part of 

In the following pages, we have endeavored to make 
such a disposition of some sixty lines of Virgil's jEneid, 
(and the second chapter of Matthew, from the Greek Test- 
ament,) as will combine and illustrate all these principles 
under nne general mew, and will guide the learner to a 
knowledge so desirable. 

The ingenious student will find the root (which is some- 
times a more remote one than is found in the text), placed 
in the first column ; the definition in the second ; while 
the syntax (showing by what word it is governed, or with 
what it agrees), occupies the third column; leaving the 
terminations, pointing out the etymology, to close the line 


The root and termination of every declinable word, in the 
text, are clearly pointed out, by the prefixes and mffixei 
being printed in Italics, while the root appears in ROMAN 

Thus we have endeavored to make the rough path easy 
and inviting to the beginner, at the commencement of his 
journey; and to invite the man of letters again to revisit 
those literary fields, and to place in his hands something 
that shall recall those juvenile days in classic hall, free 
from religious intolerance, political villainy, and a cold and 
heartless world, and to fix the principles of this noble lan- 
guage indelibly upon the mind. 

The plan of Latin forms, originated by Mr. GROSVENOR,, 
is a very happy method of disposing of the tedious and pro- 
lix declensions and conjugations, which hang like an incu- 
bus over the student, and no doubt will be welcomed by the 
learner. This Table was published by Mr. Grosvenor, at 
Salem, Massachusetts, in the year 1831. Parts of theTa 
ble have been copied into other grammars. CLINTON said, 
that he who made two blades of grass grow where only 
one was known to grow before, deserved the everlasting 
gratitude of his country. And if this be true, surely he 
who has condensed to a single page the long and cumbrous 
conjugations, of some sixty or eighty pages, ought to have 
his memory perpetuated by a monument more lasting than 
brass or marble he should live in the hearts of all friends 
of improvement in literature. We have, in this work, 
arranged this Table in an improved form, and pre- 
pared an original Table of the Greek Verb, which will be 
found in their proper places. From this arrangement, ihe 
student will be able to commence parsing at once, and will 
find on the same page yea, in the same line a Virgil, a 
Dictionary, and a Grammar, which will present to the 
eye of the scholar, all that Virgil, Cicero, Tacitus, or De- 
mosthenes could inform him about their mother tongue. 

That the person into whose hands this work mny fal., 
may, by a careful and critical examination of the princi- 
ples here laid down, (which are as immutable as the 
language itself, on which they are grounded,) speedily 
find himself able to read, write, and speak the language, 
with the facility and accuracy of a native Roman, or Gre 
cian, is the sincere wish of ' THE AUTHOR. 



The Parts of Speech in Latin are eight: 

1. Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, and Verb declined.* 

2. Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection 


1. A Noun is the name of a person, place, or thing: as, 

2. An Adjective expresses the quality or extension of 
the noun : as, vir bonus. 

3. A Pronoun stands for the noun : as, vir qui. 

4. A Verb expresses the existence or action of the noun . 
as, vir est. 

5. An Adverb expresses the manner in which the noun 
exists : as, vir ibi est. 

6. A Preposition governs some case of a noun: as, ad 

7. A Conjunction connects words or sentences . as, arma 
qiie virum. 

8. An Interjection is a virtual sentence: as, heu! 


Words are called parts of speech, because they are all re- 
ferred, either directly or indirectly, to the noun ; and, as 
their existence as a part of speech depends on this relation 
to the noun, so the case of a noun is merely that correlative 
jelation which the noun and pronoun have to other words 

A declinable word contains a root, and generally one termination! 

M, AHM-0, CAtr-(i>. 


in the sentence : and although Latin nouns and pronouns 
are generally declinable, yet their case depends entirely 
upon their syntax: as, nominative, arm-a; sunt ; vocative, 
O arm-a ; accusative, cano ann-a. 


The Genders are three: Masculine, denoting males;, denoting females ; and all others are neuter ; but 
in Latin, nouns are said to be in a certain gender by gram- 
matic construction that is, the gender is determined by 
the adjective annexed: as, masculine, us; feminine, 3; 
neuter, urn. 


The Singular Number denotes but one ; the Plural more 
than one. 


The Cases are six: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Ac- 
cusative, Vocative, and Ablative. 


Declension is the mode of changing the termination of 
nouns. There are five declensions, called first, second, 
third, fourth, fifth, distinguished from each other by the 
termination of the genitive singular: as, first, & ; second, 
/; third, is; fourth, us; fifth, ez. 

e Declension and Gender, on the Chart, are placed aftei 
every noun, adjective and pronoun: thus, (I/.), first declension, 
feminine gender ; (2 n. p.) . second declension, neuter, plural; Stc. 


1. The NOMINATIVE precedes the verb : as, penn-a est j 
arm-a sunt. 

2. The GENITIVE follows a noun, adjective, or verb; as, 
annus mundi. 

2. The DATIVE is governed by verbs and adjectives: as, 
similis, penn-ce. 

4. The ACCUSATIVE is governed by transitive verbs and 
prepositions, the " time how long," and the " place to 
iohi:.h" ; and is placed before the infinitive ; as, tenec 
, &c. 



5. The VOCATIVE is construed with O : as, Catalin-a. 

6. The ABLATIVE is governed by the prepositions by, 
with, in, &c., and is used to express the " time when" the 

1 place ivh^re" the " catxse, manner, means, and instru- 
ment," and is put absolute with a participle. 



Singular. Plural. 

N. G. D. Ac. V. Jib. N. G. D. Ac. V. M. 
Root, f. a, se, ae, am, a,* a. BE, arum, is, as, SB, isf 


Root, m. &f. us,er, i,o,um, e,er, o. i, orum, is, os, i, is. 

Root, n. urn, i, o, um, uin, o. a,torum, is, a,J a,Jis. 


Root, m.&f. , is, i,em, , e,i. es, um,ibns,es, es.ibus 

Root, n. , is, i, , , e, i. a, iurn,ibus, a, a,ibus 


Root, m. us, us,ui, urn, us, u. us,unm.ibns,us,ns,ibns 

Root, n. u, u, u, u, u, u. ua,uura,ibus,ua,ua,ibus 


Root, f. es, ei,ei, em, es, e. es,erum,ebus,es,es,ebus. 

Exceptions in gender will be learned from the Lexicon ; 
but the student should know nothing of them until he is 
familiar with the regular forms. 










7/1 #n 












































is, etis, its. 








The Vocative is always like the nominative, except in the mascu- 
line and feminine singular, of tin second declension. 

t In a few words, abus. 

i All Neuters have the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative, alikt, 
ending always in a, in the plural. 

Li a few words, iibu*. 






Norn. Gei. 
Fenn-a, per.r.-#, 
Pen is, pen yf, 

pe. to, 

pen hold, 

pen 0, 

pen with. 

Penn-<E, penn-arufli,penn-is, penn-as, penn-, penn-ts. 

Pens are pens of, pens to, pens hold, pens 0, pens with.* 


Domin-ws domin-i. domin-o, domin-um. domin-e, domin-o. 

Lord is, lord of, lord to, lord see, lord 0, lord wuiA. 

Domin-i, domin-orMm,, domin-os, domin-i, domin-i*. 

Lords are, lords o/, lords Jo, lords see, lords 0, lords with. 

Fat-m, fat-i, 
Fate is, fate of, 


fat-o, fat-wm, fat-u/n, 
fate for, fate hold, fate O, 

Fat-a, fat-orum, fat-is, fat-a, fat-a, 

Fates ore, fates q^, fates to, fates se, fate 0, 

fate with. 

fate with. 


Serm-o, serm-onis, sprm-oni, serm-oncm, serm-o, serm-one. 
Word is, word of, word to. word speak, word 0, word with- 

Serm-orae*, serm-onMm,serm-oni6iis,serm-ones, serm-ones, serm-onibut 
Words are, words of, words to, words speak, words 0, \vordswith. 


Opus, opSr-ts, 
Work is, work of, 

Oner-a, oper-um, 
Works are, works of, 

work to, 

opus, opus, opSr-e. 
work do, work 0, work with. 

oper-i&us, oper-a, oper-a, oper-iftus. 
works to. works do, works 0, works with. 


Singular. Plural. 

? M. bon-us, i, o, um, e, o. i, 

1 F bon-a, se, aj, am, a, a. BB, 

2 N bon-um, i o, um, um, o. a, 

orurn, is, os, i. is. 
arum, is, as, as is. 
or urn, is, a, a. is 

For the other declensions, the student is referred to the Table of 
Declensions and the Ana'. /sis of Virgil's ^Enead, where he will rind 
three hundred r aridig-is. 



In Latin there are eighteen simple Pronouns, the prin- 
c'pal of which are declined below. 


Singular. Plural. 

N. G. D. Ac, V. Ab. N. G. D. Ac. V. Ab. 

ego. mei, raihi, me, , me. nos, nostrflmornostri, nobis, nos, , nobia. 

to, tui, tibi, t6j tu, te. vos, vestrumorvestri, vobis, vos,vos,vobis 

THIRD PERSON Himself, Herself, Itself. 
, sui, sibi, se, , se. , sni, sibi, se, , S9. 

THIRD PERSON This, That, These, Those. 

N. G. D. Ac. V. Ab. N. G. D. Ac. V. Ab. 

M. hie, hujus, huic, hnne, , hoc. hi, horum, his, hos, , his. 

F. hzcc, hujiis, huic, hanc, , h;\c. hoe, harnm, his, has, , his. 

N. hoc, liujus, huic, hoc, , hoc. hzEC,horum, his, hicc, , his. 

M. ille, iilius, il!i, illnrn, , illo. illi, illorum, illis, illos, , illis. 
F. ilia, iilius, illi, illam, , ilhi. illzB.illarum, illis. illas, , illis. 
N. illud. iliius, illi, illud, , illo." ilia, illorum, illis, ilia, , illis. 

M. is, ejus, et, enm, , eo. ii, eorum.iisorcis.eos, .iisorcis. 
F. ea, ejus, el, earn, , ea. ex, earum.iisorcis.eas, ,ii*oreis. 
N. id, ejus, ei, id, , eo. ea, eorum,iisoreis,ea, ,iiso;-e;s. 

RELATIVE PRONOUKS Who, Which, That, As. 

M. qui, cujns, cui, quern, , quo. qui,quorum,queis,*qiios, ,qeis * 
F. qua?, ciijus, cui, qtiam. , qua. qua;,quarum.qucis,*quas, ,qucis * 
N. (lUodjCiijus, cui, quod, , quo. qua}_quorumjqueis,*quae, ,qucis.* 

The other pronouns are, iste, quis, idem, istic, 
siquis jidsnam, qniainqite, quinam, &c. 

Iste is declined like ille. 

Quis is declined like qui, except that it has quid for quoa. 

Idem is declined by adding dem to the pronoun if 

Is/ic is declined like /tic, but is wanting in some of its 

Aliquis, siquis, Src., are declined like quis. 

* More freif lently quibiu. 


Quisnam and quinam, by adding nam and quis to qui. 

Quicunque, by adding cunque to qui. 

Meus, tuns, suits, noster, and vester, may be called ad- 

Nostras, vestras, and cujas, are declined like adjectives 
of one termination in the third declension: as, rwstra-s, 
atis, &c. 


A Verb expresses the existence or action of its nomina- 
tive ; and as all beings are represented, in every language, 
as existing, or acting on another object, or as being acted 
upon by an agent, there are but three kinds of verbs: 
intransitive, transitive, and passive. 

The INTRANSITIVE Verb is defined by the syllables com- 
posing the word in, not ; trans, (a traho,) a preposition, 
signifying over; it, (ind., pres., 3d, sing., a eo,) goes; ive, 
may: and means one whose action or existence may not 
go over to an object: as, John stands; David runs. 

The TRANSITIVE Verb is one whose action (it) goes 
(trans) over to an object: as, John splits wood. 

The PASSIVE (a patior, to suffer) Verb is one represent- 
ing action upon a passive nominative : as, Wyatt was 
hung by the sheriff; (that is, he was hung against his 
own will ;) which is only another form of the transitive. 
The same action may be represented in either form of the 
verb; as (transitive), the sheriff hung Wyatt; (passive) 
Wyatt was hung by the sheriff. 

In Latin, o, i m, s, or t, final, is the sign of an active 
rerb : as, amamu-j ; and r of the passive : as, amamu-r. 


The MOOD expresses the manner in which the nomina 
five exists, acts, or is acted upon. There are fovir Moods: 
he Indicative, the Subjunctive, the Imperative, and the 
T nfinitive. 

The INDICATIVE simply declares that its nominative ex- 


ists, acts, or is acted upon: as, John stands; Joseph 
writes a letter; the letter is written. The signs of this 
mood are, in the imperfect tense, ba ; in the perfect, i; in 
the pluperfect, era; in the future, b. 

The SUBJUNCTIVE expresses that the action or existence 
is possible or contingent: as, it may rain ; John can itrrite ; 
if John weep. The signs of this mood are: in the imper- 
fect, re; in the perfect, eri; in the pluperfect, isse ; in the 
future, er. 

The IMPERATIVE is used to command, entreat, or permit 
some person to exist or act : as, shut the door ; give us our 
daily bread. The signs of this mood are: a, e, i, to, te, 
ite, Sec. 

The INFINITIVE expresses unlimited action : as, AMA-re, 
to love. The sign of this mood is : re or isse it is render- 
ed to, or to have. 


Tense is the division of time into present, past, and 

The Present Tense represents present time: as, Hove. 

The Imperfect represents past time: as, Homed. 

The Perfect represents an action as now completed : as, 
I have loved. 

The Pluperfect represents the action as formerly done: 
as, / had loced. 

The Future represents future action: as, I shall love. 



Pr.Imp. Per. Plu. Put. Pr. Imp. Per. Plu. Fvt. 

, ba, i, era, bi. a, e, re, eri, isse, er. 

do, did, have, had, will, may, might, may have, might have, bhall have. 



Irf Per 2d Per. 3d Per. 1st Per. 2d Per. 3d Per. 

Active. e,i ; in, , (isti t. mus, tis, nt, (ere). 

I, thou, he. we, you, they. 

Panivt. r, ris, re, tur. mar, mini, ntur. 



a S o a a a ^ a a a a a ^ 



- g g g g g g 



2 " " r 




U O) >0) 1 

I *-,---- 



faq "" 4J " 

f o-^ I 1 



M ci 



o s^ -rT 

rT , S 

i ( 


J5 Q CO k M W 

h T co^ oT oT oT 

1 ,- M * 



" fci 



- o e 1 a o s 

** cT 




J ? " 




and Tense. 

H ^ 

a - 

w -tT-^ri 

o-g 5 "g-< 

^! "S ~ T 
~ <J g <a a 

1 *s"-|5 

s e 1 .^Ps'.'E "* 
g, S S S S"S 


s ~ 


1 11 

5*1 ^"^ ~ 

S 5-255 


t-H .0 

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H j 


^* CO 


o5 ~ ^ 




w .r*^^. *3 "O- 

eS cj .T v ^ > 'g 

^ o S ~ 

*O .^ o _Q ci 

CN-. u CJ.2 09 

. 33 
a bi .a *J w 


rj! -">" >~ f ~ 

._- .-r.i .>"".&" 

- 5 >" - - 

g .- .e '- 

ws % *s ** 

i r - r r 

cr .j- iar | 1 1 1 

- - - 

tv~ >ar 1 s 1 1 


~ ^ ~ ~ -. 

^ * k * 0. 


ci KD u 3 3 03 1 

icu K t3 x >- 

- <rfcfcff 

xu rt oS oj c5 

tT wT rt T a" 

1 1 1 1 1 

n MM 

i MM 


o o o o o 

O.S O 

o o o o o 

1 If 1 


*J *J - _. 4J 

i K ~3 ^3 <n 

tn V-3-O-3 

*j *j_j -3-d 

^i i CM S W 

-> eS co co 






g c.<r' 
: g o 2 s 

n .*" n. n. r*. 

2 S-'gJ's 

.B n. n" r. 

oo OD CM C *-* 

U i- O O * 





c c 'S -H H 

U -X 

. ~ S CO ~ 

0.2 w ' .2 

'S~ 'S^oT'^ 'fi 'S 

.s .= *2 v 9.9 o 

<a c 3 -3 3 

g C avi oO C3 

o 2" | 2 ^ 

^ *~ = S 

*< *- 2'c 5 a v. 

s = o x.. o 

SC - -! ' '3 ~ 
B <S ES 

- - J 
o .^^ a .^ .^ 

U _ -^ - ^ ' 

a s .3 ir s s 



be ye 



isse, or fuisse, ,, ( tus, tnra.fri. 
o have been, ITO > ) to be about to be. 

Fut $ ndlls ' >a > ' um ' 
' {to be ; necessary to be . 

a above medial or conju%ational letters coming before 
onjugation, active voice, and tho future, passive, will 
mitigations) are of special importance to bogianors, to 
the present subjunctive. 

nitivo, but the conjugation may bo known by tho mo- 
apio, fourth conjugation; ceperam, third conjugation. 
TI it, are not of the samo conjugation with tho other 
3tive perfect, pluperfect, and future, are sometimes of 
jjunctive present, are of another conjugation; for ex- 
ml, imperfect, and future, and subjunctive present and 

and third conjugation, does not take tho medial letter 

! conjugation, takes u instead oft before nt and n<7<r; 
id ntur. 
i t before nf, but eru in its stead ; thus, j.lural, am-av 

, instead of t. in the indicative future of the first and 

. 5 


W * 



o *^3 

CJ- V Q 

s SJ 

t . 

- r* M 





9 - 

<a e? 

J * ^ 



c -,h 

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m ct rf 

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g 03 O 

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in* ** 


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S ^ flj 


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** ~ -? 



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C C 


v r. 

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C C 

> c c 





^ s 

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* "5 






^ c 


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C " C -3 

c * 





"S tr.2 


> O 

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o c* _jn 


O g 



r i 





C *j 

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C __ 

C - 





rt " ~~ 


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L t* 

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"c-.= J 


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L ~* 



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c .^ *^ 


"s .52 



03 ^ 

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1 f 

r " 

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c ' 


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s fj 1 



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O 23 O 


tr o 




f^ I 



c c 










u ^ 





c 3 1 







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i- s S i: | 
g-j -g T! ^ 



^* o O r* "tJ 


*T^ tr.o o o 


Jg -a5 S 
sj |S* g, 


"Q i- on ,J c 


"3 .C e2 - -5* -*3 


* S .3 > J2 .2. 


. J ~ >3 ? I D ^ 

1 .S'S g 
|| -a fc g S 


** S, "3 *" "^ 

. PH 


<2 " s'S 

t . < 

r> e 

g^ | = C! -S 

2 H 

o -g "g . 2 'a 
a oo ^_ F^ *^ H 


o3 ^.^ *^ o Q i ' 

^*^ " 3 

_S> s g a a 
o fc.' S o o 

o" 1 

t- "^ ^r ^ o 

S 'S to 

O cj 9 5; C3 ** p 

^ cj S 

Q Q> *~" Q> O 
Gj *) > *-* *-* -3 

Trf tC'^ 

^ s .2 S * s ^ 

p"o =--f 

O ^ * 

J 1 3 - ^ "t" 2 

55 | 

B '" - a " -^ 


L' ? E ^ "3 . w 

r~) "*J g 

I'l lull 

^ ** 

C5 S 

^.= s S p %f-a \ 

a VS e 1 j| g 


** 'S * S '^ *^ o 

^ La 

fill =^ 12 

o S 

o ' 5 a; -= I "-3 


e s J^ ~. a 

* J 

" -2 ? "5 * c* 3 3 




!- ~.b ^'"oVi* 


^^i'3 ^ jjr*j 


... o = t u' . "5.C 


o ' w 2"'3 - t "~i 

'a 7 


'C^&.Sp''^ "213 


._, J7^ ~ a .^'S ** 


g "- 1*H^3 -^ 


- % 



" !* ^ 

w -; r* 2 

"3 O wo 

U5* 3 tf) >- **j >> 

'.SO ' P icct 

' .2 5 

I ^1 )M i* 

.2 o *5 ? 5 >a) os '"" *3 



a, a, 


. *-*> 

>, "" ti -^ ** A 

*jjgss-J S *' o e - 3 - o 

' ~ 2.S o S " c P 3 ~ 

"_s '7--; * tf'd is "?" 


lr I 

g S3 ^ 

c *j 

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0? ~* 

'-"- I* 

S .3 -~ 

T ^ !M 










^ tc 



i * 








I" 2 

l r 



. ^ 

^ 2 









Love <Aem let. 

~ aT 









c? p 

o 5 

ove may we, 

' o 
1 g 


>c r 

"^ P 

*> 2 

1113 S 








loved will hav 







V^ ' 


J <N 








~ o 








*? "^ 




ft *f 




<D g 





f <? 





.22 5 








1 2 
























. 1 



W O 









? o 




T *j 



V ,' 




( J 





i; ~ 


' c 







































1 tt 
























i ^ 


>S a>-= 

"" V. o 


3 fe 



eS J 


?i c 


S' > 





. j >-i . 1-2 4 >J2 

& B 1 >> S e "?i S '* S 

tL ^ E 



' o 

to > 

co 03 

.-^" l. 'E *""*> 
.S * 7 ' 



Eg Sg S 

c 3g 

II ? - 

II ?> 


?-3 7-3 

g Eg 
<J^ -<2 

.^ g 

-> Q) 

f -a 




os -a 

E s: > J 3 > 

^^ <!^ ^ ^^ 

^ l ? > ' 

cc O 
'3 >, 

C g 




*M4I J 

Am-a-t-ur : 


' *? 1 


Am-a-tus-es-t ; 
ou loved has been he j 

Am-a-tus-ra-t ; 
loved been had he 

sJf ^ 

"rf ^3 

A o p 

<ii < 
^ 3* 

ou, loved may he be ; 


oT v 


: - 



O O 






; s" 




O ^3 
tn M 



-^ fc 

XL) .i 


N^ M 
50 >> 

. *^ 

? ** 







^2 > 
















-^ O 

c g 





g <U " 
















- s 



G .-= 








" ^ 








" ! 


































g S Q 


* OJ 


5 S <K : S 'T^ 

?Jj| ^J 

^ 5 

E < B 

<x f o 
E S^ 


i^ ?^H 

w <^ J 

Sw r> * 1 S 
C rd ? g 

.3 E JS E S 3 


Imperative Mood. 

2. Am-a-re(tor,) 3. Am-a -to -r ; 2. Am-a -mini, 3. Am-a -nt -or. 
Loved ye be loved him let be ; Loved be ye, loved let them be. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Pres. Am-a -r -i, Per/. Esse -am -a -tus, fut.Am-S. -tnm -ir -i, 
Loved to oe. To have loved been. Loved to be about to be. 


Pres. Am-a. -tus, -a, -um, Fut. Am -and -us, -a, -um, 

Loved being, he, she, it. Loved to be, -he, -she, -it. 

NOTE. In translating from Latin into English, the conjugation can 
never be renlered, because we have not four corresponding conjugations 
in our language ; therefore the a, or av, which marks the 1st conjuga- 
tion in Latin, means nothing in English. 


The following is an exemplification of the fifth and sixth theses laid 
down on page 6 of this work. The lesson here selected is from Beza's 
Latin Testament, Matthew, chap, v., 14, 15, 16, 17; and if the 
reader does not know that the voice, conjugation, mood and tense, per- 
son and number, of the verb; and the declension, gender, number, and 
case of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, are, in most cases, to be found 
in the terminations suffixed to the root; instead of a Latin Grammar, 
he is requested to critically review the following analysis and FIRST 
LITERAL translation, and acquaint himself with these first principles of 
the language. 

&jr* The figures placed after the English words place them in the 
English, order. 

pron. v. root. 2, plu. root. root. 2,m,g,s. adv. 
14 v. Vos es -tis lux mund -i. Noa 

Ye 1 are 2 light 4 the world ' s . 3 Not 1C 

root, root. 3 s. root. 3, f. root, 1 conj. pas. inf. prep 

pot -es -t urb -a occult -a -r -i Supra, 

able 11 is 9 a city 5 hidden 14 be 13 to 12 upon 7 

root, 3, f, ac,. root, 1* 

mont -e -m posit -a. 

a mountain 8 placed. 6 

15 T. adv, con, prep, root, root, 3, c, 3.plu. root, l,fac,s. con, 
Ne -que ac -cen -d -u -nt Lucern -a -m, et 
Not 4 and 1 to 6 fire 5 give 3 they 2 a candle 7 , and 3 

In all words where the nominative is expressed, the personal termin- 
ation of the verb is cancelled; thus, vos es(tis,) ye ar. Now, if the 
joni. ro* \ ere oin Ued, it would be rendered the same, es (are) tis (78.) 


root, 3.c, 3,plu, root, lf,ac,s. prep, root ? 2m ac,s. con, 

pon -u -lit e -a -m subter modi -u -m, sed 

place 10 they 9 it 1 1 under 12 a measure 13 but 14 

prep, root, root, 2, n, ac,s con, root, root, 2,c, 3, s. 

in can -delabr -u -m ; et splen -d -e -t 
in a candle-slick. 15 and 16 light 19 gives 18 it 17 

root, dat, pi. root, nom,p. root, 3,pl, prep, root, 2, m, ab, s, 
omn -ibus qu -i su -nt in dom (>. 

all 21 to 20 who 22 are 23 in 24 the house. 25 

i8v. root l,f, root, root, 2,conj, sub,p, 3,s, root, root, l,f, s 

It -a splen -d -e -a -t lux vestr -a 
Such 5 splendor 6 give 4 may 1 light 3 your 2 

prep, root, 3,m,ab, plu, conj, root, 2, c, sub, p, 3, plu, 
coram homin -ibus,* ut vid -e -a .nt 

before? men, 8 that 9 see 12 . may 11 they 10 

root, 2, n, place, root, 2, n, plu, ace, root, 2, n, plu, ace, 
bon -a vestr -a oper -a, 

good 14 your 13 works 15 

root, root, sub, p, 3, pi, con, root, 3, m, ac,a, 
priori -fie -e -nt -qne Patr -e -m 

glorious 20 make 19 may 18 they 17 and 16 father 22 

root 2,m, ac,s, root,nom,s, root,3,s, prep, root 2, n, ab,pl, 
restr -u -m qu -i es -t in coel -i -s. 

your 21 who 23 is 24 in 25 heaven.26 

47 v. adv root, 1 conj, imp, 2, pi, root, acc,s, root, inf. perf 

Ne existira -a -te m -e ven -isse 

Not 3 think 1 you 2 me 4 come 6 to have 5 

con, prep, root, 3,c, sub,p, l,s, . root, 3, f, ac,s, con, 

ut dis -solv -a -m leg -e -m aut 

that 7 un 10 -loose 11 may 918 the law 12 or 13 


prep, root, l,dec, ac, pi, adv, root, ind,perf, con, 
pro -phet -a -s: non ven -i ut 

pro -phets 14 not 16 come 17 have 1 15 that Ib 

root, l,f, ac, plu, prep, root, subj,pr, l,s, con, con, 

e -a -s dis -solv -a -m, sed ut 

them 23 un 21 -loose 22 may 20 119 but 24 that 25- 

root, l,f, ac,plu, prep, root, 2, c, sub,pr, l,s, 

e -a -s im -pi -e -a -m. 

them 29 in full 30 fill 23 may 27 I. 26 

* The English signification of a case is cancelled in the termination 
af a Latin noun, if a preposition expressed precede it; homin(u) 
bu(6e/ore) coram(before) homin (men) ibus (cancelled.) 





The following list of verbs is inserted for the student to 
conjugate. The figures inserted after each radical will in- 
form the student to which conjugation he is to refer it on 
the table. 

The student should by all means practice on these verbs 
until he can conjugate any verb with the greatest ease, ac- 
curacy, and facility. 

1. Am o, am a re, am a vi, am a turn; a, av, 1st conjugation. 

2. Mon e o, mon e re, mon u i, mon i turn; , , i, 2d conjugation 
3 Re" o, reg e re, rex i, rec turn ; and , 3d conjugation. 

4. Ami i o, aud i re, aud iv i, aud i turn; i, iv, 4th conjugation. 


, 1st Root. 

PERF. 2d Root. SUPINE 

, 3d Root. 





Abscond o,3 

abscond e re,3 

abscond i,3 

abscond i lumA* hide. 

Acu o,3 

acu e re, 3 

aeu i,3 

acu turn, 3 


Argu o,3 

argu e re, 

argu i,3 

argu turn ,3 


Accend o,3 

accend e re, 

accend i,3 

accens uni.3 


A) o,3 

al 6 re, 3 

al u i,2 

al i turn ,2 



ag f re, 3 

eg i ; 3 

ac turn ,3 


Ard e o,2 

ard e re, 2 

ars i,3 

ars um,3 


Aug e o,2 

aug e re,2 

au xi,3 

auc tum,3 


Batu o,3 

batu 6 re,3 

batu i,3 

batu turn ,3 


Bib o,3 

bib e re ,3 

bib i,3 

bib i tum,2 


Conniv e 0,2 

conniv e re,2 

conn iv t,4 



Ci e o,2 

ci e re, 2 

ci vi,3 

ci turn ,3 


Cap i o,4 

cape re, 2 

cep i,3 

cap turn ,3 


Cup i o,4 

cup e re. 3 

cup iv i,4 

cup i turn, 3 


Cresc o,3 

cresc 6 re, 3 

ere vi.3 

ere turn ,3 


Claud o,3 

claud 6 re ,3 

claus i.3 

claus urn .3 


Ccd o,3 

ced 6 re ,3 

cessi i,3 

cess um.3 


Cad o,3 

cad e re,3 

ceci di,3 

cas uni.3 


Cad o,3 

caed re, 3 

cec idi.3 

cas sum, 3 

cut. kill 

Cred o,3 

cred 6 re,3 

cred id i,3 

cred i turn, 2 


Col o, 

col 6 re, 3 

col u i,2 

cult um.3 


Cern o,3 

cern 6 re, 3 

ere vi ,3 

ere turn, 3 

gee, decree. 

Cav e o,2 

cav e re,2 

cav i,3 

cau turn, 3 

take care . 


d a re,l 

de di.3 

dil tum.l 


Dom o,l 

dc u n a re,l 

dom u i,2 

dom i turn 4 


Doc e o,2 

doc e re ,2 

doc u i.2 

doc turn ,3 


Die o,3 

die 6 re ,3 

die si,3(rftxt) 

die turn ,3 


Duo o,3 

due 6 re ,3 

due si,3(duxi)duc turn 3 







- to. 



Eru o3 

era 8 re, 3 

em i,3 

emp turn ,3 


Exu o,3 

Ed o,3 

exu 8 re ,3 
ed 8 re,3 

exu i,3 

exu turn, 3 
e sum,3 


Fru ;r,3 


fru i tus,3 



Fac io,4 

fac 6 re,3 

fee i,3 

fac turn. 3 


Fric o,3 

fric a re, 

fric u i,2 

fric tum,3 


Ful * e o 2 

fulg e re ,2 

ful si 3 

1 * A 

Frig e o,2 

frig e re,2 

fri xiJ3 

fric turn ,3 

be cold. 

Fleet o,3 

fleet 6 re,3 


flee tum,3 


Fur 0,3 

fur 8 re, 


be mad. 

Hab e o,2 

hab e re,2 

hab n i,2 

hab I turn, 


Hajr e o,2 

baer e re,2 

haj si,3 

has stun, 3 


Jung o,3 
Jac i o,4 

jung 8 re,3 
jac e re.3 

junx i,3 
jec i,3 

June turn, 3 
jac turn, 3 


Indu o,3 

inda 8 re, 3 

inda i,3 

indu tum,3 


Lab or ,3 

lab i,3 

lap sus,3 


Leg o,3 
Lud o,3 

leg 6 re, 3 
lud 6 re,3 

leg i,3 

lus i,3 

lee turn ,3 
lu sum, 3 


Lav o,l 

5 lav a re,l 
( lav 6 re, 3 

lav i,3 

C lo turn. 3 
< lau turn ,3 
( lav a tum,l 


Mori or,3 

mor i,3 

mor tuns, 3 


Mitt o.3 

mitt 8 re, 3 

mis i ,3 

miss am, 3 


M n e o,2 

mon e re, 2 

mon u i,2 

mon i tum,2 

ad vis 

Merg o,3 

merg 6 re,3 

mer si, 3 

mers um,3 

dip, plunge. 

Nub o,3 

nub 8 re, 3 

nup si, 3 

nup turn, 3 veil, or marry. 

King o,3 

ning e re,3 

ninx i,3 


Nasc or,3 

nasc i,3 

na tus,3 

be born 

Ori or ,3 

ori ri.3 

or tus,3 


Pand o,3 

pan 8 re ,3 

pand i.3 

pan sum, 3 


Pond o,3 

pend e re, 3 

pepend i,3 

pen sum, 3 


Pung o,3 

pung e re ,3 

pupug i,3 

punc turn, 



pon ere, 3 

pns u i,2 

pos i ti.m,2 


Pet o,3 

pet 6 re.3 

pet IP i,4 

pet i turn, 


I'rem o,3 

prem 6 re, 3 

pi ess i 3 

press um, 


1'sall o,3 

psall 8 re ; 3 

psall i,3 


play on an in 


Pasc o,3 

pasc 8 re, 3 

pav i,3 



Plic o,l 

plic a re,l 



Plu c,3 

plu 8 re, 3 

plu i,3 



Quser o,3 

qnaer 8 re ,3 

quxs iv i,4 

quaes I turn ,4 seek. 

Quiesc o,3 

quiesc 8 re, 

quie vi,3 

qui e tum,3 







Rid e o,2 

rid e re ,2 

ris i,3 

ri sum. 3 


llu o,3 

ru 8 re, 3 

ru i,3 

ru i turn ,3 


Reg o,3 

reg e re,3 

rex i,3 

rec tura,3 


Stru o,3 

stru 6 re, 3 

stmx i,3 

strac tum,3 


Siil n 3 

sid e re 3 

sld i 3 


O1U MjO 

Surg o,3 

surg 6 re,3 

surre x i,3 


snrrec tum,3 



String o,3 

siring e re,3 

strin x i,3 

stric turn, 


Sent i o,4 

sent I re, 

sens i.3 

sen sum ,3 



st a re,l 

stet i.3 

st a tum,l 


Sed e o,2 

sed e re ,2 

sed i,3 

sess urn, 


Scrib o,3 

scrib e re, 3 

scrips i,3 

scrip tum,3 






i . 

9/7 rnnt 

O/7 r ctf\t 

isi rooit 
Ton o,l 

ton a re,l 

*Atf lUUtf, 

ton u i,2 

Oli TUUl* 

ton I turn ,2 


Tene o,2 

ten e re. 2 

ten u i,2 

ten turn, 3 


Tim A n 9 

tllll C T6 2 

A* 11 5 O 


J. 1111 o O . -~ 

Tribu o,3 

tribu e re, 3 

lltll U 1 /*- 

tribu i.3 

tribu turn .3 


Tang 0.3 

tang e re, 3 

tet i gi,3 

tac tum,3 


Trah o.3 

trah 6 re. 3 

tra x i.3 

trac turn, 3 


Tex o,3 

tex 6 re, 3 

tex u i,2 

tex tum,3 


Vet o,l 

vet a re,l 

vet u i,2 

vet I turn, 2 


Vid e o,2 

vid e re. 2 

vid i.3 

vi sum ,3 


Vine o,3 

vine e re. 3 

vie i.3 

vie turn .3 


Vend o 3 

vend e re.3 

vend id i,3 

vend i turn ,4 


Vert o.3 

vert 6 re.3 


ver sum ,3 


Veh o,3 

veh 6 re, 3 

vex i,3 

vec turn ,3 


Viv o.3 

viv 6 re, 3 

vix i,3 

vie turn, 



volv 6 re, 3 

volv i,3 

vol u turn, 3 


Ven i o 4 

ven i re .4 

ven i.3 

ven turn ,3 


Von n n 2 

von i ro J. 

vpn li 51 

VIA ssiM. 

NOTE. From the foregoing one hundred radicals, we have more 
than_/?r? thousand English derivatives, a consideration sufficient to in 
iuce tbs student to commit them perfectly to memory. 



The follow xg are a few Latin rules most likely to le 
used by the student : 

1. The subject of the infinitive is put in the accusative. 

2. The vocative is used in address, with or without O. 

3. Opus and usus, signifying need, govern the ablative. 

4. Dignus, contentus, pr&ditus, govern the ablative. 

5. Utor t fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and dignor, go- 
vern the ablative. 

6. Perfect participles, denoting origin, are followed by 
the ablative of the source, without a preposition. 

7. A noun, denoting that with which the action of a 
verb is performed, is put in the ablative. 

8. A noun, denoting that from which any thing is sepa- 
rated, is often put in the ablative, without a preposition. 

9. A noun, expressing respect wherein or the part affect- 
ed, is put in the ablative. 

10. Verbs that govern two cases in the active voice, 
govern the latter of these in the passive. 

11. The price of a thing is put in the ablative, except 
when expressed by the adjectives tanti, quanti, pluris. 

12. The comparative degree is followed by the abla- 
tive, if quam (than) is omitted. 

13. A substantive with a participle, whose case depends 
on no other word, is put in the ablative absolute. 

14. Adjectives of plenty or want govern the genitire or 

15. Some adverbs govern the genitive. 

16. Some derivative adverbs may govern the same case 
as their primitives. 

17. Nouns signifying the same thing are put by appo 
sition in the same'case. 

18. The subj. present is often used for the imperative. 

19. The infinitive is often used as a noun. 

20 One verb governs another, as its object, in the infi 


21. Participles, gerunds, and supines, govern the same 
cases as their vert?. 

22. The genitive of gerunds fellows nouns or adjectives. 

23. After verbs expressing motion, the place where the 
motion ends, is put in the accusative, without a preposition. 

24. The subject nominative governs the verb. 

25. The verb agrees with its subject nominative in num- 
ber and person. 

26. Transitive verbs govern the accusative. 

27. One noun may govern another noun in the genitive. 

28. Adjectives and participles agree with their nouns in 
gender, number, and case. 

29. Conjunctions connect words or sentences. 

30. Twenty-six prepositions govern the accusative, the 
principal of which are, ad, ante, apud, circum, contra, in- 
fra, inter, intra, ob, per, post, prater, propter, supra, 
trans, ultra. 

31. In and sub, denoting tendency, govern the accusa- 
tive ; denoting situation, govern the ablative. 

32. Super and suiter govern both the accusative and 

33. Eleven prepositions govern the ablative, the princi- 
pal of which are a, ab, coram, cum, de, e, or ex, pro, sine, 

34. Many verbsr compounded of the prepositions, a, ab, 
de, ex, Sec., are followed by an ablative, governed by the 

35. Cause, manner, and instrument, are put in the ab- 

36. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. 

37. The relative pronoun must have an .antecedent, 
with which it must agree in gender and person. 

38. The predicate noun is put in the same case as the 
subject, after a verb neuter or passive, when both words 
refer to the same person or thing. 

39 Verbs compounded with the prepositions, ad, ante 
eon, in, inter, ob, post, pre, sub, and super, govern the 

40. Sum, in the sense of habeo, is followed by the dative 

41. Nouns are sometimes followed by the dative. 

42. A transitive verb, governing the accusative, has a 
genitive, dative, or ablative, to express some relation. 



Root Definition, Syntax. Etymology. 

N. G. D.A.V.A. 

Arm The arms, cano ARM-B, 26* (2n.p.) a,orum,is,a,a,is 
qu. and, arrua QUE virurn, 29 conjunction. 

vir. the hero, cano via-um, 26 (2 m.) vir, i, o, urn, vir, o. 
can. I sing, (ego) CAN-o(l)arma, (3d.) o,ere,cecini,cantum. 

o, is, it, imus, itis, ant. 

T/o. of Troy, oris TROJ-, 27 (1 f.) a, a>, ae, am, a, a. 

qu. who, virum qu-t venit, 37 (m.) i, cujus, cui, em, -, o. 

prim. first, PRIM-US qui, 28 (2 m.) us, i, o, urn, e, o. 

a. from, A-ft oris, prep. 6 euphonic letter. 

or. the shores, ab OR-K, 33 (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

as, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

Ital. to Italy, iTALi-am, 23 (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, A. 

fat. a for. by fate, FAT-O, 35 (2 n.) nm, i, o, um, um, o. 

pro, fug, driven, PROFOG-US qui, 28 (2m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

qu. and, Italiam QUE litora, 29 conjunction. 

Lavin. Lavinian, LAViN-a litora, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orura, is, a, a, is. 

ven. came, qui VEN-#, (2) (3d and 4th.) io, ire, t, turn. 

i. isit. it, imus, istis, erunt. 
fit. to the shores: LITOR-O : 23 (3 n.) us, oris, ori,us, us, ore. 

a, um, ibus, a, a, ibus. 

mult. much, (est) MULT-unt jactatus, adverb 

ill. he, virum ILL-C jactatus, (est) (m.)e,ius, i,um, -, o 

et. both, ET, et, corresponding conjunction 

terr. upon the land, (in) TERR-U, 31 (1 f.) a, ae, am, a, a 

ae, arum, is, as, ae, is 

ac, was tossed, ille JACT-af-us(3) (est,) (1st.) or ari 

atus sum, es, est, &c 
et. and, terris ET alto, 29 conjunction. 

The figures placed after the words refer to the rule those in pa 
rcnthcses ( ) to page 142 


alt. on the deep, (in) ALT-O, 31 (2 n.) run, i, c nm, run. o 

V. by the power, v-t, 35 (3 f.) is, is, -, im, is, i. 

super, of the Gods, vi supER?1m, 27 (2m.)i, (or)-vm, is, os, i,is. 
saev. of cruel, 23 S.EV-<E Junonis, (1 f.) a, , ae, am. a, a. 

mem. lasting, 28 MEMOR-CHI irara, (3 f.) or, is, i, em, or, e. 

JILI. of Juno, iram JuN-onis, 27(3 f.)o,onis, oni, onera.OjOn* 
ob. on account of, OB iram, preposition. 

ir. anger, ob m-am, 30 (1 f.) a, BE, ae, cm, a, &. 

Mult. Much,passus(est) MuLT-a, 26 (2 n. p.) a, orum, is, a, a ; is. 
qu., qu also, et QUO-QUE, conjunction, 

et. and, ET quoque, conjunction. 

bell. by war, BELL-O, 35 (2 n.) um, i, o, urn, urn, o. 

pat. he suffered, (ille) PASSUS (4)(est) (3d.) ior, i, passussum 

es, esi, sumus, estis, Sac. 

dum. while, 36 BUM conderet, avlverb. 

con, do. he would found 

(ille) coN-o-e-re-f,(5)25 (3d.) o, ere, idi, hum. 
rern, res, ret, remus, &c 

urb. a city, conderet URB-em, 26 (3 f.) s, is, i, em, s, e. 

qu. and, conderet QUE inferret, 29 conjunction. 

in, fer. would bring (ille) iN-FER-ref(6)Deos,(3d)o,/errc,tuli,latiim. 

rem, res, ret, remus, &c- 

De. the Gods, inferret DE-M, 26 (2 m.) us, i, o, um, us, o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
Lat. into Latium, 

inferret LATI-O: 39 (2 n.) um, i, o, um, nm, o. 
gen. race, 24 GEN-U (ortum est,) (3n.) ut, eris, eri. 

us, us, ere. 

de, uc. from which one36 UK-DE (ortum est,) adverb. 

Lat. the Latin, 28 LATIN-HOT genus, (2 n.)wm,i,o,um,um,o 
qu. and, genus QUE patres, 29 conjunction. 

Alban Albanian. 28 ALB AN-I patres, 29 (2 m.)us,i,o,um,e.o 

t, orum, is, os, i, is. 

pat. fathers, 24 PAT,re*(ortisunt,)(3m.)er,ris,ri,rem,er,e. 

res, rum, ribus, res &c. 

d, qu. and, patres AT-QTTE mo;nia, 29 conjunction, 

alt. of lofty, 28 ALT- Romse, (1 f.) a, , 83, am, a, a. 

moen the walls, 24 M(Eifi-a(ortasunt,)(2n.p.)a,orum,is J a,8uj. 


Rom Rome. moenia ROM-, (1 f.) a s , ae, Em, a, a 

Mils. O Muse, (0) Mus-a, (1 f.) a, as, SB, am, a, 4 

ego. tome, memora Mi-At, ego, mei, mihi, me, -, me. 

caus the causes CAUS-OS, (1 f.) a, oe, a:, am, a. a. 

ae, arum, is, as, EC, is. 

men. relate: (tu) MEMOR-a:(7)causas, (lst)o,are,avi,atum. 

a, ato, ate, anto. 

qu. what, QU-o numine (n.) od, cujus, cui, od, -, o. 

num. divinity, Ntrsi-ine, Iseso, (3 n.)en,inis,ini,en,en,*ne. 

laed. being offended, LJES-O, numine, (2 n.)um,i,o,um,um.o. 
Tfl. or, numine Iseso VE quid dolens, conjunction, 

qu. why, secundum qr-id, used adverbially. 

del. grieving, DO-LE-TU regina,(3 f.)ns,ntis,nti,ntem,&.c. 

re-sag-o. queen, REGIX-O impulcrit, (1 f.) a, ae, re, am, a. a. 

De. of theGods,regina Ds-um, (2 m.) us, i, o, urn, us, o. 

i, (or)-um, is, os, i, is. 

tot. so many, TOT casus, adj., plural, indeclinable, 

volv. to struggle with, voLV-e-re (8) casus, (3d.)o,ere,i,vo!utum. 

ere, isse, esse, voluturus. 
cas. misfortunes, 

volvere CAS-IW, (4 m.) us, us, ui, nm, ns, a. 

us, uum, ibus, us, 8ce. 

in, sign, renowned, IN-SIGN-CWI virum, (3 ra.) ia, is, i, em, is, i. 

pi. for piety ,insignem PiETA-fe, (3 f.) s, tis, ti, tern, s, te. 

vir. a man, impulerit viR-u;n volvere, (2 m.) vir,i,o,wm,vir,o. 
tot. so many, TOT labores, adj., plural, indeclinable, 

ad, i, to undergo, AD-t-re(9) (2d and 4th.) eo, ire, ivi, itura. 

ire, ivisse, esse iturua. 

lab. hardships, adire LABOR-C*, (3 m.) or, oris, i, em, or, e. 

es, um, ibus, cs, es, Sec. 
in, pel. shall have com- 
pelled, regina iM-PUL-e-ri/,(10) (3d.)pello pellere puJi. 

pulsim, erjn, eris, erit. 

Tant. So much, TANT- irae, (1 f.) a, ae. BB, am, a, a. 

ee, arum, is, as, ac, is. 

ne. NE (sint,) interrogative, 

aiiim. to minds, (sint) ANIM-W, 4. (1 f.) a, SB, ae, am, a, 4 

te, arum, it, as, ae, is 


coel. celestial, ctELEST-tiws animis,(3 f.)is,is,i, em, is e 

es, ium, ibus, es, es, itus 

ir. anger? IR-# (sint?) (1 f.) a, ae, se, am, a, a 

, arum, is, as, ae, is 

CTrb A city, URB-S fuit, (3 f.) *, is, i, era, s, e 

ant., qc, ancient, ANTi-QU-a urbs, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a 

fa. was, urbs FU-i-f, (11) sum, esse,/Mi, fui, fuisti. 

fuit, imus, istis, erunt 

Tjr. Tyrian, TYRI-I colon!, (2 m.) us, i, o, urn, e, o. 

t, orum, is, os, i> is. 

ten. inhabited, coloni TEN-IT- ere ( 12) (quam) (2d.)eo,ere,?n,tum. 

ui, uisti, uit, uimus, uistis,. 
uerunt, or were. 

col. colonists, COLON-I tenuere, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 

Carthag. Carthage, CARTHAG-O fuit, (3 f.) o, inis, i, em, o,e. 

Ital. Italy, contra ITALI-OWI, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

con. opposite to, CONTRA Italiam, preposition, 

qu. and, Italiam Q.UE Tiberina ostia, conjunction 

Tiber, the Tiberian, TiBERiN-a ostia, (2 n.) um,i,o,um,um,o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

long. far off, fuit LONGE, adverb, 

os. mouths contra osri-a, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

div. abounding, mv-e* urbs, (3 f.) es, itis, i, em, es, e. 

op. in wealth, dives OP-MOT, (3 f.) s, is, i, em, es, e. 

wm, ibus, es, es, ibus. 

qu. and, dives opum QUE asperrima, conjunction, 

stud in the arts, STUDI-W, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, if. 

asp. most skilful, ASPER-RIM-O urbs, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

boll. of war: studiis BELL-I: (2 n.) um, t, o, um, u.n, o. 

qu. which, coluisse QU-ara, (f.) a, cujus, cui, am, -, o. 

Jan. Juno, JUN-O fertur, (3 f.) o, onis, oni, onem, &x>. 

or. is said, Juno VER-t-ur, (13) (3d.) o, ferre, tuli. latum 

feror, ferris/yeriwr, &c. 

err. lands, magis TERR-W, (1 f.) a, as, se, am, a, a. 

83, arum, is, as, a?, is. 


mag. more (than), MAG-M, adverb, 

omn. all, oxm-ibus terris, (3 f.)is, is. i, em, is, i. es 

iura, ibus, es, es, ibiu. 

un. one, . UN-am (urbem), (1 f.) a, SB, ae, am, a. a. 

post ,hab. being less est'med Posx-HAB-if-d Sarao, (1 f.) a.a),sc,am, a,<t 
col. to have cherished 

fertur coL-u-isse (14) quam, (2d, 3d.) o, ere, ui, 
cultura. ere, uisse, &c. 

Sam. Samos,posthabita SAM-O, (2 f.) os, i, o,um, e, o. 

Ilic. Here, (fuerunt) Hie, advcvi) 

ill. her, arma ILL-IUS, (f.) a, ius, i, am, -, a 

arm. arms, ARM-<Z( fuerunt) (2n.p.)a,orum is,a,a,is. 

hie. here, fuit HIC, adverb, 

can. chariot, CURRUS fuit, (4 m.) us, us ui, urn, us, u. 

fu. was: currus ru-i-t: (15) sum, esse, /ut.- fui, fusti, 

fuit, fuimus, fuistis, &c. 

hoc. (that) this, HOC esse, (n.) hoc, hujus, huic, hoc, &c. 

re-s ag-o,kingdom, esse REGN-WT/I, (2 n.) urn, i, o, urn, um, o- 
De. the goddess, DE- tendit, (1 f ) a, ae, as, am, a, & 
gen. of nations, regnum GENT-I&W*, (3 f.) gens, tis, i, em, ns, e. 

es, um, ibus, es, es, &c 

e. to be, noc z-sse, (15) sum, esse, fui 

si. if, Dea tendit hoc si fata sinant, , conjunction 

qu. by any means, QUA , adverb 

fat.cfc* the fates, FAT-O sinant, (2 n.) um, i,o, um, um, o 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

sb. may permit, fata six-a-nt, (17) (3d.) o, ere, sivi, situm. 

sinam, as, at, amus, atis, ant. 

jam turn. now also, tendit JAM TUM, adverb. 

qu. both, QUE, que, corresponding conjunction. 

tend. endeavors Dea TEND-t-/(l8)hoc, (3d)o,ere,teteiidi.tum 

tendo, is, it. hnus. &c 

qu and, tendit QTTE fovet, conjunction, 

fov cherishes, (the 

hope) Tov-e-t (19) (spem.)(2d J 3d,)eo,fre,i,fotum 

eo, rs, et. &c. 

rr->,ge.- : . A raoi, PRO GENI-COT duci, (5 f.)es.eT,ej,f7n,es,e 

eu. but, BED, conjunction 


enim. indeed, audierat EMM, adverb 

Tro. Trojan, TROJAN-O sanguine, (2m.; us.i,o,um,e,. 

a. from, A sanguine, preposition 

sang blood, a SANGiri-ne, (3 m.) is, inis, i, em, is, e 

due. to be descended, noc-i, (20) (3d.) o, ere, xi, turn, or, 

t, tus, sum. 
aud. she had heard, 

(ilia) ATJD-ierat (21) (4th.) io, ire, trt, hum. 
iveram, iveras, itrat, &c. 

fyr. Tyrian, TYRI-O* arces, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

olim. hereafter , verteret OLIM, adverb- 

qu. which ,progeniem Qa-ee verteret, (f.) #, cujus, cui, am, -,o. 
vert. wculd overturn, 

quae VERT-e-re-f, (22) (3d.) o, ere, i, sum. 
rem, res, ret, remus, retis, &c. 

AT. citadels, verteret AR-C, (3 f.) x, cis, ci, cem, x, ce. 

ces, cum, cibus, ccs, &c. 

Hinc. Hence, venturum HINC, adverb, 

popul. a people, POPUL-UOT venturum (esse) (2m.) us, i, o, 

urn, e, o. 

Ate. extensively ,regem LATE, adverb, 

re-sag-o ruling, RE-gem* populum,(3 m.)x.gis,gi,gem,x,e. 

bell. in war, BKLL-O, (2 n.) um, i, o, urn, nm, o. 

qu. and, regem late QUE superbum, conjunction, 

superb, proud, SUPERB-UOT populum, (2m.)us,i,o,um,e,o. 

ven would come, 

populum VEN-fur-wm(23)(esse) (3d,4th)io,ire,i,rai 

us, i, o, um, e, o- 

ex, cae>J. to the destruction EX-CIDI-O, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 
Liby. of Libya: excidio LIBY-, (1 f.) a, , 02, am, a, a. 

iio. thus, volvere sic, adverb 

voly. had determined, 

parcas voLV-e-rc, (24) (3d.) o, ere, i, volntum. 
ere, isse, Voluturus, esse. 

pare. the fates, PARC-O* volvere, (1 f.) a, as, ae, am a, a. 

a, arum, is, as, ee, i 

For REO-N-o-nrem. 



I. " This, metuons I-d, (n.) id, ejns, ci, :d, -, no. 

metu. fearing, METu-ensSatnrnia, (3f.)ns,tis.ti.:em,ns,e. 

vet. of the ancient, VET-erw belli, (3n.) us, em, eri, us, 8tc. 
qu. and, metuens id QUE memor belli, conjunction, 

mem. mindful, MEM-orSaturnia,(3f.)ar,oris,ori,orem.&c. 

Saturn Juno, SATURNI-C arcebat, (1 f.)a,a3,ae,am,a,a. 

bell. wa., memor BELL-I, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

prirr.. first, PRIM-O (ilia,) (1 f,) a, ss, ae, am, a, a. 

qu. which ; gesserat Qu-od, (n.) od, cujus, cui, od, -, o. 

ad. at, AD Trojam, preposition. 

Tro. Troy, ad TROJ-OTO, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

pro. for, PRO Argis, preposition, 

char dear, CHAR-W Argis, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, it. 
gcr. she had carried 

on, (ilia) GESs-erai(25)qnod, (3d.)o,ere,mt,essum.. 
eram, eras, erat, &c 

Arg. Argos," pro ARG-W, (2 m. p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is, 

Nec,dum.Neither yet, 

exciderant NEC-DXJM, adverb, 

etiam, also, ETIAM, conjunction, 

caus. the causes, CAUS-CE exciderant,(l f.)a, se, ae, am, a, a. 

a, arum, is, as, se. is 

ir. ofheranger,causaeiR.aru77i, (1 f.) a, ae, as, am, a, a 

ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

(2 m.) us,i, c, nm, e, o 
f, orum, is, as. i, is 

dol. sufferings. DOtoR-Asexciderant^SnOorjOris^en^orje 

, um, ibus, es, es, ibus 

ex, cal. escaped, doleres EX-ciD-era-n-f, (26) (3d.) o, eri, t 

eram. eras, wal . eramus, &o. 

from hermind,ex ANIM-O. (2 m.) us, i,o, um, e, o. 

Remains judicium MAN-e-f, (27) (2d, 3d.) eo, ere, si, sum. 

eo. es, et, emus, &o. 

deep in her, ALT-<! mente, (1 f.) a, ae, 82. am. a. d 

mind, (in) MEN-/C, (3 f.) s, tis. ti. tern. s. te. 



and, causas QUE dolores, 

the cruel, SJEV-I dolores, 

a mm 



re, poa Ian up, 

judicium, (2 n.)u, 


judic. the judgment, XCDICI-WTTI raanet,(2n.) um.i,o,nm,nn. p 
Par. cf Paris, judicium PAR i-dis, (3m.) s, dis, di, dem, s, de 
qu. and, judicium QUE injuria, conjunction, 

spret. of lur despised, SPRET-<E formce, (] f.) a, , as, am, a, a. 
in,jur the injury iN-JURi-a (manet) (1 f.) a,ae,ac, am, a, a. 

form. form, injuria FORM-#, (If.) a, a, ae, am, a, a. 

et. and, injuria ET genus, conjunction, 

gen. raco, GEN-US (manet) (3 n.) KS, eris eri, us, 8co. 

in, vid. the hated iNvis-um genus, (2 n.) urn, i, o,, o. 

et. and genus ET honores, conjunction. 

rap. of the stolen, RAPT-I Gaymedis, (2m.) us, i, o, um,e, o. 

Ganymed.Ganymede. ho- 
nores GANYMED-W, (3 m.) es, is, i, em, cs,e. 
hon. the honors. HONOR-es(manent.)(3m.)or,oris,i,em,or,e. 

es, um, ibus, es, es, ibus. 

Hie. These (things,) super Hi-*, (n.) e,hujus,huic,hoc,-,haeo. 

hffic, horum, his, hsec, -, Aw. 

ad, cand. enraged, AC-CENS-O Saturnia,(l f.)a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

super, on account of SUPER his, preposition. 

jac. tossed, JACTAT-OS Troas, (2m.) us,i, o, um, e,o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 

BEq. sea, (in) QUOR-f, (3n.) or, oris, i, or, or, e. 

tot. vrhole, TOT-O asquore, (2n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

Tro. Trojans, arcebat TKO-OS, (1 m.) a, as, ae. am, a, a. 

te, arum, i as, ae, is. 

re. linq. remnants, arcebat, RE-Liqui-a*, (If. p.) ae, arum, is, as, &3. 
Dan. of the Greeks, 

reliquias DANA-HTTI, (2m. p.) i, (or)-Mm,&t 

ad, qu. and, Danaum AT-QUE AchilleT, conjunction. 

in, mit. of fierce, IM-MIT-W AchilleT (3m.) is, is_ i. em is, e 

Achil. Achilles, reliquias AcHiLL-el, (5m.) es, eX,ei, em,es,e 
arc d;ove, SaturniaARC-c-6a-f(28)Troas, (2)eo ere,ui, ebam, 

has, bat, bamus.Sca. 

long, far, arcebat LONGE, adverb. 

Lat. from Latiuni: (ab)LATi-o : (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

qu. and, arcebat QUE (ille) errabant, conjunction. 

roit many*, MULT-OS annos, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 


per dm ing, PER annos preposition 

ann years, per ANNOS (2m i as, i, o, urn, e,o, 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
err tLsywanda-ed,(illi)ERR-a-6a-n-t(29) (l)o, are, avi, atum. 

abam, has, bat,bamus, 
batis, bant. 
ag. driven, ACT-t (illi.) (m)us i, o, um, e, o, 

t, orum, is, os, i, is. 
or. by the fates, FAT-M, (2n.)um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

mar. seas, circura MAR-UZ, (3 n.) e, is, i, e, e, i. ia. 

ium, ibus, ia, ia, ibus. 

omn. all, OMN-fa maria, (3n.) is, is, i, em, is, i. 

ia, ium, ibus, ia, ia, ibus, 

circ. around, CIRCUM maria, preposition. 

Tant so great, TANT.<Z molis, (1 f.) a, <e, ae, am, a, a. 

mol. difficulty, (opus) MOL-W (3 f.) es, is, i, em, es, e. 

er. it was, (opus) ERA-f(30)condere,sum,esse,fui,eram,eras, 

era-f, eramus, eratis, &c. 

Rom. theRoman, RoMAN-amgentem,(lf.)a, SB, a?, am, a, i. 

con, (1. to establish, erat, coN-D-e-re(31)gentem,(3) o,ere, idi, itum. 

ere, idisse, iturus essa 

gen. nation, condere GEN-fm. (3f.) s, tis, ti, tern, s, te 

Vix. Scarcely, dabant Vix, adverb. 

e. out of, Econspectu, preposition, 

con.spfc. sight, e CON-SPECT-M, (4 m.) us, us, ni, um, us, . 

Sicul. of the Sicilian SICUIJE telluris, (1 f.) a, #, se, am, a, a. 
tel. land, conspectu TELLU-ris, (3 f.) s, ris, ri rem, s, 10. 

in. upon, IN altum, preposition. 

alt. the sea, in AI.T-UIH, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

vel. sails., dabant VEL-O, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, oruir, is, a, a, s. 

d. they spread,('lli) D-aba-n-t (32)vela,(l & 2) o, are,edi,atum. 

abam, has, bat, abamus, 
batis, bant. 
laet joyfo. ^ST.I (illi), (2m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
et. and, dabant ET ruebant, conjunction. 



spurn the foam, raebant SPUM-QS, 

(1 f.) a, se se, am, a, ft. 
se, arum, is, as, se, is. 

Df the deep.'pumas SAL-M, (3 m.) sal, is, i, em, oal, e. 

with the prow, &R-e, (3 n.) aes, aeris, i, tes, ses, e. 

were plowing ;(illi)RU-e-&a-n-f (33) spumas ;(3)o, ere, i, hum, 

ebam, bas, bat, &c. 
when, (volvebat) QUUM, adverb- 










h. these things, (volvebat) H-EC, 


an eternal, 



her breast, 

JUN-O (volvebat,) (3 f.}o,onis,oni,onem,&e. 
vulnus,(2n.)um,i ) o,U7n,um 1 o. 
-ft-n-s Juno, (3 f.)n*, ntis,ti,tem,ns,te. 
SUB pectore, preposition, 

sub FECT-or-e, (3 n.) us, oris, ori, us, us, ore. 

a wound, servans WLK-US, 

(3 n.) us, eris, eri, us, us, ere. 
(n.) oc, ujus, uic, oc, -, oc. 
sec, orum, is, ac. -, is. 

(f.) -, sui, sibi, se, -, se. 
ego, mei, mihi, me, -, me. 

cum. with, CUM se, 

s. herself: cum. s-: 

11. desistere NE, 

Ego. (must) I, ME desistere, 

in, cap. from my underta- 
king, de IN-CEPT-O, 
de, st. desist, 

Tine. conquered, vicr-om me, 

nee. nor, me desistere NEC me posse, 
pot.,esse, be able, me po-se,(35) 
Ital. from Italy, aver- 

tere IxALi-d, 
Teucr. of the Trojans, 

regem TEUCR-OTUW, (2m.p.) i, oru/Tj,is,os,&o 
a, vert, to turn away, posse A.vERT-e-rc(36) regem, (3) o, ere, i, sum. 
re-sag-o. the king? arertere RE.g-em ? (3 m.) x, gis, gi, gem, x, g. 
quip. because, desistere QUIPPE vetor, conjunction, 

vet. . am forbidden, (ego) VET-or, (37) (1 pass. )or,ari,atus, sum. 
for. by the fates. FAT-W, (2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

Pa. Pallas PALL-OS potuit, (3f. Gr.)a,adis,adi,&c. 

n. not, potuit NE, interrogative, 

ex, or to burn, potuit EX-UR-e-re(3S)classem, (3)o, ere, ussi,&c. 
cliss. the fleet, exurere CLASS-CH, (3 f.) is, is, i, em, is, e. 

(2n.) um, i,o, urn, ran, o. 
me DE-siST-e-re,(34) (3) o, ere, stiti, stitum. 
(If.) a, se, EE, am, a, &. 
possum, posse, potui. 

(If.) a, EE, oc, am, a, d. 


Arg. Greeks classem ARGIV-UOT (2 m.) us, i,o, um, e, o 

i, (or)-iim, is, os, i, is 
ad,qu. and, exnrere 

classem AT-QUE submergere, conjunction 

ips. them, submergere IPS-OS, (ra. p.) i, orum,is, o*,i,is. 

pot. was able, Pallas POT-M-i-f,(39) possum, posse, potui. ui 

uisti,?, unimus, &c. drown, potuit suB-MERG-e-re,(40)ipsos, (3)o,cre,si,sum. 
pont. in the deep, 

submergere PONT-O, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o 

un. of one, t7N-ts Ajacis, (m.) us, ius, i. um, e, o. 

ob. on account of, OB noxam, preposition. 

noc. fault, ob Nox-am, (If.) a, ffi, se, am, a, a. 

et. even, unius ET Ajacis, . conjunction 

fur. the fury, ob FURi-as, (1 f.) a, se. oe. am, a, a 

ae, arum, is, as, x, is 

Ajax. ofAjax, furias AJA-CW, (3m.) x, cis, ci, cem, x, ce. 
Oil. the son of Oileus ? 

Ajacis OiLE-t? (2m.) as, t, o, um, e, o 

Ips. She, Ips-a disjecit, (f.) a, ius, i, am, -, a 

Jov. of Jupiter, ignem Jov-ts, (3 m.) Jupiter, Jovis, i, &c. 

rap. the swift, RAPID-MOT ignem, (2m.) us.i,o,m, e, o 

jac. darting, jAcuL-a-f-a ipsa, (1 f.) a,se, ae, am, a, a. 

e. from, E nubibus, preposition 

nub. the clouds, e NUB-I'&WS, (3f.) es, is, i, em, es. e 

es, ium, ibus, es, es ibus. 

ign. lightning, jaculataiGN-em, (3m.) is, is, i, em, is, e 

dis, jac. scattered, ipsa Dis-JEC-i-f, (41) ignem, (3& 4) jicio, ere 

jeci, jectum. i,is,#,&o 

qu, both, Qtrs, quo, corresponding conjunction. 

rat. his ships, disjecit RAT-CS, (3 f.) is, is, i, em, is, e. 

es, um, ibus, s, es, &o. 

qu. and, disjecit rates QUE CTcrt.". scquora, conjunction, 

e, vert, upturned, ipsa E-VERT-i-J ^42)oequora, (3) o, ere, i, sum. 

i, isti, it, imus, 8cc 

seq. the sea, evertit .EQTTOR-, (3n.) or, oris, i, or, or, e 

a, um, ibus a, a, ibus 

vent. by th winds: \ENT-M: (2 m.) us, i, o, cm, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os. t. if. 


ill. him, cirripvdt iLL-um, (m.) e, ius, i, um, e, o 

ex, spir. breathing out, 

illnr\ EX-PiR-a-nf-em, (3m.)ns,ntis,ti,/m. &e. 

trans, fing. from his trans- [am, o.) 

fixed, TRANS-FIX-O pectore, (2n.) um, i, o, urn. 

pect. breast, (a) PECT-ore, (3n.) us, oris, i, us. us. ore 

flam. flames,expirantem FLAMM-OS, (If-) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

BE, arnm, is, as, as, is. 

turb in a whirlwind, (tn)TT7RB-tne, (3m.) o, inis, i, em, o, int. 
con. rap. she seized, ilia COR-RIP-W-I'- (43)illum, (4,3, & 2)io, ere, 

wi, reptum. ui, uisti, uit, &c. 

qu. and corripuit QUE infixit, conjunction, 

jcop. rock, infixit SCOPUL-O, (2m.) us, i,o,um, e,o. 

in, fing. thrust, ipsa ix-Fix-t-f (44) (ilium) (3) figo, ere, xi, 

ctnm. xi,isti, it, &c. 

acut. on a sharp. ACTJT-O scopulo. (2m.)us, i,, e,o. 

Ast. But, infixit AST ego gero, conjunction, 

ego. I, EGO gero, (f.) go,mei, mihi, me,&c. 

qu. who, ego QTJ- incedo, (f.)<, cujus, cui, am, &c. 

Div. of the gods,regina Div-ilm, (2m.p.i, (or)-um, is, &c. 

in, ced. walk, quae iN-CED-o,(45) (3) o, ere, cessi, ccssum. 

o, is, it, imos, istij, &c 

re-s ag-o. queen, RE-oiN-a incedo, (1 f.) a, set, se, am, a, . 

qu. and, regina QUE soror, conjunction. 

Jov. of Jupiter, soror Jov-is, (3m.) Jupiter, Jovis,\, em. er,e. 
et. both, ET, et, corresponding conjunction. 

tor. sister, (sum) SOR-OT, (3 f.) or, oris, ori, orem, &c. 

et. and, soror ET conjnx, conjunction, 

conjung, the wife, (sum) CON-JU-I, (3 c.):r, gis, gi, gem, x, ge. 
un. one, vs-d genta, (1 f.) a, EB, SB, am, a, a. 

cum. with, UM genta, preposition, 

gen. race, cum GEN-*C, (3f.) s,tis, ti, tern, s, te. 

tot. so many, TOT annos, adj. plural, indeclinable- 

ann. years, per ANN-O*, (2m. p.) i, orum, is, os, &c- 

bell. wars, gero BELL-O, (2n.p.) a, orum, is, a, &c. 

ag-o res. carry on; ego GER-o:(46) (3) o, ere, gessi, gestura. 

o, is, it, imus, itis, unt. 
f. andj igo gei o bella ET, quisquar adoret, conjunction 



qu.,qu who, %u.i*.quAM adoret, s, cujustai qucra,-,o. 

num. the divinity ,adoret NUM-en, (3 n.) en, inis, ini, en, &c. 

Jim. of Juno, numen JuN-oni*, (3 f.) o, onis, oni, 8cc. 

ad, or. can adore, quis. AD-OR-e-/(47inumen, (1) o,are,avi,atum. 

em, es, et, emus,8tc. 
prseter,ea. hereafter, im- 

ponat PR.KTER-BA, adverb, 

aut. or adoret numen AUT imponat, conjunction. 

sup,pl'c supplicating, sup-pL-ex,quisquam, (3c.) ez,icis, ici,8to 
ar . on my altars, 

imponat AR-W, (1 f.p.) ae, arum, is, &o 

in, pon. will place, quis- [am, as, af, amus, &c. 

quam iM-PON-a-/(48)honorem,(3)o,ere,sui,itum, 

hon. a sacrifice? imponat HONOR-em ? (3m.) or, oris, i, em,8cc. 

TaJ Such (things), 

volutans TAL-W, (3n.p.) 5a, ium, ibus, ia, &c. 

in her inflamed, FLAMM-<Z- < corde,(2n.)um,i,o,um,um,o. 
herself, cum s-e, -, sui,sibi,se,-, sc. 

with, CUM se, preposition, 

the Goddess, DE-O ventt, (1 f.) a, se, as, am, a a. 

heart, (in) cov.-de, (3 n.) r,dis,di, dem.r, de. 

revolving, voLUT-a-n, Dea, (3 f .) ns, ntis, ti, tem,Src. 

of storms, patriam NiMB-or7Jt, (2m.p.)i,orMm,is,os,i,is. 
into, IN patriam, 

in pATRi-am, 
in Loc-a, 

-a loca, 













the country, 



of boisterous, 




JEo\. JEolus, 
antr. cave, 


(1 f.) a, ae, se, am, a, a. 
(2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
(2 n.p.) a, orum, is, , a, is. 
TVR-e-n-t-ibus Austria, (3 m.p.)es,um,ibus, 
es, es, ibus. 

(2 m.p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
(If.) a, as, ae am, a, a. 
(4 & 3) Jo, ire, t, turn, 
i, isti, it, imus, istis, erunt. 

(2n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 
KE-xpremit, (3m.) x,gis,gi,gcm,x,go. 
JEoL-us premit, (2m.) r/f,i,o, um, e, o. 
(in) ANTH-O, (2n.) um, i o, nm, um, o. 

foeta AUSTR-W 
in JEon-am, 
Dea VEN-U.(49) 

Here, premit Hie, 

in a vast, VAST-O antro 


luct. the struggling, iucT.ff-n-i-e* ventos, 3m.p.)es, urn, ibus. 

es, es, ibus. 

ven. winds, premit VENT-OS, (2m.p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
qu. and, ventos, QUE tempestates, conjunction 

tempest, tempests, premit TEMpEsr-af-es, (3f.p.)es,um,ibus,es, 

es, ibus. 

on. the sounding, SOXOR-CTS tempestates, (1 f.p.) SB, arum, if. 

as, x, is 

mp3r. by authority, IMPERI-O, (2n.)nm, i, o, urn, um, o 

pre.u. governs, ^Eolus pREM-i-f,(50)ventos,(3) o,ere,essi,essura. 

o, is, it, imus, itis, unt. 

ac. and, premit AC froenat conjunction, 

vine. with chains, VINCL-W, (2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

et. and. vinclis ET carcere, conjunction, 

care. in a prison, CARCER-C, (3m.) r, ris, ri, rem, r, e. 

fraen. restrains, .ZEolus FR.EN-a-f(5])(illos)0,are,avi, atom. o,as, 

at, amus, atis, ant. 

HI, they, Dl.i fremunt, (m.p.) f,orum,is,os,i, is. 

in,dign. indignant, XN-DiGN-a-n-if-esilli,(3m.p.)e8,um,ibus.&e. 

magn. a great, MAGN-O murmure, (2n.)um,i,o,um.nm,o. 

cum. with, CUM murmure, pfeposition. 

murmur, murmur, cum MURMUR-C (3n.) r,ris, ri,rem,r,re. 

mon. of the mountain, 

murmure MON-/-M, (3m.) s,tis, tj,tem,s, te. 

circ. around, CIRCUM claustra. preposition, 

claustr. the barriers,circum CLAUSTR-O, (2 n.p.) a, omm, is, a , a, is. 
frem. roar. illi FREM-u-n-i.(52) (3 &2)o,ere,ui, itum. 

o,5s, it. imus, itis, unt. 

Cels. In (his) lofty, CELS-<! arce, (1 f.) a, ae, se, am, a, a. 
sed. sits, ^olus, SED-e4.(53) (2& 3) eo, ere,i, ssum. 

eo, cs, et, emus, &e 

^Eol. ^olus, ^OL-IW sedet, (2m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

arc. citadel, (in) AR-C-C, (3f.) x, cis, ci, cem, x ce. 

scepti scepter, tenens SCEPTR-B, (2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
ten. holding; TEN-e-n-*.<Eolus J (3m.)7W,ntis,ti,tem,8.o. 

qn. and, sedet QUE mollit, conjunction 

wall. softens, ^olus MOLL-i-*(54)anhnos, (4) TO, ire, ivi, itnra. 

io, is, it, imus, &e. 


unim. minds, mollit ANIM-OS, (2m. p.) i, cmm,is, <s, i,is. 
ct. and, mollit ET temperat, conjunction, 

temper, moderates, -Holus TEMPER-^ (55)iras, (1) o, are, avi, atum. 

o, as, at, amus, &c. 

ir. their anger, temperat m-as. (If.p.)ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

N. Unless, facial Ni, adverb. 

far. he did so, (ille) FAC-t-a-f(56)(hsec,) (4 &3) to, ere, feci, 

factum. iam, ias, iat, iamus, &c. 

nar. the seas, ferant MAR-UI, (3n.p.) ia,ium, ibus, ta, &c. 
ac. and, maria AC terras, conjunction, 

terr. the land, ferant TERR-US, (1 f.p.)se, arum, is, a*, as, is. 
qu. and, terras QTTE ccclum, conjunction. 

coal. heaven, ferant ccEL-um, (2n.p.)um. i,o,m, ura,o. profound, pRO-FUND-wmco2lum,(2n.)um,i,o,um,um,o. 
quip. Tor, temperat QUIPPE ferant, adverb, 

fer. they would bear, TER-a-n-t ,(57) (3 & 1) o, re, tuli, latum. 

am, as, at, amus, atis, ant. 

rap. swift, RAPiD-t(flli.) (2m.p.) i, orum, is, &c. 

cum. with CUM se, preposition, 

s. themselves, cum s-e, (p.)-, sui,sibi, se, -, w, 

qu. and, ferant QUE verrant, conjunction, 

ver. would sweep, (illi)vERR-a-n-*, (58) (3) o, ere, i, sum. am, 

as, at, amus, atis, ant. 

per through, PER auras, preposition, 

aur. the air. per AUR-a*. (If.p.) se, arum, is, at, oe, is. 

Sed pater omni-pot-e-ns spelunc-is ab-did-i-t atr-!s, 
But 'he father omnipotent caverns hid them in dark, 

Hoc actu-e-ns ; mol-em que et mon-t-es in-super alt-os, 
This fearing ; a mass and and mountains above them lofty. 

Im-pos-u-i t; re-gem quo ded-i-t, qui feed er-e cer-to 
Placed; a king and gave, who laws by fixed 

Et, et lax-as sci-re-t d-a-re juss us habec-as. 
Both to restrain, and loose would know to give being ccmmandud reins 

Ad qu-em tnm Jun-o suppl-ex h-is voc-ibns us-a es-t: 
To whom then Juno as a suppliant these words used: 

^Eol-e, (nam-que tibi Divutn pat-er at-que rrm-5n-um re-x 

O ^Eolus, (for to thee of the Gods the father and cf men king 

Et mulc-e-re ded-i t fluct-us et toll-e-re vent-o,) 

Both to calm has given the waves and to raise them with the wind,) 



Gen-s in-Smic-a mihi Tyrrhen-urt navig-a-t a j; 4,r 
A nation hostile to me the Tyrrhenian navigate sea, 

Ili-um in Itali-am port a-ns, vict-cs que Pennt-es 

Troy into Italy bearing, the conquered and household gods. 

In-cut-e vi-m vent-is, sub-mers as que ob-ru-e pupp-es: 

Add force to your winds, the submerged and destroy ships: 

Aut ag-e divers-os ; et dis-jic-e eorp-ora pont-o. 

Or separate them ; and scatter their bodies in the deep. 

S-u-n-t mihi bis septem prae-st-a-nt.i corp-or-e Nymph-ae: 
I have fourteen of beautiful form Nymphs : 

Qu-arum, quse form-d pulcherrim-a, De'iopei-am 
Of whom, who is in form most beautiful, Deiopeia 

Con-nubi-o jung-am stabil-i, propri-am que dic-a-b-o ; 

Wedlock I will join to tkee in firm, as thine own and will consecraVsj 

Omn-es nt te cum merit-is pro tal-ibus ann-os . 

All that thee with merits lor such years 

Ex-ig-a-t. et puleh-ra fac-i-a-t te prol-e paren-t-ern 

She may spend, and by a beautiful may make thee progeny parent. 
^Eol-us h-aec contra: Tu-us, o regin-a, qu-id, opt-es, 

JEolus these words to replied: It is thy, queen, what you may 


Ex-plor-a-re lab-or ; mihi juss-a capess-e-re fa-s es-t. 

To consider business ; to me your commands to execute it belongs. 

Tu mihi, quod-cunque hoc regn i tu sceptr-a, 

You for me, whatsoever of this kingdom / possess, you the sceptre, 

Jov-em que 
Jupiter and 

Concili-a-s: tu d-a-s epul-is ae-cumb-e-re Div-um. 

Conciliate : you permit me the feasts to recline at of the Gods, 

Nimb-orum que fac-i-s tempest-at-um que pot-e-nt-em. 

Of the clouds and you make me cf tempests and ruler. 

H-aec ubi dic.t-a, cav-um con-vers-a cusp-id-e mon-t-em 

These when words were spoken, hollowwith his turned spear mount aia 

Im-pul-i-t in lat-us; ac vent-i, velut agm-in-e fact-o, 
He struck on the side ; and the winds, as if a band were made, 

Qu dat-a port-a, ru-u-n-t, et terr-as turb-5n-e per-fl-a-n-t 

Where was given a passage, rush out, and the earth in a whirlwind I 'low 

[c -er. 

In-cub-u-ere mar-i, tot -um que a sed-ibus im-is, 
They rest upon the sea, the whole and from depths the lowest 

Un& Eur-us que Not-us que ru-u-n-t, creb-er que prooell-is 

At once the east wind both the southwind and disturb, thick and with 


Afric-us, et vast-os volv-u-n-t ad lit-or-a fluct-us. 

The southwest wind, and vast roll to the shores waves. 


Tn-seqni-t-ur clam-or que vir-Qm, strid-or que rud.'n t-um, 
Foiiows the clamor both of men, the creaking and of coraage, 
E-rip-i-u-n-t subito nub-es ccelum que, di-em que, 

Snatch away suddenly the clouds sky both, light and 

Teucr-orum ex ocul-is: pont-o no-x in-cub-a-t atr-a. 
Of the Trojans from the eyes: the deep night broods upon dark. 

In-ton-u-e-re pol-i, et crebr-is mic-a-t ign-ibus aeth-er: 

Thundered the heavens, and with frequent glistens lightnings the air: 

Prae-sent-em que vir-is in-tent-a-n-t omn-ia mor-t-em. 

Immediate and to the men threaten all things death. 

Extemplo JEne-se solv-u-n-t-ur frig-or-e membr-a. 

Immediately of -^Eneas are loosened by the cold the members. 
In-gem-i-t, et dupl-ic-es tend-e-ns ad sid-er-a palm-as, 

He groans, and both A is stretching towards the stars hands, 

Tal-ia vo-ce re-fer-t: O ter que quater que beat-i, 
He cries thus: O thrice and four times happy they, 

Que-is ante or-a patr-um Troj-ae sub moan-ibus alt-is, 

To whom before the faces of their fathers of Troy under walls the lofty, 

Con-tig-i-t oppet-e-re! 6 Dana-um fort-issim-e gen-t-is 
It happened to die! of the Greeks most brave of the race 

Tydid-o, me-ne Iliac-is oc-cumb-e-re camp-is 

Tydidus, why was I on the Trojan to fall fields 

Non pot-n-isse? tu-a que anim-am hane ef-fund-e-re dextr-a? 
Not able? by thy and life this to pour out right hand? 

Saev-us ubi -/Eacid-ae tel-o jac-e-t Hect-or, ubi ingen-a 

Fierce where of Achilles by the weap-on lies Hector, where great 

Sarped-on: ubi tot Simo-Ts cor-rep-t-a sub und-is 

Sarpedon lies : where so many the Simoi's having seized under its waves 

Scut-a vir-um, gale-as que, et fort-ia corp-or-a volv-i-t. 
The shields of men, helmets and, and brave bodies rolls. 

Tal-ia jact-a-nt-i strid-e-ns Aquil-on-e procell-a 

As he thus spoke, the shrieking with the north wind tempest 

Vel-um ad-vers-a fer-i-t, fluct-us que ad sid-er-a toll-i-t. 
The sail opposite strikes, the waves and to the stars raises. 

Frang-u-n-t-ur rem-i: turn pror-a a-vert-i-t, et und-is 

Are broken the oars: then the prow turns, and to the waves 

D-a-t lat-us: in-sequi-t-ur cumul-o pras-rupt-us aqu-ae rnon-s. 
Gives its side: follows in a heap broken of water mountain. 

H-i sumrn-o in fluct-u pend-e-n-t: h-is und-a de-hisc-e-n 
They the top of on the wave hang: to them the water yawning 

Tsrr-am inter fluct-us aper-i-t: fur-i-t aest-us aren-is. 
Tiie earth between the waves discloses : rages the tide in the sands. 

Tr-es Nbt-us ab-rept-as in sax-a lat-e-nt-ia torqu-e-t, 

Three At *. the south wind driven away upon the rocks hidden whirls ; 


Sax-a voc-a-n-t Ital-i, medi-is qu-ss in flnct-ibns jxr- 

These rocks caM the Italians, in the midst of which are the waves Altars. 
Dors-um imman-e mar-i summ-o. Tr-es Eur-us ab 

Ridge a huge the sea at the top of. Three ships the east wind from 


the deep 

In brevi-a et syrt-es nrg-e-t, miserabil-e vis-u ; 
Upon shoals and quicksands drives, a miserable sight ; 

Il-lid-i-t que vad-is, at-que agger-e cing-i-t aren-ae. 
Dashes into and the shallows, and with a heap binds of sand. 

Un-am, qu-ae Lyci-os fid-urn que veh-e-ba-t Oront-em, 
One, which Lycians faithful and carried Orontes, 

Ips-ius ante ocul-os ingen-s a vert-ic-e pont-ns 
Ilis before eyes a great from above wave 
In pnpp-im fer-i-t: ex-cut-i-t-ur pron-us que magist-er 
On the stern strikes : is struck bending and master 

Volv-i-t-or in cap-u-t ; ast ill-am ter fluct-ns ib-idem 

Is rolled upon h is head: and it three tunes the wave in the same place 
Torqu-e-t agen-s circum, ct rapid-us vor-a-t eeqn-or-e vort-e-x. 
Whirls driving around, and the swift swallows in the sea whirlpool. 

Ap-par-e-n-t rar-i n-a-nt-es in gurg-it-e vast-o: 
Appear a few swimming in whirlpool the vast: 

Arm-a vir-um, tabul-ae que et TroT-a gaz-a per nnd-as. 

The arms of the men, tablets and and Trojan treasure appear in the 


Jam valid-am Ilion-i nav-em, jam fort-is Achat-ae; 

Now the strong of Ilioneus ship, now the ship of brave Achates; 

Et qu-a vect-us Ab-as, et qu-A 

And the ship in which was borne Abas, and the ship in which was bornt 

grandaev-us Aleth-es, 
the aged Alethes, 

Vic-i-t hiern-s: lax-is lat-er-um compag-ibus omnes 

Conquers the storm : through the loosened of the sides joints all the ship* 

Ac-eip a-n-t in-imic-ura imbr-em, rim-is que fatisc-u-n-t. 
Rei>;iv the fatal flood, in the seams and gape. 



[The use of the hyphen in the following lx\es will be, 
as heretofore, to separate the root, connecting letter or let- 
ters, significant letters and terminations, from each other. 
For example, in the word squal-e-n~t-i-bus : squal is the root, 
e the medial or significant letter of the conjugation ; n de- 
notes the present participle, t a connecting letter, and ibus 
the case and number termination. Corusc-a-n-t, corusc, 
the root, a the medial letter of the present tense and first 
conjugation, n sign of the plural number, t sign of the 
third person. Claros, dar, the root, o the significant let- 
ter of the second declension, s terminal letter of the accu- 
sative plural in all declensions, excepting in the neuter gen- 
der. Terr-a-m, terr the root, a significant letter of the 
first declension, m terminal letter of the accusative singu- 
lar, in all declensions, excepting neuters of the third. 

If the student has become familiar with the foregoing 
Tables of Terminations, he will understand these divisions 
without difficulty. They will be continued only partly 
through the reading, and then the scholar is expected to be 
able to separate the words in his mind at a glance, and thus 
be enabled, in a moment, to determine the conjugation, 
voice, mood, tense, number, person, declension, case, or 
gender of all words.] 

Protinus aPri-i mell-is ccelet-5-a don-a 
Next of aerial honey the celestial gift 

Ex-eq-u-a-r H-anc etiam, Maecen-as, ad-spic-e par-t-e-m. 
I will describe. This also, Maecenas, look at part. 

Ad-mir-a-nd-a t-ibi lev-i-um spectacul-a re-ram, 

To be admired by thee of inconsiderable views things, 

Magn-anim-o-s que duc-e-s, tot-ins que ord-in-e gen-t-is 
Courageous and leaders, of a whole and in order race 

Mo-r-e-s, et stnd-i-a, et popul-o-s, et prael-i-a dic-a-m. 
Customs, and arts, and people, and battles I will relate. 
In ten-u-i labor: at tenu-is non glor-i-a: si qu-e-ro 

On i low nbjert this labor is : but low is not the glory ; if any one 


Nnm-in-a lasv-a sir-a-n-t,aud-i-t que voc-a-t-us Apollo. 
Divinities adverse permit, hears, and being invoked Apollo. 

Princip i-o, sed-e-s ap-ibus st-at-io que pet-e-nd-a, 

In the lirst place, a seat for the bees station and must be sought, 

Quo ne-que si-t vent-is ad-it-us ( nam pabul-a vent-i, 

Where neither may b; for the winds an entrance (for food -winds 

Fer-re dcn-u-m pro-hib-e-n-t) ne-que ov-e-s ho3d-i que petulc-i 
To carry home prohibit) neither sheep kids and frisking 

Flor-ibus in-sult-e-n-t ; aut err-a-n-s bucul-a camp-o 
The dowers may bruise, or the grazing heifer in the field 

De-cut-i-a-t ro-r-e-m, et surg-e-n-t-e-s at-ter-at herb-a-s. 
May strike off the dew, and the growing may trample plants. 

Ab-si-n-t et pict-i squal-e-n-t-i-a terg-a, lacert-i 

Let be absent also spotted as to their tilthy backs, lizards 

Pingu-ibus & stabul-is ; merop-e-s que, ali-se-que voluc-r-e-s, 
The fat from hives; bee-eaters and, other and fowls, 

Et man-ibus Procn-e pect-us sign-a-t-a cruent-is. 

And hands the swallow at to her breast marked with bloody. 

Omn-i-a nam late vast-a-n-t, ips"-a-s-que vol-a-n-t-e-s 

All things for on every side they destroy, them and flying about 

Or-e fer-u-n-t, dulc-e-m nid-is im-mit ibus esc-a-m. 

In their mouth they bear, a* a sweet nests to their cruel morsel. 

At liquid-i fon-t-e-s, et stagn-a vir-e-n-t-i-a musc-o 
But pure fountains, and pools green with moss, 

Ad-si-n-t et tenu-is, fugi-e-n-s per gramin-a ri-vus: 

Let be present, and a small, gliding through the grass rivulet: 

Palm-a que vestibul-um aut ingen-s oleast-er in-umbr-e-t. 

The palm tree and the threshhold or the great wild olive let shade. 

Dt, quum prim-a nov-i duc-e-n-t examin-a re-g-e-s 
That, when the first new will lead swarms kings 

Ver-e so-;, lud-e-t que fav-is e-miss-a jnvent-ut ; 

In spring itself, will play and from the honeycombs sent forth young ; 

Vicin-a in-vit-e-t de-ced-e-re rip-a calor-i, 

The neighboring may invite to depart from bank the heat, 

Ob-vi-a que hospit-i-is ten-e-a-t frond-e-n-t ibns arb-os. 

Opposite and x slcome may present itself with a leafy tree. 

In medi-u-m, seu st-a-b-i-t iner-s, seu pro-flu-e-t hum-or, 
In the midst, whether will stand sluggish, or will flow water, 

Trans-veri-a-s sa.-ic-e-s et grand-i-a con-jic-e sax-a: 
Icrcw willows and large cast rocks: 


Pont-ibns ut creb-r-is pos-si-n-t con-sist-e-re et alas, 

Bridges tha , tpon frequent they may be able to rest and their wings 

Pand-e-re ad sestiv-u-m sol-e-m; si forte mor-a-n-t-e-s 

To stretch oii to the summer sun: if by chance Ihem delaying 

Spars-eri-t aut proe-cep-s Neptun-o im-mers-eri-t 

Shall have sprinkled or the dangerous in the rain shall immersed 


the east wind. 

H-see circ-um casi-ae vir-id-e-s, et ol-e-n-t-i-a late 

These around let there be spice trees green, and fragrant on every side 

Serpyll-a, et graviter spir-a-n-t-i-s copi-a thymbr-ae 
Thyme, and powerfully of smelling abundance savory 

Flor-e-a-t: irrigu-u-m que bib-a-n-t violar-i-a fon-t-e-m 

Let flourish : the watering and let drink the beds of violets fountain. 

Ips-a autem seu cort-ic-ibus tibi sut-a cav-a-t-is, 
These but, either bark by thee fastened with hollow 

Sea lent-o fu-eri-n-t alvear-i-a vim-in-e text-a, 

Or with the bending which will be hives vine woven, 

August-o-s hab-e-a-n-t ad-it-u-s: nam frig-or-e mell-a 
Narrow let have entrances ; for with cold the honey 

Cog-i-t hiems, ea-dem que cal-or lique-fact-a remitt-i-t: 
Congeals winter, the same and heat melted returns: 

Utr-a que vi-s ap-ibus pariter met-u-e-nd-a: ne-que ill-ae 
Either and force by the bees equally is feared : neither they 

Ne-quic-quam in tect-is cert-atim tenui-a cer-a 

In vain in their dwellings assiduously small with wax 

Spirament-a lin-u-n-t, fuc-o que et flor-ibus or-a-s 
Air holes smear, with paint and and flowers borders 

Ex-pl-e-n-t : col-lec-t-u-m que h-aec ips-a ad mun-er-a glut-en 
Fill : the collected and these very to uses gluten 

Et visc-o et Phrvg-i-ae serv-a-n-t pio e lent-i-ns Id-ae. 

Both glue and of Phrygian they preserve pitch tougher than Ida. 

Saepe etiam ef-fos-is(si ver-a es-t fam-a) latebr-is 
Often also dug out (if true is report) in recesses 

Sub terrst fovere lar-e-m ; penitus qne 

Under the eartlr tiey have cherished their household; deep and havt 

re-per-t re 
been found 

Pumic-ibus que cav-is, ex-e-s-se que arbor-is antr-o. 

Pumice stone.? ar.d in holloa of an old ana tree in the hollow. 


Tu tamen et lev-i rim-os-a cub il-i-a lim-o 

Do you notwithstanding with yielding leaky hhes clay 

Ung-e fov-e-n-s circ um, et rar-a-s super-in-jic-e frond-e-s. 
Daub guarding around, and thin above put on boughs. 

Neu prop-ius tect-is tax-nm sin-e. ne-ve rub e n-t-e-s 
Neither near the hives the yew-tree permit, nor reddening 

Ur-e foc-o cancr-os: alt-ae neu cred-e palu-d-i: 

Burn t ?i the fire crabs: to the deep nor trust marsh: 

Aut ubi od-or caen-i prav-is, aut ubi con-cava puls-u 
Or where the smell it of mire offensive, or where hollow from a blow 

Sax-a son-a-n-t voc-is quo of fen-s-a re-sult-a-t imag-o. 

Rocks resound, of the voice and offensive rebounds image. 

Qu-od siiper-es-t, ubi puls-a-m hiem-e-m sol aure-us eg-i-t 
Further, when repulsed winter sun the golden had driven 

Sub terr-a-a, cosl-u-m que sstiv-a luc-e re-clus-i-t; 
Under the earth, the sky and with summer light has brightened ; 

Ill-se continue salt-u-s silv-a-s que per-agr-a-n-t, 
They immediately woods forests and wander over, 

Purpure-o-s que met-u-n-t flor-e-s, et flumin-a lib-a-n-t 
Purple and cut down flowers, and streams sip 

Summ-a lev-es. Hinc ne-sc-i-o qu-a dulced-in-e laet-se 
Surface of flying. Hence I know not in what sport joyful 

Pro-gen-i-e-m nid-o-s que fov-e-n-t; hinc art-e rec-ent-e-s 
Their young nests and cherish ; hence with skill fresh 

Ex-cud-u-n-t cer-a-s, et mell-a tenac-i-a fing-u-n-t. 
Form wax, and honey the tenacious make. 

Hinc nbi jam emiss u-m cave-is ad sid-er-a ccel-i 

Hence where now issuing/rowt their hives towards the stars of heaven 

N-a-re per sesta-t-e-m liquid-a-m sus-pex-eri-s agm-en, 
To sail through the air clear you shall behold a band, 

Obscur-a-m que trah-i vent-o mir-a-b-er-e nub-e-m ; 

Dark and to be carrid by the wind you shall wonder at the cloud , 

Contempl-a-tor: aqu-a-s dulc-e-s et frond-e-a semper 
Look: waters sweet and leafy always 

Tect-a pet-n-n-t: hue tu jnss-o-s a-sperg-e sap-or-es, 
Dwellings they seek: here do you suitable sprinkle flavored herbs, 

Trit-a melis-phyll-a, et cer lath-as ignobil-e gram-en: 

Bruised balm-gentle, and of honey-suckle the common herb : 

Tinnit-us qui ci-e, et Matr-is quat-e cymbal -a circ-um. 
Einging anil excif e and of Cybele strike the cymbals around. 


Ips-ffl con-sid s-n-t medic-a-t-'s sed-ibus: ips-as 
They rest upon the fragrant places : they 

Intim-a mo-r-e su-o s-c-s-o in cuna-bul-a cond-e-n-t. 

Familiar mannai in their own themselves for hives will build. 

Sin autem ad pugn-a-m ex-i-eri-n-t (nara saepe du-obus 

If but to battle they shall go forth (for often two 

Reg-ibus in-2ess-i-t magn-o discord-i-a mot-u) 

Kings has seized upon with great discord disturbance) 

Continue que anim-o-s vulg-i, et trepid-a-n-t-i-a bell-o 
Immediately and minds of the crowd, and eager for war 

Cord-a licet longe prae-scisc-e-re : nam-que mor-a,n-t-e a 

Hearts it is permitted you long before to perceive : for those delaying 

Mart-i-us ill-e ae-r-is rauc-i can-or in-crep-a-t, et vo-x 
Warlike the brass of the harsh sound rouses, and the voice 

Aud-i-t-ur fract-o-s sonit-u-s imit-a-t-a tub-a-nim. 
Is heard broken sounds imitating of trumpets. 

Turn trepid-aB inter s-e co-e-u-n-t, penn-is que corusc- 

Then swift among themselves they fight, with their wings and they 


Spicul-a que ex-acu-u-n-t rostr-is,apt-a-n-t que lacert-o-s, 

Stings and sharpen with their beaks, prepare and their limbs, 

Et circ-a reg-e-m, at-que ips-a ad praetor-i-a dens oe 
And around the king, and itself at the royal hive thick 

Misc-e-n-t-ur magn-is que voc-a-n-t clamor-ibus host-e-m 

They are gathered, with great and chaleage clamor the enemy. 

Ergo, ubi ver nact-se sud u-m camp-o-s que pat-e-n-t-e- 

Therefore, when spring that they have found clear fields and ope 

E-rump-u-n-t port-'s, con-curr-i-t-ur: sether-e in alt-o 

They issue from their gates, it happens: air in the lofty 

F-i-t sonSt-us: magn-um mixt-sB glomer-a-n-t-ur in orb-e-m, 
Is made a sound : a great mingled they are collected in circle, 

Prae-cip-it-e-s que cad-u-n t: non dens-i-or aer e grand-o, 

Headlcng and fall: not is thicker than in the air hail, 

Nee de con-cuss-A tant-um plu i-t il-ic-e gland-is: 
If or i'rora the shaken docs so much shower oak of acorns, 

Ips-i per medi-a-s aci-e-s, in-sign-ibus 

Tkt \ingt themselvei t'orough the m ist of the arnies. -tpon splendid 



In-gent-e-s anim-o-s august -o in pect-or-e vers-a-n-*,: 
Great minds a small in breast revolve : 

Us-que adeo ob-nix-i non ced-e-re, dum grav-is -ant 

So far that resolute not thy have yielded, while Lie powerful., either 



Ant h-o-s, ver-s-a fug 1 vict-or d-a-re tersr-a 

Or those, being changed, the flight, conqueror to give their backs 


H-i mot-u-s anim-or-um at-que h-aec certam-in-a tant-a 

These excit3ments of their minds and these contests so great 

Pulv-er-is ex-igu-i jact-u com-pre-ss-a quiesc-u-n-t. 

Of dark a little by throwing on stopped cease. 

Verumubi ductor-e-s aci-e re-voc-av-eri-s am bo, 

But when the leaders from the army you shall have recalled both, 

Deter-i-or qu-i vi-s-us, e-um, ne prodig-us ob-s-i-t, 
Feebler who seems, him, lest the prodigal injure, 

Ded-e nec-i: mel-i-or vac-u-A sin-e regn-e-t in aul-a. 
Deliver to death: the better an empty suffer to reign in hall. 

Alt-er eri-t macul-is aur-o squal-e-n-t-ibus ard-e-n-s: 
One will be spots in gold with dirty shining: 

Nam du-o s-u-n-t gen-er-a; h-ic mel-i-or, in-sign-is et or-e 

For two there are kinds ; one the better, marked both on the counte 

Et rutul-is clar-us squam-is: ille horrid-us alt-er 

And with bright beautiful scales: the rough other. 

De-sid-i-ft, lat-a-m que trah-e-n-s in-glori-us alv-u-m. 
In sloth, broad and drawing ignoble belly. 

Ut re-g-ura fac-i-e-s, ita corp-or-a pleb-is. 

As there are two of kings kinds, so there are two classes of the plebeians. 

Nam-cie ali-se turp-e-s horr-e-n-t, ceu pulv-er-e ab alt-o 
For some mean disgust, as if dust from deep 

Quum ven-i-t, et sicc-o terr-a-m spu-i-t or-e, via-t-or 

When came, and/rom his dry on the earth spits mouth, traveller 

Arid-us: eluc-e-n-t ali-, et fuljjj-or.e corrusc-a-n-t, 
The thirsty, shine some, and with brightness glitter, 

Ard-e-n-t-e-s aur-o, et par-ibus lit-a corp-or-a gutt-is. 

Glowing with gold, and with like as to their spotted bodies marks. 

II-2GC poA-i-or sobol-e-s: hinccosl-i temp-or-e cert-o 

This w k be moi e powerfu race : hence of the year time at a certain 


Dulc-i-a mell-a prem-e-s; ncc, tant-urn 

Sweet honey you will squeeze out ; neither are there bther things BO 

dulc-i-a, quant-um 
sweat so 

Et liquid-8,, et dur-n-m Bacch-i dom-i-tur-a sapjr-em. 
And pure, and harsL of wine that will overcome flavor. 


Qnousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam- 
Hovr !ong then will you abuse, O Catiline, patience our? How 

dm etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet? Quern ad finem sese effrenat* 
long also fury this thy us evade? What to end itself unbridled 

iactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum presidium Palatii. nihil 
will carry audacity? Do not thee the nightly guard of the Palatine, not 

urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus 

of the city the watch, not the fear of the people, not the assembling 

bonorum omnium, nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatum locus nihil 
good men of all, not this most fortified of holding the senate place, not 

horum ora vulttis que moverunt? Patere tua consilia 

of these the looks countenances and move? To be exposed thy designs 

non sentis? Constrictam jam horura omnium consoientiA 

not do you perceive? grasped now these of all in the knowledge 

teneri conjurationem tnam non vides? Quid proximA, quid 
to be held conspiracy thy not do you see? What on the last, what on 

superiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, 
a former night have you done, where were you, whom have you collected, 

quid consilii ceperis, quern nostrum ignoraie arbitrarist 

what design have you formed, any one of us not to know do you think? 

O tempera! O mores! Senatus hsec intelligit, consul 

the times! O the manners! The senate these JAings perceives, the consul 

videt ; hie tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in. 

sees: this man notwithstanding lives. Lives? nay indeed also into 

senatum venit. Fit publici consilii particeps: 

the senate he has come. He is made of the public deliberation a sharer: 

notat et designat oculis ad csedem unnmquemaue nostrdm. 

he marks and appoints with his eyes to death every one of us 


Nos aulem vin fortes, satisfacere reipublicae videmur, si istins 
We but men brave, to do our duty to the republic seem, if of this wretcn 

furorera ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, due' 
the fury and xrsapons we shun. To death/or thee, O Catiline, to be led 

jussu consulis, jampridem opportebat; into conferri 

by command of the consul, long ago it was fitting ; upon thee to be brought 

pestem istam, quam tu innosomnes jamdiumachinaris. An 

evil for the same, which you against us all even now contrive. Did 

vero vir amplissimns, Publius Scipio, pontifex maximus, 

kndeed man th at most renowned, Publius Scipio, pontiff the highest, 

Tiberium Graechum, mediocriter labefactantem statum reipublicEE, 
Tiberius Gracchus, slightly disturbing the peace of the republic, 

private interfecit: Catilinam, orbem terrarum caede 

a private individual slay: Catiline, the world, with slaughter 

atque incendiis vastare cupientem, nos consules preferemus? Nam 
and flames to lay waste desiring, we consuls will bear with? For 

Dla nimis antiqna praetereo, quod Caius Servilius Ahala Spurium 

those too ancient matters I pass over, how Caius Servilius Ahala Spurius 

Melium, novis rebus studentem, manu sua occidit. Fuit, 

Melius, new things desiring, hand with his own slew. TAerewas, 

fuit ista quondam in hac republica virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus 
there was that formerly in this republic virtue, that men brave with severer 

suppliciis civera perniciosum, quam acerbissimum hostem coercerent. 
punishments citizen the traitorous, than the fiercest enemy would punish. 

Habemus senatus censultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et 

We have a decree of the senate against thee, O Catiline, powerful and 

grave: non deest reipublicse consilium, neqne auctoritas 

weighty: nor is wanting of the republic the counsel nor the authority 

hujus ordinis: nos, nos, dico apertc, nos consules detumus. Decrevit 
of this order; we, we, I speak openly, we consuls are wanting. Decreed 

quondam senatus ut Lucius Opimius consul videret nequid 
formerly the senate that Lucius Opimius consul should see, nothing 

respublica detriment! caperet; nox nulla intercessit: interfectus crt 
republic of injury should receive : night no intervened : was slain 

propter quasdam seditionnm suspiciones Caius Gracchus, 

on account of certain of sedition suspicions Caius Gracchus, from 

clarissimo patre, avo, majoribus: occisus est cum 

a most renowned father, grandfather, and ancestors: was slain with hit 

liberis Marcus Fulvius, consularis. Simili senatus* 

children Marcus Fulvius, of consular dignity. By a similar decree of the 


consulto, Caio Mario et Lucio Valerio ; permissa 

senate, Caius and Lucius Valerius being consult, was entrusted 

est respublica: nura unum diem posta jLucii Saturnini tribuni 
with there public: did one day afterwards of Lucius Saturninus a tribune 

plebis, et Caii Servilii prsetoris mortem reipublicse 

of the people, and of Caius Servilius a praetor the death of the republic 

pcena remorata estt At nos vicesimum jam diem patimur 

the punishment hinder? But we the twentieth now day suffer 

hebcscere aciem horum auctoritatis. Habemus enim hujusmodi 
to blunt the point of these of the authority. We have for of this kind 

senatusconsultum , verumtamen inclusum in tabulis, tanquam gladium 
a decree of the senate, nevertheless shut up in tablets, like a sword 

in vagina reconditum: quo ex senatusconsulto confestim 

in its sheath hidden: which by decree of the senate immediately 

interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis: 

put to death that you should be, O Catiline, it was proper. You live: 

et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. 
and you live not for laying aside, but for confirming your audacity. 

Cupio, patres conscripti, me esse clementera: cupio in tantis 

I desire, fathers conscript, to be mild: and also I desire in such 

reipublicae periculis me non dissolntum videri : sed jam me ipse 

of the republic dangers not negligent to seem but now myself, even I, 

inertia) nequitiae quo condemno. Castrasunt in Italia, contra 

for laziness remissness and condemn. Camps are in Italy, hostile to 

rempublicam, in Etruriae faucibus collocata: crescit in dies singulos 
the republic, in of Etruria the denies collected: increases in day each 

hostium numerus, eorum autem imperatorem castrorum, 

of the enemy the number, of these but the commander camps, 

ducem quo hostium, intra mcenia, atque adeo in senatu, 
the leader and of the enemy, within these walls, and even ic the senate, 

videmus, intestinam aliqnam qnotidie perniciem reipnbliesE molientem. 
we see, secret some daily mischief to the republic attempting. 

Site jam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici jusseroj 

If thee now, O Catiline, to be seized, if to be slain I shall command ; 

crefo erit verendum mihi, nenon hoe potius omnes 

I presume it will be feared for me, also that this is done rather all 

boni serius ame,quam quisquam crudelius factnm 

the good will say too late by me, than that any one too cruel the act 

esse die at. Vernm ego hoc, quod jampridem factum esse 
to be would say. But I this which long ago to have been dcce 



oportuit, cert/t de causa nondum adducor ut faciaiu 

ought, a sertain for reason not yet I am prevailed on if to as I may do 

Turn denique interficiam te, cum jam nemo tarn improbus,tam perditus 
Then finally I may slay thee, when truly no one so base, so lost, 

tarn tui similis inveniri poterit, qui id non jure factum esse 

BO thee like to be found will be able, who that this not r Ijjhtly was done 

fateatur. Qnamdia quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, 

may declare. While any one will be, who you to defend c.ay dare; 

vives: et vives ita, ut nunc vivis, multis meis et 

you will live: and you will live just as now you live, many by my and 

firmis praesidiis obessus, ne comraovere te contra rempublicam 

firm guards beset, so that not to move thyself against the republic 

possis. Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, 

you may be able. Of many you also the eyes and ears not perceiving, 

sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient. Et enim 

as hitherto they have done, will watch and guard. For truly 

quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius expectes, si neque nox 
what is it, O Catiline, which now more you can expect, if neither night 

tenebris obscurare cffitus nefarios nee privata domus 

by its shades to hide assemblies your wicked, nor a private house 

parietitms continere vocem conjurationis tuae potest? si 
in its walls to contain the voice conspiracy of your is able? if are 

illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta jam 

made manifest, if burst forth to view all your designs? Change now 

istam mentem: mihicrede: obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum : 
this intention; me trust: forget slaughter and flames: yon 

teneris undique: luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia 

are hemmed in on every side : light are clearer than to us your designs 

omnia : quae etiam mecnm licet recognoscas. 

all : and these things also with me it is proper that you may review. 

Meministine, me ante diem dnodecimum kalendas 

Do you not remember, that I before day the twelfth the kalends of 

Novembris dicere in senatu, certo die fore in armis, qui 
November said in the senate, on a certain day would be in arms, which 

dies futnrns esset ante diem sextum kalendas Novembris, Cainm 
day would be before day the sixth the kalends of November, Cams 

iifanlium, audaeite satellitem atque administrum tuse? Nnm me 
Manlius, audacity the satellite and assistant of your? Did me 

fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, tarn atrox, tarn incredibilis, 
deceive, O Catiline, not only an affair so great, so atrocious, so incredible, 

LATIN GRAMMAR. 135 quod multdmaoisest admirandum, dies? Dixi ego 

but, that which much more is to be wondered at, the day? Said I 

idem in tenatu, caedem te optimatum 

the same in the senate, the slaughter that you of the chief members 

contulisse in ante diem quintnm kalendas Novembris, turn cum 
had conspired on before day the filth tLe kalends of November, then when 

multi principes civitatis Roma, non tarn sni conservandi, 
many principal men of the state of Rome^iot so much of its being preserved 

quam tuorum consiliorum reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num 
as of your designs being impeded for the reason fled from. Truly 

infitiari potes e illo ipso die meis praesidiis, mea diligentia 

must you not say that you on this very day by my guards, by my diligence 

circumclusum , commovere te contra rempnblicam non potuisse, 
hemmed in, to move yourself against the republic no.t have been able, 

cum tu, di&cessu ceterorum, nostra tamen, 

when you after the departure of the others, with our notwithstanding 

qui remansissemus, caede contentum te esse dicebasl 

who should have remained, slaughter content that you would be said? 

Quid? cum tute Praeneste kalendas ipsis Novembris oocupatnrum 
What? when safely Prasneste kalends on these of November would seized 

nocturno impetu esse confideres: sensistine, illam 

by a nocturnal assault be you trusted: have you not perceived this 

coloniam meojussu, praesidiis, custodiis vigiliis quo esse 

colony by my command, by guards, keepers watchmen and to be 

mnnitam? Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, 

protected? Nothing you do, nothing you attempt, nothing you contrive, 

quod ego non modo non audiam, sed etiam non videam, plane 
which I not only not may hear, but also which no*. I may see, plainly 

que sentiam. 
and understand. 

Et enim jamdiu, patres conscripti, in his periculis conjuratiom* 
For indeed so long, fathers conscript, by these dangers of conspiracy 

insidiis que versamnr ; sed nescio quo pacto omninm 

treacheries and we are troubled ; but I know not by what means of all 

sceterum, ac veteris furoris et andaciae maturitas in nostri 
these crimes, and of long-continued fury and audacity the maturity in of our 

consulatus tempus erupit. Quod si ex tanto latrocineo iste 

consulship the tuna kas broken out. But if from so great violence tbi* 


onus tolletur ; viclebimur fortasse an breve qn:cldam tempus 

one shall be removed ; we shall seem perhaps for short some tune 

cur& et metu esse relevati : periculum autem residebit, et 
from care and from fear to be relieved : the danger but will remain, and 

erit inclusum penitus in venis atque in visceribus reipublicee. 
will be shut up within iii the veins and in the bowels of the republic. 

Ut saspe homines segri morbo ffravi, cum sestu febri qua 

As often men sick disease with severe, with heat fever and 

jactantur, si aquam gelidam biberint primo relevari 

are tossed about, if water cool they shall drink at first to be relieved 

videntur ; deind i multo gravius vehementius que afilictantur ; 

they seem ; then much more severely acutely and they are afflicted ; 

sic hie morbus, qui est in repnblica, relevatus is tins 
so this disease, which is in the republic, relieved of this man 

pcen vehementius vivis reliquis ingravescet. Quare, 

oy the punishment, more acutely by the living remnants will increase. 


patres conscripti, secedant improbi secernant se a 

lathers conscript, let depart the base,let them separate themselves from 

bonis, unum in locum congregentur, muro denique, id 

the good, one in place let them be collected, by a wall finally, that 

quod saepe jam dixi, secernantur a nobis. 

which often now I have spoken of, let them be separated from us, 

desinant insidiari domi sure consUi, circumstare 

let them cease to lie in wait for house at his the consul, to stand around, 

tribunal praetoris urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, 

the tribunal praetor of the city, to beset with swords the senate-house*, 

malleolos et faces ad inflammandum urbem comparare. Sit 

fiery mallets and torches for burning the city to prepare. Let it be 

denique inscription! in fronte uniuscujus que civis, quid de 

finally" written on the forehead of every and citizen, what concerning 

republic^ sentiat. Polliceor hoc vobis, patres conscripti, tantam 

the republic he may think. I promise this to you,lathers conscript,so much 

in nobis consulibus fore dilijjentiam, tantam in vobis 

in us consuls that there shall be diligence, so much in you 

nnctoritatem, tant im in equitibus Romanis virtutem, tantam in omnibus 
authority, so much in knights Roman bravery, so much in all 

consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta. 

agreement, tha: of Catiline by the departure all things laid open 
illustiata. oppressa, vindicata esse videatis. Hisce, 

r )rth crushed, punished to be you may see. these sam 


ominibus, Catilina, cum summa reipublicoe salute, et cumtuA 
omens, Catiline, with the surest of the republic safety, and with thy 

peste ac pernicie cum jue eorum exitio, qui se 

crime and mischiel, with and of those the destruction, who themselves 

tecurn omni scelere parricidio qne junxerunt, proficiscere ad 
with ycv in all wickedness parricide and have joined, depart to 

inpium bellum ac nefarium. Turn ta Jupiter, qui 

thy impuis war and unhallowed Then thou, Jupiter, who by 

iisdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es 

the same which this city was established, auspices hy Romulus wast 

constitutus: quern statorem hujus urbis atque imperil vere 

established here : whom the stay of this city and empire truly 

nominamus: hunc, et hujus socios a tuis aris ceteris qua 

we call: this man, and his companions from thine altars other and 

templis, a tectis urbis ac mcenibus, a vita fortunis 

temples, from the dwellings of the city and walls, from the life fortunes 

que civium omnium arcebis: et omnes inimicos bonorum, hostes 

and citizens of all wilt drive away : and all the haters of the good, enemies 

patrisB, latrones Italiae, scelerum foedere inter 

of the country, robbers of Italy, of wickedness by a compact among 

se ac nefari societate conjunctos, 

themselves and in an unhallowed companionship joined together, 

aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuos que mactabis. 
with eternal punishments living dead and you will destroy. 

NOTE. Lucius Sergius Calilina, a Roman knight, of vicious and 
contemptible habits, had conspired against the Roman government. 
He had leagued together all the most abandoned men. to assist him in 
his daring undertaking. It was his design to attack the city of Rome 
" in the dead waste and middle of the night ;" murder the consul, sena- 
tors, and the other powerful men of the city; usurp the government, 
and establish himself as an emperor. But, by some means, the whole 
of his horrid intentions leaked out and reached the ears of Cicero, the 
then consul. Cicero immediately convened the senate ; but, strange to 
relate, the very object of their convention entered the house and took 
his seat with the other senators. No sooner, however, had he taken 
his seat, than the senators around him arose and left him, with marked 
scorn and contempt. Cicero then arose, and burst forth in the prece- 
di-g strain afelojuence. j . B. 




(25.) Hi respondens, universus populus dixit: Sanguis 3Ju 
And answering, the universal population said: Blood his 

snpjr nos, et super filios nostros. (26.) Tune dimissit 
(be) npcn us, and on children our. Then he dismissed 

eis Barabbam: Jesum autem, quum flagellasset, tradidit 

tc them B a. abbas: Jesus but, when he had scourged, be delivered 

nt crucifigeretur. (27) Tune milites praesidis, 

that he might be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor, 

quum abduxissent Jesnm in prsstorium, coegerunt 

when they might have led Jesus into the common hall, collected 

ad eum universam cohortem. (28) Et quurn exuissent 

unto him all the soldiers. And when they bad stripped 

eum, circumposuerunt ei chlamydem coccineam : (29) Et coronam 
him, they arrayed him in a robe scarlet ; And a crown 

e spinis contextam imposuerunt ejus capiti, et arundinem in dex- 
of thorns woven they placed on his head, and a reed in right 

tram ejus : et genu ante eum summisso, illudebant ei, dicentes, 
hand his: and the knee before him bending, mocked him, saying, 

Ave, rex Judaeorum. (30) Et quum inspuissent ineum,cepe- 
Hail, king of the Jews. And when they had spit on him, they 

runt arundinam illam, et verberabant caput ejus. (31) Et postquam 
took reed the and beat Lead liis. And after that 

illusent ei, exnerunt eum chlamyde, indueruntque 

they had mocked him, they unclothed him of the cloak, clothed him 

vestimentis suis: et abduxerunt eum, ut crucifirrernnt 

clothes with his own: and led away him, that they might crucify 

eum: (32) Exerntes autem invenerunt quendam Cyrenaeum, 
liim: Going out and they found a certain man of Cyrene, 

nomine Simonem ; hunc angariave runt ut attollerit crucem ejns. 
uamed Sunonj him they compelled that he might bear cross his. 

(33) Et qr. .m venissent in locum qui u citur Goljrotha, (quod 
And when they come to a place which is called Golgotha, (which 

est, Calvaries loous,) (34) Dedernnt ei aoctnm bibendum cum 
, of skulls a pla *,e,) They gav3 to him vinegar to drink with 


felle mistum : et ^uum gust Asset noluit bibere. (35) Post' 
gall mixed : aini when he had tasted he would not drink After 

quara autetn erucifixerunt enm, partiti sunt ejus vestimenta, sortem 
that and they crucified him, divided his garments, lota 

jacientes; ut impleretur qnod dictum est a propheta, 

casting ; that might be fulfilled which spoken was by the prophet, 

Partiti snnt sibi vestimenta mea, et super vestem meara 

They divided to themselves garments my, and above vesture my 

jecerunt sortem. (36) Et sedentes servabant eum illic: 
they cast lots. And down sitting they watched bun there: 

(37) Et imposuerunt super caput ejus crimen ipsius scriptum, 
Acd they placed over head his crime his written, 


(38) Tune crucifiguntur cum eo duo latrones; unus ad dextram, 
Then were crucified with him two thieves; one on the right, 

et alter adsinistram. (39) Qui vero przeteribant conviciaban- 
and the other on the left. They and who passed by reproached 

tor, moventes capita sua, (40) Et dicentes, Tu qui destruis 
(him,) moving heads their, And saying, Thou who destroyest 

tern plum, et triduo aedificas, serva temetipsum : si Filius 
the temple, and in three days buildest (i/,) save thyself: if the Son of 

Dei es descendite e cruce. (41) Similiter autem etiarn 
God thou art, descend from the cross. Likewise and also 

primarii sacerdotes illudentes cum scribis et senioribns, 
the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, 

dicebant, (42) Alios servavit, se'psum non potest servare: si 
said, Others he can save, himself not he is able to save: if 

rex IsraPlis est, descendat nunc e cruce, et ere. 

the king of Israel he is, let him descend now from the cross, and we 

demus ei. (43) Confidit in Deo ; eruat ipsum nnno, 

will believe him. He believed in God ; let him save hin. now, 

si placet ei: dixit enim, Filius Dei sum. * * * 

it' it jilease him: he said, for the Son of God I am. * * * 

(50) Jesus autem qunm rursum clamasset voce magnd erai- 

Jesus and whan again had called voice with a loud he sent 

eh epiritum. (51) Et, ecce, velum templi fissum est 
forth his spirit. And, behold, the veil of the temple rent wsm 


in duas f artes, a summo usque ad imura ; et terra mota 

in tw. parts, fron the top e ;en to the end ; and the earth shaken 

est, et pctrae fissae sunt: (52) Et monumenta aperta snnt; 
was, and rocks rent were: And the graves opened were; 

et multa corpora sanctorum, qui dormierant, surrexerunt; (53^ 
and many bodies of the saints, who slept, arose; 

Qir egressi e rr.onumentis postresurrectionemejus,introierunt in 
\VKo came out of their graves after resurrection his, and went into 

sanctarn urbem, et apparuerunt multis. 
the holy city, and appeared unto many. 



(1) OBTESTOR TE, igitur, egocoramDeo, et Domine Jesu 
CHARGE THEE, therefore, I before God, and the Lord Jesus 

Christo,qui judicatures estvivos et mortuus, in illustri illo suo 
Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead, at glorious this his 

adventn et regno suo. (2) Prsedica sermonem ilium ; insta 
coming and kingdom his. Preach word the ; be instant 

tempestive , intempestive : argue, objurga, exhortare, cum omni 

in season or, out of season either: reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all 

lenitate et doctrina. (3) Nam erit tempus quura sanam doctrinara 
lenity and doctrine. For will be tune when sound doctrine 

non tolerabunt; sed auribus prurientes, ipsi sibi 

not they will endure; but. with ears itching, they to themselves 

secundum suas illas peculiares cupiditates coacervabunt doctores: 
according to own their peculiar desires shall heap teachers: 

(4) Et a veritate quidem aures avertent ad 

And from the truth indeed their ears they will turn away, unto 

febulas ver6 divertent. (5) At tu vigila in omnibus, per- 
fables and shall be turned. But them watch in all (things,) en- 

fer injurias, opus perage evangeiistas, ministerii tui plenam 
dare afflictions, the work do of the evangelist, ministry, of thy full 

fidera facito. (6) Nam ego jam liber, et tempus meae remigrationis 
oroof make. For I am now ready, and the time of my departure 

instat. (6) Certarien illud praeclarum decertavi, cursum 
in manifest Fight the very famous I have fought, the race 


consummav; fidera ser-avi. (8) Quod reliquum est, repo- 

I have nuishet, the faith I Iwve kept. Henceforth, there is 

ita est mihi justitias corona, quam reddet milii Dominus in 
laid up for me of justice a crown, which will give to me the Lord in 

illo die Justus ille judex. 
that day just the judge. 


Vos, igitur, ita precamini : PATER noster qui es in coelis, sano 
YE, therefore, thus pray: FATHER our who art in heaven, hal- 

ificetur nomen tuum: Veniatregnum tuum: Fiat voluntas tua, sicut 
.owed be name thy: Come kingdom thy: Be done will thy as 

in coelo, (ita) etuim in terra : Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis, 
in heaven, (so) also on earth : Bread our daily give to us, 

hodie: Et remitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos remittimus debito- 
to-duy: And forgive us debts our, as also we forgive .debt- 

ribus nostris: Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, sed libera nos ab 
ors our : And not us lead into temptation, but deliver us from 

.'Ho malo. Quia tuum est regnum et potentia, et gloria, 
all evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, 

in sicula. Amen, 
for ever. Amen. 


(10) Homiaos duo ascenderant in templum ut precarentur; 
Men two ascended into the temple that they might pra] i 

onus PhariszEUS, et alter publicanus. (11) Pharisaeus, coo- 
one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stand- 

sistens seorsim haec precatus est : Deus, gratias ago tibi 

ing with himself, thus prayed: O God, thanks I give to thee 

quod non sim ut reliqui homines, rapaces, injusti, mccchi ; 
because not I may be as other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers ; 

vel etiam ut iste publicanus ; (12) Jejuno bis hebdomade; decimo 
or even as this publican ; I fast twice a week ; I give the 

quaecunque possideo. (13) Publicanus autem procul 
tenth of whatever I possess. The publican and at a distance 

BtanSj nolebat vel oculis in coelum attolere ; sed percutiebat pectm 
standing, would not his eyes to heaven lift up ; but be a breast 

suuxn, dicens, " Deus, placatur mihi peccatori '" 
his, say ag { " O God, be merciful 'y me a sinner!" 




Tl.e following words correspond to the figures used Jn the first part 
of the JEned, i. e. the Analysis. The object of this \able is to assist 
the scholar in separating words into their constituent parts, which sepa- 
ration is expressed throughout this work by the hyphen. By a caieful 
tudy of this, he will perceive the specific use of the various medial 
letters, terminations, &.C., and will find that all these divisions have a 
particular meaning. In translating th verb, he will observe that the 
word is rendered backwards. 

The following abbreviations are used : 
1 p., first person ; 2 p. second person ; 3 p. third person. 
pi. plural; where not used, singular is understood, 
t., indicative; irn., imperative; in., infinitive; sub., subjunctive. 
pr., present; p., perfect. 
imp., imperfect; plup., pluperfect; /., future. 
past., passive; prep., preposition; ml,, medial letter or letters 
1., 2., 3., 4., denote the conjugation. 

EXAMPLES. i. pr., indicative present; tub. imp., subjunctive im- 
perfect; ml. I., medial letter, first conjugation. 

Root. I p. 

1. Can o. 
Sing I. 

Root. i. p. 3. 3j>. 

2. Yen i t. 

Come has he. 

Root. /. 1. i. p. past. 3 p. 

3. Jact a tus et t. 
Tossed was he. 

Prep. root. tub. imp. 3 p. 

6. In fer re 
Into bring would 

Root. im.2f. 

7. Memor a. 
Relate thou. 

Root. ml. 3. in.jrr. 

8. Volv e re. 
Roll to. 



Root . i. p. pats. 3 p. 
4. Pas BUS et t. 

Suffer ed he. 

Prep. root. in. pr. 
9. Ad i re. 
To go to. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. nib. imp. 3 p. Prep, root tub.r.Sp. 
5. Con d e re t. 10. Im pul eri t. 

Together put would he. Into driven may have she. 



Root, t p. 3. 3^. 

11. Fu i t. 

Was it. 

Root. ml. 2. i. p. 3. p. pi. 

12. Ten u ere. 
Hii have they 

Root. 3 p. past. 

13. Fer t ur. 
Said she is. 

Roof. ml. 2. in. p. 

14. Col u isse. 
Cherished to have 

Root. i. p. 3. 3 p. 

15. Fu i t. 
Was it. 

Root. in. pr. 

16. E sse. 
Be to. 

Root. ml. 3. tub. pr. pi. 3p 

17. Sin & n t. 
Permit may they. 

Root. ml. 3. 3p. 

18. Tend i t. 
Endeavors she. 

Root. ml. 2. 3 p. 

19. Fov e t. 

Cherishes she. 

.Roof. in. pr. past. 

20. Dae i. 
Descended to be. 

.Roof. m/.4. i.plup. 3p. 

21. Aud iv era t. 
Heard had she. 

.Roof. ittl. 3. sub. imp. 3 p. 
22 Vert e re t. 

Overturn would it. 

.Roof. in.f. 

23. Ven turtan JH.*. 
Come would. 

.Roof . t. p. 3. p. pi. 

24. Volv ere. 
Decreed have they. 

Root, i.plup. 3 p. 

25. Gess era t. 
Carried had she. 

Prep. root, i plup. j . 3 p. 

26. Ex cid era n t. 
From fallen had they. 

.Roof. ltd. 2.* 3 p. 

27. Man e t. 
Remains it. 

.Roof . ml. 2. i. imp. 3 p. 

28. Arc e ba t. 
Driving was she. 

.Roof. ml. 1. t. imp. pi. 3p 

29. Err a ba n t. 
Wander ed they. 

.Roof. i. imp. 3p. 

30. E ra t. 
Was it. 

Prep. roof. ml. 3. in. pr. 

31. Con d e re. 
Together put to. 

.Roof. ml. 1. i.imp. pi. 3p. 

32. D a ba n t. 
Giving were they. 

.Roof. ml. 3. pi. 3p 

33. Ru e ba n t. 
Rushing were they. 

Prep. root, ml 3. 

34. De sist e re. 
From stay to. 



Root . tn. pr 

35. Po sse. 
Able to be. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. 

36. A vert e re. 
From turn to. 

Root . i. pr. pass. 

37. Vet o r. 
Forbidden I am. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. in. pr. 

38. Ex ur e re. 
Out burn to. 

Root. ml. 2. i.p. 3 p. 

39. Pot u i t. 
Been able has she. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. 

40. Sub merg e re. 
Under sink to. 

Prep. root. i.p. 3p 

41. Dis jec i t. 

Asunder cast has she. 

Prep. root. i.p. 3 p. 

42. E vert i t. 
Over turned has she. 

Prep. root. ml. 2. i.p. 3p. 

43. Cor rip a i t. 
On seized has she. 

Prep. root. i.p. 3 p. 

44. In fix i t. 

On fastened has she. 

Prep. root. Ip. 

45. In ced o. 

On give place *, or I walk. 

Root . i pr. 1 p. 
16. Ger o. 
Carry I. 

Prep. root. ml. 1. 3p 

47. Ad or e t. 
To pray may he 

Prep. root. ml. 3. 3p 

48. Im pon a t. 
On place may he 

Root. i.p. 3p. 

49. Ven i t. 

Come has she. 

Root. 3 p. 

50. Prem i t. 
Governs he. 

Root. ml. 1. 3 p. 

51. Fraen a t. 
Restrains he. 

Root. ml. 3. pi. 3 p. 

52. Frem u n t. 
Roar they. 

Root. ml. 2. 3 p. 

53. Sed e t. 
Sits . he. 

Root. ml. 4. 3p. 

54. Moll i t. 
Softens he. 

Root. ml. 1. 3 p. 

55. Temper a t. 
Moderates ho. 

Root. ml. 4. tub. pr. 3p. 

56. Fao i at. 
Do may he. 

Root. ml. 3. pi. 3p 

57. Fer a n t. 
Bear can they. 

Root. ml. 3. pi. 3p 
68. Verr a n t. 

Sweep can they 






THE GREEK ALPHABET consists of twenty-four letters, viz 



e short 


e long. 








5 short. 



y or u, 
ph, or f, 
o long. 



A, a, 


B, p, e, 


r, 7, r, 

A, 6, 


E, f, 


i y 9 

** S' fe 


H, T], 


e/t a 




K, x, 




M, ft, 


N,v, . 


B, |, 




n, *, tr, 


P,f, P , 


2, tf, ff, 


T, T, 7, 


T, u, 


^N 9> 


X, x, 


Y, -^, 


n, w . 








Letters for which they stand. 


kai, and. 
ou, not 

NOTE. There are many other abbreviations, but these are in mcst 
common use. 

Agrippas de pros ton Paulon ephe: 
'A y p i <K <K a, s S $ * p o s f o v II a u X o v <p*j' 
Agrippa then unto the Paul said : 

'E'Ti7pSflr i ;7ai tfoi * u * e p tfsaurou 

Epitrepetai soi huper seautou 
It is permitted to thee for thyself 

legei^ Tote ho Paulos apelogeito, 

X y e i v. TOTS 'o II a u X o dirsXoysiTo, 

to speaic. Then the Paul defended himself, 

e ic t e i n a s t5n cheira. Peri panton 



5v t 
of which 

the hand. Concerning all (things,) 

e g k a 1 o u m a i hupo 

i V X XV? ffc ftl 'uflTO 

I am accused by 

'I o u <J a i w v 
(the) Jews, 

basileu Agrippa, egemai emauton 
jSarfiXsu 'A y p i * a, rjy^i^ai J/xauTov 
0, king Agrippa, I think myeslf 

makarion mellon apologeisthai, &c. 

x a x a p i o v (/.eXXuv aifoXoygitffl a i, &c. 

happy (that) I am about to defend myself, &c. 

Pronounced teen, 6 long. 

t Pantone, o long. 







in fire. 





in fine, 





in Paul, 





in feud, 





in soft, 





in our, 





in quick 01 

we, as 


uo, wkeos. 


NOTE. r, before 7, x, 5^, or , is sounded like ng in ring, 
as ayysXoff, (angelos,) a/xov, (angkon,) &c. Sigma, at the 
end of a word, is written , otherwise tf. 

( ' ) is called the rough breathing or spiritus asper; it is 
the same as h in English, as 6 (ho). 

(" ) is called the circumflex accent. 

( ' ) the acute accent, and ( *) is the grave. 

( ' ) is the soft breathing, or spiritus lenis.* 

( i ) This character written under a vowel is called the 
subscript iota, (i written under,) as <rw, apxfi, &c, 

In Greek, the vowels s and o are short ; >] and u are long, 
and a, i. u, are doubtful ; called so because they are some- 
times short and sometimes long ; as a in -rangp is always 
long, in Xaof is always short, while in "Ap^, it may be 
either short or long. 

( ' ) The apostrophe is written over the place of a short 
vowel, that has been cut off from the end of a word ; as, 
aXX' for aXXa, xar' or xaS' for xara. This is done when the 
next word commences with a vowel, and in compounds, 
when the first part ends and the last part begins with a 
vowel. Sometimes the diphthongs are elided by the poets, 
as o:;XofjL' I^w for ?oJXo/xai kyu ', and sometimes after a long 
syllable, the initial vowel is cut ofF from the following 
word : as, u 'yade for u 'ayadL Instead of the apostrophe 
or cutting ofF the final vowel, the concurring vowels are of- 
ten contracted : as, xax for xcu sx, xa^ci for xa/ Jyw, &c. 

* The spiritus lenis indicates that the spiritus asj>er is not nsed 
Every word commertinir with a vowel or diphthong has a spiritns or 
breathing on that vowel, while the diphthong has it on the 2d letter. 



The Greeks paid the greatest attention to the smoothness 
of sound in their language ; and in this manner, it became, 
in a short time, one of the smoothest and richest languages 
on the known earth. This, they called Euphony; and 
from a regard to this, they carefully avoided all harshness 
of sound by concurring consonants, not easily pronounced. 
The following rules will apply to this subject. 

1. Words ending in tfi, and verbs of the third person in 
5 and i, add v to the termination, before a vowel or before a 
pause, in the same manner as we add n to a in the English 
language ; as, an ox for a ox. This is called v appended. 

2. When two/successive syllables would begin with an 
aspirate or rough mute, the first is changed into its own 
smooth; thus, Tpip0 for dpr^og, rps'^w for dp'x w rpscpu for 

dpSfp&J, &C., &C. 

3. A # mute (ir, , 9,) before tf, becomes 4/, (ps.) 

4. A x mute (x, y, ^,) before rf, becomes f, (x.) 

5. A r mute (<r, <5, 0,) before /x, is changed into <f. 

6. When <f would stand between two consonants it is re- 
jected ; as, XeXsup-dov for XsXei*-o'-5ov, &c. 

7. When tf, by inflection, comes before rf, it is rejected. 

8. When both v and ar mute together are cast out before 
preceding it is changed into si, o into ou, and a doubtful 

is lengthened; but >] and u remain unchanged.* 


( , ) The comma denotes the shortest pause. 
( ) The colon or semi-colon, the next shortest; and 
( . ) The period a full stop. 

( ; ) Denotes that a question is asked, and is the same aa 
? ) in English. 

* Fo: the remainder of these Rules, see page 156, on the veib 



The Parts of Speech in Greek, are eight, viz: 

1. Substantive or noun, Adjective, Article, Pronoun and 
Verb, declined. 

2. Adverb, Preposition and Conjunction,* undedined. 
(Far the definitions, see Latin Grammar.) 


The numbers in Greek, are three : Singular, denoting 
one object; Dual, denoting two objects, (commonly in 
pairs, as a span of horses, the bird and its mate, man and 
wife, &c.,) and the Plural, denoting more than one object. 
The Dual is but little used. 


There are only five cases in Greek, there being no ab- 
lative ; the others are like the Latin. 

NOTE. In Greek, the genitive and dative supply the 
place of the ablative. 

(For " Boles for the construction of Cases," see Latin Grammar.) 


Declension is the mode of changing the terminations of 
nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives. There are three 
declensions of nouns and adjectives, in Greek, called the 
first, second and third. 

The participle, which is considered by some grammarians, as a 
tstin;t part of speech, is more properly a part of the verb. It may 
be, also, an adjective. 

The Interjection is thought by some writers to be an adverb or a 
tpcfch of itself instead of a/virf 





Singular. Dual. 

N. G. D. A. V. N.A.V. G.D. N. G. D. .<*. 9'. 

Mis. as ou, a, av, a. a, aiv. ai, -aft, ais, as, a 

Mas. r,s, ou, >), *jv, TJ. a, aiv. ai, rav, ai, a, a. 

Few. a, a, a, av, a. a, aiv. ai, srv, aij, as, a. 

JFsTft. ij, ], ij, *]v, ij. a, aiv. ai, s>v, ai, a?, a. 


Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. G. D. JI. V. N.A.V. G.D. N. G. D. Jl. V. 

Mas. 05, ou, CJ, ov, ?. w, oiv. 01, uv, 015, ovs, 01. 

JNeut, ov, ou, w, ov, ov. co, oiv. a, uv, oi, a, a. 


Singular. ' Dual. Plural. 

N. G.D. A. V. N.A.V.G.D. N.G. D. Ji. V. 

M. < F. ,*o, i, a or av, like IV. e, oiv. ss, w tf'> ?> 
Neuter. ,*o^, i, like JY. like JV. s, oiv. a, wv, tfi, a, a. 


1. The nominative singular always ends either in a long 
vowel or v, p, g, % and ^. 

2. In the dual, the genitive and dative always end alike. 

3. The nominative and vocative are always alike in the 
plural, and generally in the singular. 

4. The genitive plural always ends in wv. 

5. The accusative plural of the masculine and feminine 
always ends in s ', of the neuter in a. 

6. In the neuter plural, the nominative, accusative and 
vocative end in a. 

7 The dative singular is known by having the subscript 
iota written under it ; except where it already ends in i. 

The nominative terminations of this declension are numerous. It 
genitive singular always ends in os, and has one syllable more than the 



Singular. Dual. Plu >al. 

Mat Fern. Neut. Mas. Fern. Neut. Mat. Fern. Neut. 






a] l 























Gen. TOU T%, 
Dat. TW rrjy 


NOTE. Ss is sometimes annexed to the article through 
all its parts, when it becomes o<5e, ySe, To<Je, &c., this. 


The PERSONAL PRONOUNS, in Greek, are !yw, J; oti, 
; ou, o/" himself \ of herself, of itself. They are thus 

ly&, I 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. G. D. A. N.A. G.D. N. G. D. Jt. 

<, (){*>. vuJ'i or v w, vu'i v or vuv. r^s'is, r;|xuv, 7J/x"v, ^fxaj . 

J^. G. D. Jt. V. N. A. V. G. D. N. V. G. D Jt. 

tfu, tfo?, tfoi, tfl, <ru. tfipwi or tf^u, tf^u'jv or tf9uv. ufA^, C/AWV, ufx-Jv, uf*5 

j^, of himself , fyc. 

N. G.D.Jl. tf.A. G.D. N. G. D. Jt. 

, oii', oT", e. rf(p/, tf(pi. 0*95"^, tf<puv, 

The POSSESSITE PRONOUNS are declined like the noun 
the masculine like the second declension masculine in o^; 
the feminine like nouns of the second declension, in a or 
1 ; the neuter like the neuter of the second declension, in 
v thus : 

Masculine, o?, ou, $J, ov, e, &c. 
Feminine, a, -xj ; t\s y.g; ?;,; ?]v,av; ij, a, &c. 
Neuter ov, ou, w, ov, ov, &c. 


The Definite Pronoun, auro^, is thus decl.ned: 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. G. D. A. N.Jl. G.D. N. G. D. A. 

Mas. aur-o, -ov, -w -ov. -w, -ow. -o;, -wv, -ofc, -oOff. 

Fern. auT-^, -7j, ?}, -^v. -a, -tut. -ou, -v, -cus, -ag. 

Neut. aiJ'r-o, -oil, -w, -o. -w, -oiv. -ex, -wv, -ofc, -a. 

v AXXo, os and exewos are declined in the same manner. 

The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS are such as relate to the sub- 
ject of the proposition in which they stand. They are 
formed from the accusative singular of the personal pro- 
nouns, with the oblique* cases of oturos. They are jfxaurou, 
of myself, tfsavrov, of thyself, lauTou, of himself. They are 
thus declined: 

Singular. Plural. 

G. D. A. G. D. J. 

Mas. -ou, -, -ov. -wv, -oi f -oOff. 

Fern. -Sfc, -fi t -^v. -wv, -a~s t -05. 

Neut. -oi;, -w, -o. -wv, -oi, -a. 

The DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS point out with precision, 
a person or thing already known. They are: 

ofru, "> I this, the latter, the one. 
ijde, rods, ) 

Ixeivrj, Ixsivo, ^Aa?, the former, the other. 

is thus declined : 

Singular. Dual. 

N.V. G. D. A. N.A.V. G.D. 

OUTO, TOUTOU, roi^rw, TOUTOV. roiJrw, TOiiroiv. 

Femi^une, a'Jr*), <ra^TT)ff, Tajrij, TOUTIJV. raura, Taiirouf. 
Neuter, rovro, rourou, Tourw, roiJro. ro^rw, TO^TOIV. 

Masculine ouroi, ro-jrwv, TO-JTOI?, 
Feminine, a^rai, Tajrwv, Tajrouf 
Neuter, ravra, TOJTWV, TOUTOI^, rowra. 

* All cases, except the nominative, are called oblique casea 


"O6s is declined Ihce the definite article o with the en- 
clitic os annexed through all its cases, to render it emphatic. 
'Exfivoj is declined like auro. 

The RELATIVE PRONOUN is one that relates to a noun or 
pronoun going before it, called its antecedent. The rela- 
tive, ojr, Jj, 6', who, lohich, that, is declined like avrog. It is 
made emphatic by adding the enclitic syllable wsp; as 
ocvsp, Jjtfep, 6Vsp. 

The lon.c and Doric writers and the Attic tragedians use 
the article 6, fj, TO, as a relative, instead of 05, >5, o. 

The compound pronoun otfrtg is used instead of og, as a 
relative, after iftZg, or any word in the singular, expressing 
an indefinite number; and oVoi, after the same words in 
the plural: as, rag fang, every one who; iravrsg otfoi, all 
who, &c. 

The INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN is used in asking a ques- 
tion. The interrogative <ris is thus declined : 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. G. D. A. N.JL.G.D. N. G. D. A. 
M. F. rig, TI'VOJ, TI'VI, Ti'va. rlvs, TI'VOIV. rives, TI'VWV, TiVi, TI'VO 

t. Tl, TlVOff, TIVI, Tl. TIVJ, TIVOIV. Tl'va, TIVWV, TlVl, 

The INDEFINITE PRONOUNS are such as denote persons or 
things indefinitely. They are : 

rig, rig, TI, some one, declined like rig, above. 

Sstv-a, -a, -a, some one, such a one. 

aXX-o, ->j, -o, another. 

srepog, srepa, sVspov, other, a different one, another. 

The indefinite rig has the grave accent on the last sylla- 
ble to distinguish it from the interrogative rlg t which has 
the acute accent on the first ; the former is enclitic, the 
latter is not. 

The indefinite bsiva., some one, of all genders, and alway 
with the article prefixed, is declined like a noun of the 
third declension. It is, however, sometimes used indecli- 
nable ; as, genitive, rou <5s~va, dative, ru 8e~va. 

All words used interrogatively, are also used indefinitely, 
but gene-ally with the accent changed. 



In Gree.-c, the TRANSITIVE* verb has three forms, called 
Active, Passive and Middle. 

An INTRANSITIVE* verb is commonly without the Passive 

The MIDDLE VOICE, in Greek, represents the subject of 
>he verb as acting on itself; as <rwro/, / strike myself; 
2Xa4/afW)v <rov ffwSa, 1 hurt my foot , &c. 


MOOD is the mode or manner of expressing the meaning 
or signification of the verb. 

In Greek, the Moods are five, viz: The Indicative, 
Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative and Infinitive. 

The Indicative mood is always used to express a thing 
as certain and actual; as, <pjXsw, Have, rwtru, I strike. 

The Subjunctive and Optative moods represent an action 
as dependent and contingent, and never actual or certain. 
Not a thing that certainly is, was or will be, but that may, 
can or might be or exist. The subjunctive represents this 
contingency or doubt as present, the optative as past. 

The Imperative mood commands, exhorts, entreats and 
permits ; as, ypoups, write thou, mj, let him go, &c. 

The Infinitive mood expresses the sense or meaning of 
the verb in a general manner ; as, ru*rew, to strike. 


TENSE is the division of time into Present, Past and 

Although there are, in reality, only the three above 
named tenses, yet, by certain other modifications, a variety 
of tenses may be formed : of these, in Greek, there are 
nine. They are the Present, the Imperfect, the First and 
Second Future, the First and Second Aorist, the Peifect, 
Pluperfect, and, in the Passive, the Paulo-post or Third 

F>r the iefi.iition of these terms, see Latin Grammar, p. 92 


The Present tense represents the time now passing. 

The Imperfect, time gone by or past. 

The Perfect tense, time just completed. 

The Pluperfect, time preceding the imperfect. 

The First and Second Future, time that will come. 

The First and Second Aorist. any time past. 

The Paulo-post or Third Future Passive, time that wilt 
come and be continued; as, ^yyo>j,g7ai, A *Aa/ continue 


Indicative mood. There is no particular letter to denote 
this mood ; but its difference from the others may be easily 
seen by a glance at the Table of the Verb. 

Subjunctive mood. GJ and r\. 

Optative mood. 01, ai and ei. 

Imperative mood, e, ov, &w, <ri and 61. 

Infinitive mood, eiv, vai, dai and ou. 

The SIGNS OF THE TENSES will be seen, by referring to 
the Table on the Verb, or page 158. 


Conjugation is the manner of arranging the Moods and 
Tenses of the Verb according to a certain order. 

In Greek, there are two Conjugations : the first of verbs 
in w, the second in (xi. 

The different voices, moods, tenses, numbers and per- 
sons that a verb undergoes by conjugation, may be referred 
to three heads: the Root, the Augment, and the Termi- 


The Mutes are nine, but all are founded on three, viz. : 
if, which is formed with the lips, x with the palate, and * 
ffith the tongue. Add a slight roughness to if smooth, and 


you have j3 middle ; next, the rough breathing ( ' ), and 
you have <p rough. 

K, with a slight roughness, becomes 7, to which add the 
rough breathing, and you have ^: and, in the same man- 
ner, T becomes S and 6. Y and are called double ccmso- 
nants, being mere.y if and x, with ff appended. 

II mutes. K mutes. T mutes. 

Smooth if, x, r. 

Middle, 0, y, 5. 

RDugh, 9, add tf make 4/. %, add tf make . 6. 

If tf is added to r mutes, the mute is dropped: thus, frora 
xv^rw you have avutfcj and not dviVtfu. 

II mutes before p are changed into ju.: as, for ; < for rfrpjffcaj ; y^ypajxfiai for ys'ypafpfjuxi. 

K mutes before fj. are changed into y ; as, flrsVXsyfxai for 

N, before a ir mute is changed into (x: as, l/x^an/w for 


N, before a x mute is changed into y : as, tfltpayxa for 

N, before the liquids, (X, fj,, p,) is changed in those let- 
ters respectively : as, rfuXXf'yw for tfuvXfyo, &c. 

"When mutes come together, they must be of the same 
strength ; that is, smooth with smooth, middle with middle 
and rough with rough. Hence, when one is determined, 
the other must be made to correspond : as, Mtp-dipi for <rvif- 
-^s for Xs'Xsx-te, &c., &c. 

NOTE. The above business of Euphony, (especially the 
last rule,) is no new thing; but one which occurs in the 
English, as well as in the Greek and Latin. There are 
more changes in a great number of words, in the English 
language, than most people seem to be aware of. Take, 
for instance, the words coZ-lect, co?w-press, co-alesce and 
cor-respond, in which the Latin word con, by euphonic 
changes, becomes alternately col, co?n, co, (in which the n 
is dropped,) and cor. And why this change? Why not 
retain the original word con? Let us see. How would 
C07j-lec*. ; con- press con-alesce and correspond sound ? Very 


roueh, I must confess. Hence, these changes are intro- 
duced in the language for the express purpose of making 
thai language smooth. And in the same manner the syl- 
lables in, ne, sub, ad, and some others, are changed into a 
great variety of forms; in, for instance, when used as a 
negative, and derived from non orne, Latin, becomes il, ir, 
im, ig, if, (which, with d annexed, becomes dif, as in dif- 
fident, rfz/*-ficult, (from fadlis, easy,) and some others.) 
Sub becomes sup, suf, sue, sus, &c. ; and ad becomes al, 
at, of, &c. ; thus, tVz-vulnerable, zVz-competent, z7-legal, im- 
moral, zg-noble, dif-Rdent, dif~Rcu\t. In all these cases, 
the syllable in italic, comes from in, the n being changed 
to I before I, m before m, g before n, and dif before f, for 
the sake of Euphony or Sound. 


The ROOT is that part of the verb that remains un- 
changed throughout, (except as required by the rules of 

The final letter of the root is called its characteristic, 
because the verb is denominated pure, mute or liquid, ac- 
cording as that letter is a vowel, mute or liquid. 

In all pimary forms of the verb, the characteristic is the 
'etter next to the termination, in the present indicative; 
thus, X in Xs'y-w, if in rpsVw, u in Xt5u, v in reivu, &c. 

Many verbs have a second and third root, i. e., the verb 
changes its forms in the second future and second aorist, 
and again in the perfect and pluperfect middle. The root 
of the present tense is called ihejirsl root. 


The Tense Root, or the Tense Sign, is that part of the 
veib tha*. remains unchanged through the same tense.* 

NOTE. In some verbs, where there is no Tense sign, 
the verb root or the termination denotes the Tense. 

Some Authors make the Verb Root a part of the Terue Root, 
bur. this is vrrong. The Verb Roct remains unchanged through the 
verb, while the Tense Root througi the tense, omy. 



In Mute and Pure Verbs, the Tense Signs are m he 
Active. Passive. Middle. 

First Future tf, 6-n<t, tf. 

First Aorist, tf, 6, tf. 

Second Future e, ijtf, 

Perfect & Pluperfect, [ * ] or x, -^-, . 

In Liquid Verbs, the Tense Signs are, in the 

First Future, e, 6ri<f, s. 

First Aorist, , 6. . 

Second Future, .... g, j<f, s. 

Pefect & Pluperfect, x, , . 

In the Present, Imperfect and Second Aorist, the tense 
is denoted by the terminations ; as, Present, w, sis, i ; srw t 
j'Tov ; ofxsv, TS, ourfi. Imperfect, ov, eg, s ; STOV, s<rrp ; ojxer 
sre, ov. Second Aorist, like the Imperfect. 


The Augment is the vowel or syllable prefixed to the 
rot, in the past or preterite tenses. 

The Imperfect, Pluperfect and Aorists take the augment 
in the Indicative Mood only ; so, on the Table of the Verb, 
the student should be careful not to use the augment in 
any other mood than the indicative, in the three above- 
named tenses. 

NOTE. When the augment prefixes a syllable, it is 
called the syllabic augment. When it lengthens the ini- 
tial vowel, it is called the temporal augment. The first is 
used when the verb begins with a consonant, the other 
when it begins with a vowel. 

The syllabic augment is formed by prefixing s to the 
augmented tenses, as l-ru^a, t-nov, &c. ; the temporal, by 
lengthening o into u, a and s into i\ ; as, a-8u, >j-<iov ; e-Xsudw, 
>7-Xsu<Jov ; eii-pw, * >j-pov ; o-putftfw, w-putftfov, &c. 

In this place, the a is changed to I while the i is rescript, or 
written under. 


The diphthongs ei and ov, and the long vowels / and w, 
remain unchanged by the augment. 

A number of verbs commencing with e take the augment 
in et as, ?-^w, ei-xor. 

Where the verb begins with a consonant, the consonant 
is doubled before the augment of the Perfect; as, r-tirru, 
r-i-rutpa. ; <r-iw, <r--<nxa, &c. 

The rough mute reduplicates its own smooth; as, tp-vu, 

Verbs, compounded with prepositions, take the augment 
between the preposition and the root; as, tfpotf-cpepu, irpoffW- 


The terminations consist of that part of the verb which. 
immediately follows the Tense Root. 

We here present the scholar with a Table on the conju 
gation of the Greek Verb, containing all its changes ; and 
by which the whole subject of Euphony will be seen, in 
the changes which the root undergoes, in being associated 
with different letters ; as, also, the augment, reduplication, 
mood and tense. This Table was prepared, on the plan of 
Professor Thiersch, of Germany, by the author's son, at 
the Rochester Collegiate Institute, in the summer of 1847, 
expressly for this work. The Table exhibits, at a glance, 
all the changes that can take place in the Greek Verb, ex- 
cept the person and number, which will be found in the 
conjugation that immediately follows. 

In the Table, the following abbreviations are used : 
Term, Terminations; Want. Wanting; M. S. Mood Sign. 



of the Verbs of the First Conjugation. 

Terminations. ] 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Middle. 1 
























1 1 00 

^ S 
* 2 


33 3 3 




. . C G C C C G 


3 3 ^ 




C = C 



Indicative Mood. 



ill i i 1 iil ii 

S 'Vi 

o o o --0 CS ^ 



illi li iii&g. 


o e> ooo 



.>.. ^ 

'S K 




^ ^ C3 C3 03 C5 "^ }j a ~j~ \t 




*-+ i !?->-? v 








"t! S t S 


* * * * 



C ^-* ^ Q^ ^ ^ S S 3 O t 











II ii illllll 


s -w 

<,, u, a < 







'S "W 

u> u> u> u> u> )?r i^" 


. *5 
S - 












S3 - 1 -' 1 1 1 1 a 


'S 'W 







o o " T" c3 " / c3 rt c3 c3 k. ^S 

^ ^ * ^ & 


'S 'IV 

5^ JT 




c c c .. 



u, < ",'"u,'"!0o to 

s - w 



a," ft." C G C "c a," W_ "c A_ ^_ 





'S 'IV 1 

-a * ** 2 * 
o o o o 3 o 





o *J o ^S 

fc tf -a I f S ^ *" *' 

! ! SL ^ 1: ^ 5.5^5!R-B- 



O (U <0 


e J3 

C . . 



5.5.5, 3.5. 


. . T 1 

S Iv 

oooooooo oo 





Cu * < ^ c^ f* c^ ^H (^ co ^H c$ 




















Present, ........... 


















First Perfect, 

Second Perfect, 

Second Pluperfect,. . . 
First Future, 

Third Future, 

First Aorist, 

The express design of the preceding Table, is to show 
the student, at a glance, the Mood, Tense and Voice of the 
Verb, without the Person and Number; and a Table like 
the foregoing, is better adapted to this purpose than one 
more lengthy, over the whole of which the student is 
obliged to look before he can find the Mood or Tense de- 
sired; but for the better information of those who desire 
it, we give, commencing on the next page, a full conjugation 
of the verb rifru, by which they can ascertain the Person 
and Number, as well as the other par s of any verb of the 
first conjugation. 














-5 g> 5 8-fl 8-fl to- 

o'g'^'-g" "3" "3* 

> f>. a >> a >-. " 

Q) &* a? t oT .? r _> 


w QJ 

^ o" 


^ 3 
Uj O 

3 ."I 

>> ^ >> J 

0> \3 Q) -to 

k^ ^ h*^ ^^ ** -^ 

oT s o 8 5T ^ ST 
S -5 -5 -5 

t> d 

. 1 . 1 , 

. ^ o p 

>> b- >i i^ 

Q^ W Q> (j^ 

5 -5 

O o O O O O tt> 

- IB e B > I > B > B C 

o> ^o> 8 o> ^o) tajfeo)'- 3 


E3 . S3 

o i? o ji? S 



. -2 

O 5^ 

^ o" 

01 ^3-5 


<D G 


S g 
co co 


K>- OQ: 



t PT"| 

^ >? 


^ g 


0> a 

1 1 




, f u> 

t co fa. 


fi ^ J2 




S c ^ 

B^ 5 2 *c a 

-H 3 3 3 







-r fc 




-5 S 




>. -T .*-.. 

? H- 3 i i Ji)^? 3 t i 

> -a 

a .3P 
** I 

s I- 



3 H-T 3 i i 




^ s c 5 


^ . 



^r 2 * >>ft4 

^^ ^S 

o *r c 

o> o a 

t-, t_ Q) ^ ^ 

& 5 3 .2 , 

^ $ 3 S g 

P-I ?r fa <J <jj 

PL| (JpH 



33 3 

3 3 


> b- 

U> 10 UJ 

*C *3 *<* 

! i 


\I S 


g 3> 


I I 1 I I 8 

. H 

3 3 

bo i 

.3 > 


*ul 5 ** 

fc S .. D 

fe ^ ^ 
K-fi-^ ' 


V V V %. 

e re e 

o "> < 

3 t b- 

iJ ^ > ^ 

v> u> 

8 u 



D- "" 
fi- J^ 

a> oTx-x 
a ^^ 

V ** t '^ O (j 

_S .S""S)- ^^ 

* _ 

O> *T - 


- . 

^ , 3 3 O 


^ rrl 

(^ C-gj* 


S y - P 
r" S S 

g-s* 1 * > J 


So*?! * 3 
1^ J.^S 

: * 


' 0> 

^ Jij 
t 'C 

' *''' o; ajrf-^" 

^- d; s S. SLg .2 



-5 o O g ? X 

( to J= z '3 

?-eis"ii'J ~- 3 - if 

5ib-b--Sb-b-fc.\ = to 3 uT ,,. t- b- >=; <0 

5 g g 3.-S o g g S- S- ? l "S- JS-, R, to to 

U>t "tD"to" U>U>U>< t " 

w w H-'e- w s- s- 

< -S , 4* , =r >- 

i =L s. s s S. * 
d. d.-ovi-.i- 5=^ s- 

to to 

O O ;3. ?C ^J *-3 O 

to t5 S- B- *o u. 0> 

O *t* t^^D^"^*^^^^^ 

Q ~! CJ U> U> Cj" Q*~ Ul Uj uj I*" 


IS" IK" 



E Si-^^^i-f gj5 * ^-^.oo 

5' s> --1-1: i:-S--i-J- 1 I "1 ^" ,s .- - 

> s 3 5?, t . ^ ^ g .. . 

o . . e. J */ -soo 

S5 ^>3*"--2 ^ <-* *w & ~ i- T- M 

7 .' 5 ^ufc-t?P s H _5 & ^3.3l3>>'>' 

l^ * * * * * * r * 1 ^r | S | j H:; 

a\S Si- - ^ cj ."it 

o .g ^ si ->-> ^srs 1 ^^^^ -ic o 

^ OQ ** Jr QCT^ , * , ^*S ^>_ I . 

w***^^**^^ I I f ~" ' I O O 

HH d_i.^5- = i-S_S_-5 -T>* b* ** ^ LI 

o v o iiooog-jr ^^^-^^VV 

I I 

1 S.| 

1.T v v v 

3" S: -^ v a p 

I T e 5 

* i-^jr i|t|||t s 

.^^Sw--^^! a a jnlljcgS^^ ^>>'S 

>2-r>-^3 & '& 13 r 3" ^- C 2^ r -j; c5 _r ^T -^ r 

g|^4 r =s5j! il^Ti'l 1*1 

03 t^ CX&L, t, 3 <J <J O X_^ CL,<3 ^ o ^ 

fli t** ** s ^^ Is- ^ O " 3 ^^ GJ ^*< 

PT ^ rt \ *^ * _ ^^ ^^ j, ^ . * n i _ *^ . r . r+ 

, i ( C' 1 co <-* OJ 





* ' s 

I "li 

*^ '5 S 

~- s" a" 




o to 

3s -I 

% | 


s - . . 

f the <r 








^ 00 


^ S p > " 

tl-3-^ ^ ' 
o -a o o 

^ & 

o .5 . 

g J3 3 


" F 3 

rt H 


,3 t t b- 



e s. 

. >-> Q) CD 

53 >> > 

2 S 2 

& ' c -o -^ 

a bo 


. a o o 





Place the root of any verb of the Second Conjugation, 
in the blank under " Root" in the following Table, and 
ycu have it conjugated. 

NOTE. The significations are the same as those in the 
First Conjugation. 







tfi. Aug. Root. Singular. Dual. 

Present, - JJM, , tfi ; 7ov, 7ov ; 
Imperf. I v, ?, Tjoru;7ov, 77jv; 
2d Aorist, I Like the Imperfect. 


Prssent, - u, s, Sjoru; 7ov, 7ov; fisv, 7s, 
Imperf. I Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
2d Aorist, s Like the Present Subjunctive. 


Present, rjv, TJCT, i\ ; t]7ov, TjTtjv ; *]fxsv, j7s 
Imperf. I Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
5M Aorist, i Like the Present Optative. . 


Present, - , 01, 7w; 7ov, 7wv ; , 7s, 
Imperf. I Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
2d Aorist, 6 , Eoro, w; 7wv, 7wv; , 7s, 


Present, fxai, tfai, 7ai ; ^ov ; jxs^a, tf^s, v7ai. 

Imperfect, s fxjv, tfo, 7o ; sflov, tf^ijv ; sda, tf^s, 7o. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD., wor^, 7ai ; 4ov ; fxfda, 

Like the Imperfect Indicative. 


fATlw, 01", 7o ; ^ov, drjv ; ju,s<Ja, i 
Like the Imperfect Indicative. 


, tfu or ou, <f6u ; rfdov, tf^wv ; , <f6s, ( 
Like the Imperfect Indicative. 

Imperfect, s 

Present, - 
Imperfect, I 

Pres >nt, - 
Imperfect ? 

J, v7ai. 




Tense, jlug. Root. Singular. Dual. Pura/. 

Present and Imperfect like Passive, through a 1 the Moods. 
2d Aorist, s fii?v, tfo, 7o ; dov, 6^v ; pefa, <f6s, v7o. 


2d Aorist, I woai, u or^, 7cu ; ju,sdov, tfdov ; fxsda, <f&e, uv7ai 


2c Aorist, I urjv, o, 7o ; 6ov, drjv ; /xeda, tt6s, v7o. 


2d Aorist, , tfo(oij) tfdw ; tfflov, tf^uv ; t <t6e t <f6u<fa.v. 


1. A verb must agree with its nominative in person and nc. 

2. Adjectives, participles and the article, agree with 
their nouns, in gender, number and case. 

3. Trans, verbs in the active voice govern the accusative. 

4. One noun governs another in the genitive. 

5. Intransitive verbs admit a nominative case after them. 

6. Some nouns are put absolute with a participle. 

7. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs 

8. An adjective in the neuter gender, without a noun tc 
qualify, governs the genitive, and sometimes the dative. 

9. and yivo/xai, signifying property, possession or 
duty, govern the genitive. 

10. E/fti, yi'vofxai and uwapp^u, taken for the Latin hdbeo 
to have, govern the dative. 

11. Many verbs govern the genitive and dative. 

12. Prepositions govern the genitive, dative & accusative 

13. Participles govern the same case as their verbs. 

14. One verb governs another in the infinitive. 

15. The infinitive is often used as a noun. 

16. The cause, manner and instrument are in the dative. 

17. The relative og agrees with its antecedent in gender 
an ; . number. 



N. G. D. Jl. V. 

Translation. Syntax. Etymology. 

The (t. 1) T-ou I^tfou, 2m. 5, -ou, TW, ro'v. 

when yev7)^v7o? 6s' conjunction, Indeclinable. 

Jesus, ysv7j$v7o Irju'-ou, 2m. g. abs. oils, ou, ou, ouv, ou. 
being bom ysv-Tjd-Mos I^tfou, eV s'v7o , *vri, iv<ra t tig. 

in v prep. Br)0Xj/x Indeclinable. 

Bethlehem, Iv BqdXEijj,, Indeclinable, 

of the % 'Iou5ai'aj, f . s. *j, 7 ^ ^, ??, 7^v. 

Judea, B>]5Xslf. *Iou(5ai'-aj, 1 f. s. A, as,, a. av, a. 
in v prep. *jfxs'paiff, Indeclinable, 

the days v ypip-a.'is, 1 f. pi. at, uv, aT^, a?, ai. 

of Herod r^ipaus 'Hpw6-ou 1 m. s. ^?, ou, ij, ^v, a(i)). 
the TOO ^arfiXs'wj 2m.s. 6, 7ou, 7i, 7ov. 

King, ^f*/pai ^arfjX-g'wj, 3 m. s. ei;, s'w^, sr, g'a, su. 
behold, Mod (rfu), verb from e<5w, Imper. Mood, 

wise men /xay-oi tfapsyevovro, o/, wv, oFj, oO^, o/. 

from d*o dva7oXwv prep. Indeclinable, 

the east euro dva?oX-uv 1 f. pi. ai, wv, a^, a^, a. 

came f/,ayoi crap-fj-ysv-o-vro verb, from flrapayivo/xai. 

into e?s 'leporfoXu/xa, preposition. 

Jerusalem, iV 'IspotfoXujxa, 2n. a, wv, oi, a, a. 
Saying, (2) Asy-o-vl-sj, (*ayoi, ov7e j, wv, outfi, ov7aj, &c. 

where Irfnv IIou adverb. 

is Itfr-i-v verb. e7p, '((?)> tf 7'( v ) ^ c ' 

(he) who 6 fr/Ssls 2 m. 8, ?, TW, rov. 

is to be born 6 rs-^-6-sls part, from TIXTW, &c. 
king gatfiXs-uj:, 3m. , w$, /, a, 0. 

of the c-wv ' a, 7wv, 7ai j, 7o^ f 

Jews ? 'Iou5ai-wv ; 2 m. pi. ai, wv, a^ , o^, w 

We have seen s"6-o-figv drf-r^pa verb, from eJw or 

NOTE. For pa-sing the verbs, see page 238 


for ItfTiv yap s76of,ev conjunction. 

of him, dtfTspa, aur-ou, 2m. 6g t ov , u iv. 

the "-ov ecflWpa, 2 m. d, 7ou, TOJ r o v, 

star ei6ofjt,v atfrsp-a, 3 m. ^ip, *po, fy i, p a, a'p 

in *v dvaroXjj preposition. 

the r-y dvaroXij 1 f. fj, 9%, ry, -?jv, 

east v ctvaroX-^, 1 f. ^, %, ^, ^v, t;. 

and "(5o/xlv xcu ^O/JLV, conjunction. 

have come (faeTs) ^-^o-^sv verb, from 

to worship ^rpotf-xuv-^-rfai inf. from tfp 

him. wporfxy^tfai, aur-u. p. pro. m. o$ t ou, u, ov. 
Heard'Hpw(5^(3) 'Axou-tfaj (raulwv) verb, from dxsw. 
when dxos<ta$ 8s conjunction. 

Herod 'Hpw5-jj axoutfa^, TJ ^, ou, jj, jv, ijora. 

the 6 (Satfikevg 2 m. 6, TOU, <rw, rov, 

king /3a<rX-i; 3m. e u f, ew^, i sa, su. 

he was troubled l-Tapa^-^, from Tapatfrfw. 
and <ra/)a^7 xa conjunction. 

all I'ao'-a 'lepotfoXufxa, tfatfa, a^, a, av, . 

Jerusalem, t lpotfoXu(x-a, 1 f. a, , a, ttw, a 

with fA<r' aurou, preposition. 

him, /t r ' auT-oU, per. pro. m. oj, o 17, $J, ov 

and (4) Kai conjunction. 

called together tfuv-ay-ay-uv vrav'las part, from tfuvayco. 
all <S\)\aya.yu>v flravr-aj, adj. from -tag, iccuJa., irav, &x;, 
the f'Ovs 'apxiepsTs 2m. pi. 6i, TWV, To~f , r o ^f, 

chief priests 'ap^isp-e^ 3 pi. m. s^, EWV, jiJtfi, e?f, s^. 
and rfuvayaywy xa/ tfuvayaywv, conjunction. 
scribes tfivayaywj' ypa^^T-sTs, 3 pi. m. iV, EWV, eutfi, eT^, gTf, 
of the T-OU XaotJ 2m. 6, r o u, rw, TOV, 

people 7pafjL(xaTts Aa-ou 2m. o^, ou, w, ov, s. 

asked 'Hpw<J;& t-Trvv6av-e-<ro from iri/v^avojxai. 
of Trap' auTwv preposition. 

hen *ap' avr-wv pro. m. plu. o, w v, oi, ou^, 



where yewolai irou adverb. 

the 6 Xpig-o?, 2 m. o, TOU, TW, 

Christ Xpis*-o7vva7ai,2m. o, ou, w, 

should be born, yewa-rai. verb, from y^v 






(to) him 

(oO the 

Judea, T% (erf7iv) 'Ig&xi- 
thus yeypatfrai Otir-u 
for yEvvaVai yap 

it is written 



the leas't 


noble princes E*V % 
of Judea, 

(5) OJ e/irov pro. m. plu. o i, <TOJV, TO"?, 

65 conjunction. Indeclinable. 

ol e/V-ov verb from e irw. Defective. 
CCUT-U 2 m. 

'Ix5a.iag 1 f. 
:-a ff , 1 f. 

Off, OV, <j} OV. 


*)> T ^ f t *7? ^* 
d, a ff, a, av 

verb, from 

6, rov, <ri 



(6) Ecu 


rfu, rfou, tfo", 

tf/, - 

1 f. 

Ot}<5-<XjU,W El 

IXa^iV-Tj tfu 
tfu eT 


t* ' ' 

El, EoTI , OCC. 


TWV, ToTf, TOff, 

3 plu. m. 


x tfou prepostion. 

Ix rf-oiJ pro. 2 plu. tfi5, rf o u, tfor, 
/ yap IfsXsJtfcrai conjunction. 

verb, from 



one ruling jye;.'fjt.ev-o IjjsXsJrfsrai from rj 

who o'-r'ff <oi|xavsr pron. com. feand TI. 

will protect og"ij tfoiftav-sr verb, from irofjuxvw. 

the "-ov Xaov 2m. 6, <rou, rw, rov, 

people rfuaavsr Xa-ov 2 m. o, ou, w, ov, . 
of me Xaov /x-ou pronoun. lyw, (* o ?, JAOI, ft?, 

the r-ov 'Lfpa^X 2 m. o, <rou, TW, T o v, 

Israel, * leaver 'Itfpa^X mas. Indeclinable, 

then fcpiSutfs (7) Tors, Adverb. 

Herod, *Hpw<5-T], ^xpijScdtfs TJJ, ou, *j, >jv, jorou 

secretly xaXsVaj Xa^pdl, Adverb, 

having called xaXsV-oS perfect participle, from xa>s'w 
the T-oi)ff /xayouj 2 m. o, TWV, ro^, rou^, 

wise men xaXsVaj jxay-ou?, 2 m. p. 01, wv, 01?, o v s t oi. 
inquired 'HpwiTjff ^-xpi/3u-o v s, verb, from 'axpi/3o' w 
of wapa auTwv, preposition, 

them irapa aur-uv pr. m. p. 01, <r w v, roi, TOUJ, . 

the T-OV p^povov 2 m. 6, <rou, TU, rov, 

time ^xpi'/3w<j's p^po'vov 2 m. o^, ou, w, ov, s. 

the <r-ou (paivofjisvou 2m. 6, rou, TW, rov, 

shining %povov ^ajvofxsv-ou 2 m. o, o u, u, ov, . 
star, 9vo|*svoO' 'aoW-pos. 3m. rjp, s p o ^, s'p/, g'pa, p. 
and (8) Kcu conjunction, 

having sent flre'jx-4/-a^ au<roi), part, from KSIVKU. 

them flr^fc-^ag aurouj 2 m. pi. oi, wv, 01?, o u , 01. 
into si's Bs^Xssa, preposition. 

Bethlehem, elg Bs^Xse/*, Indeclinable, 

he said (aO<roff) e/V-s verb, from s fu 

departing, part. iropsu0Jvr-, (vpsTs) part, from iropeuu. 
diligently 'axpi/3wf, adverb. 

2arch (V 5 ^) ^-aratf-a '5 verb, from J^STa^oj, imp. 
concerning vrept wai^iou preposition, 

the T-OV igaibiw 2 n. TO, rou, ru, TO, 

child, 4>p< *aii ou 2 n. ov, ou, u, ov, o. 



and (when) 8s 

you have ft und eup-yre, auVo'v 

bring word. 

to me 

how 'cwrayysiXa-TS oVw IXdwv, 

I also xoJ-yu 

going (-/") iXd-wv 

verb, from supiV 
verb, from c/.toa. 
fyw, (xou, fx o T, /jt,s, 

compound of xcu and 


may worship (s/w) tfpoo'-xu-v-ri-o'-w, 
him flrpotfxuvTjrfcj auT-cp 2 m. 
they'axso'avTe?(9) oJ 

5s Sflropsu^tfav, 


having heard 





lo ! (tfu 



which Wnip, sJSov ov 

they saw (o!) sM-ov ov 

verb, from 
og, ou, u, ov. 
o I, TUV, ro~s, 
, conjunction. 

part, of axouw. 
2 m. f o, T o u, TU, TOV, 
3 m.. eu, w ^, s, ea, 
v verb, from -jropsuu. 
xa< irpo^ysv conjunction. 

J5-ou imp. mood, from sWu. 

'o Wngp 2 m. 'o, TOU, TU, TO'V, 
, 3m. )p, spog 1 , epi, spa, 
Relative pronoun. 
verb, from ei5u. 




east Iv 

led before Wr^p 



being come euro's JX^-uv 

it stool 






sv 'avaroXi) preposition. 

r-r) 'avaroX^ 1 f. rj, r^j, T^, r 
1 f. TJ, TJ^, 0, ^ 

verb, from irpo 
m. 01, wv, o 
part, from 
verb, from i 
Irfetvco adverb. 

ltfT) ou adverb. 

^-v verb, from e/fw. 

T-O irai^iov 2 n. TO, TO?, TW 
rai<5'-3v. ^v 2 n. ov, ou, w, 



T o, 






star 'iJov? 

(they) rejoiced 

joy (f,< 


with exceeding. tf<po<Jp-a 

And (11) Keo 

having co me, (o/) t\66v<r-e$ 

into /V oi'xi'av 

the r-igv oixi'av 

house. its oixi'-av 

(they) found (o/) eup-ov rai5 

(10) 'I<5ovr-cr 

tie s 

r-6v cctfTt'pa 2 m. 
wrss dcVe'p-a 3 m. 









of it, 


"-d rai6iov 
eupov ieou8i-w 

fierce, Mapi'-ot, 

fisrd ^JjT-po 

f*"]Tpo auT-ou 
e\B6vr xou 

;) ov?, ov7wv, jutfi, ov7a, ov7F 

6, cou, TU, <rov, - 
;p, po, pi, pa, sp 
Verb, from ^ai'pfw. 



3 m. Participle, from Ip^o/xaj. 

If. a , a?, a, a v , a. 
'ov, Verb, from Eupirfxu. 

2 n. co, TOU, rw, TO, 
2 n. ov, oil, u, o v , ov. 


If. a, acr, a, av, a. 
If. ^ 

3f. r 

2 n. o 

falling down (o?) 

o u , w, 6 . 


3 m. pi. Part, from *iir<ru. 
(they) worshipped irpotf-E-xuv-Tj-tfav, Verb, from crpoo'xuvEu. 
him w'poo'ExjvTjo'av aur-u 2 n. o , ou, u, o. 

and, s'poo'Ex^vrjo'av xa< irpo!fsvyxav Conjunction, 

having opened(oi) dv-oi|av- < rff Part, from ccvoiyu. 

the r-ovs Sytravpovs o, uv, o~f, ovg. 

treasures d^tfaup-oug 2 m. pi. oi, wv, ore:, o u s, oi 

of them detfaupous aur-tljv, 2 m. pi. wv, o~g, ovgt 

(they) gave (avroi) vpotf-ij-vs'yx-a.-v Verb, from wpotf^^pdj. 
(to) him aur-u 2m. o , ov, u, o . 

gifts, ffpoo^vEyxav 5wp-a 2 n. pi. a, wv, oi, a , eu 

gold, vrpbtfTjvS'yxa.v ^putf-ov 2m. og, ou, w, ov, 


and ^putf-ov xcu Xi'/3avov, Conjunction, 

frankincense X//3av-ov ; 2m. 05, on, u, ov, a 
and Xi/3avov xa/ tf/xupvav Conjunction,'poff'^vsyxav rf/juJpv-av. 1 f. a, ), j, av, a. 
And (12) Ka Conjunction, 

being admonished ^prjfiario'ds'v-res Part, from ^psfxaTi'^w. 
by xar' ovap Preposition. 

a dream xar' ovap Indeclinable, 

not dvaxa|x>J,ai fju) Adverb. 

to turn back elva-xa/ji.~vj/-ai Verb, from dvaxafjwrru. 

unto rpo 'Hpu6>]v Preposition. 

Herod, "po$ 'Hpwi-Tjv 1m. yg, ou,. 13, *] v, aou; 

by Si o$w Preposition, 

another aXX-% 6<5ou 1 f rj, aj ^, 17, ijv, >). 

way 5i 65-ou 2 f o$, o u, u , ov, 6. 

they retired (o) dv-s-^wp-Tj-tf-a-v Verb, from dva^wpsw. 
into s/V x c ' ) P av Preposition, 

the r-ijv p^wpav 1 f. j, T^, rjj, T)VI 

country sig x c * ) P' av 1 ^ a a ^ ?> av > a * 

of them. x^P** a ^-wv 2 m. pi. u v, o^, o^. 
Having departed (iSj'Ava-xcopTjo'av-ruv Part, from'ava^psco 
however Si Conjunction, 

they avajC<jpi']<j'avTwv aur-wv 2 m. plu. 01, w v, o~j, ou^. 
lo ! (<Tu) j'6-ou, Verb, from ej&j. 

( an ) angel ayyeX-oj (paivsrai o f, ou, u, ov, e. 

of the Lord xupi-ou 2 m. og, ou, u, ov, 5. 

appeared ayysXoj, ^aiv-s-r-ai Verb, from (pajvu 

by xar' ovap Preposition, 

a dream xar' ovap Indeclinable, 

(to) the r-u 'Iurfij<p 2 m. o, roil, ru, rov, 

Joseph ^a/vsrai 'Iw<f>](p, Dative, proper noun, indclinable. 
saying, X^y-wv ayys\os Participle, from Xsyu. 

awaking, (tfu) 'Eysp-d-s/V Participle, from !ypu>. 

take (tfu) *apa-Xa/3-s Verb, from 






chi d 

and ifouto\ 


mother -ap<xXa/3s 

of it (Wrspa 

and rapaXa/3s 

flee (rfO) 




be (you) 




I call (I 

to you, f 

will be about 



to seek 









took up f e 


child flrap(Xa/3s 



0V, OU, W, 0V, 0V. 


xcu ItfSi 




av e'fu 


TO u<Jio 2 n. 
ifatdi'ov 2 n. 
xoi firjTcpa 

<T-j;V (XIJTfpa 1 f. $], T%, T?J, T1JV, 

firjTs-pa 3 f. jp, po, p<, p ^p 

auT-ou 2 n. o , o iJ , u, o. 

xa (pfCys Conjunction. 

<pr^-g Verb, from ips^cj. 

gV Ar/uflTTov 2 f Preposition. 

6, OU, U, V, . 

Imperative, from eJfw. 
g7<-w Verb, from s <rw. 

tf-o Pronoun, tfu, tfou, tfoi, rf, 
fjiXX-j Auxiliary, 

yap Conjunction. 

ij j, ou, 17, *)v, TJ or a. 
Verb, from ]Tew. 

T-O WaiOJOV 2 n. TO, TOU, TU, TO, 

*raiSi-ov, 2 n. ov, ou, a , o v, ov. 

T-OU 2 n. 0, TO?, TU, TOV, 

"airo-Xfi'-o'-ai Verb, from WoXuw. 

auY-6. 2 n. o , ou, tJ5 f o. 

'O ?rapXa/3fi 2 m. 6, TOU, TW, TC>, 
Si Conjunction. 

tyep-6-sig 3 m. Part, from iyetpu. 
Verb, from ifapa\a^/3avu. 
KtulloM 2 n. An article. 

2 n. See taiSiov above, 
xtxi ftrjrlpa Conjunction. 

T-7V (J,7jT;pa 1 f. 7J, T>5J, TTJj, TT ( V, -^ 



mother *apsXas [W]<r-pa 3 f . 

of it jWiTlpa auV-ou 2 n. 

(by) night, &a vuxT-off, 3 f. 

and <rapXa/3s xai ' 

(he) departed 'av-s-^wp-Tj-rf-j 

into stg A/yufliTov 

Egypt; A7jai*T-ov* 2 

A nd dve^ojprjo'e'v ( 15) Kou ^fv 

was (auroff) i,-v 







(it) might be fulfilled rXijp u-4>j 

5 Ok, U, . 

, x T o ff, XT/, x-ra, 
Verb, from 'ava^wpew. 
f . off, ou, u , o v , s. 


Verb, from sipi. 



T-^ff TfiXfUT^ff 1 f. 

rs\s\ir-r,s 1 f. 
'Hpw5-ou, 1 m. 


was spoken 








out of 


2 n 

vvo Kupi'ou 
r-ou Kupi'ou 2 m. 
6*0' Kuplou 2 m. 


gg AjyiJirroo 2 f 

Ihavecalled(lyw) I-xaX-stf-a 
the r-ov uiov 2 m. 

Son IxaXstfa uJ-o'v 2 m. 

of me. uiov fA-ou. Pronoun. 

Verb, from *Xrjpou. 

TO, TOU, T<3, TO, 

Participle, from pew. 

6, T U, TU , TOV, 
Off, OU, U, 0V, . 


2 m. 6, TOU, TOJ, TOV, 
1m. '<).c, o u , u, J7v, a. 
wv, ovloff, ov7i, ov7a. 


Off, U , U , 0V, 8. 

Verb, from xaXsu. 

o, TOU, TW, T o v , 

off, ou, u, ov, i. 

tyo, (JL o y, aor, fxl, 


Herod, 'Hpd 

seeing ( II puJr^ff, }<5-w\ 

Participle, from e/^tx, nom. 



that i5wv 

he was mocked, 

wise men, 0*0 
was enraged 
exceedingly ; 
and JdufMjfl)) 

having sent off 
killed Wog'siXas 

young children 
that (were) 

Bethlehem, iv 
jf it, 

two years 

under, (?rfav) 
recording to 

time xara 

that ^p/Swo'f 
\e had enquired 
rise men. *apa 






lv*ai-^-d-*j Verb, from spiral^- 

iVo /wtyuv Preposition. 

T-WV jjwxywv 61, ruv, roTg, TOJ'?, - 
2 m. pi. 01, u v, o.-f, oc/, 01 
-ij Verb, from dufw'w. 

Part., from cwroreXXw. 
Verb, from avaipsw. 
iravr-as <Kou6as 3m. e^, uv, tfj, aj, tg. 
r-oOf ifaTSag 2 m. oi, TWV, TOI'C:, r o v f, 
rar<5-ct, 3 m. pi. er, wv, tfi, aj, & 
T-oOg (e7vai) 2 m. pi. oi, rwv, ro^, -ou, 
xco opi'&ij Conjunction. 

v opioiff Preposition. 

*ttrf-i opi'oiff 3 n. pi. la wv, atfi, av7or , 7 
T, r&jv, ToTf, -a 
a, uv, o Tj, a, a. 
^ r t g, y, r,v, f>. 

oi, wv, o^, o iJ $, oi 

opi'-oiff 2 n. pi. 

aur-% If. 

'an-o 5iroug 


xa xarwrlpw, 


xara j^povov 

T'-OV ^povov 

^pov-ov 2 m. 



ou, w, ov, e. 

ou w, ov - 

Ti-xpi'^-w-tf-s Verb, from oxpj^ou. 

*apa ftaywv Preposition. 

r-wv /xaywv oi, TWV, ro^, TOU^, 
. oi, wv, oi, o^g, *i 



Then 1-jrX^pods ( 1 7) ToVs 

was fulfilled (01) 

the thing 






9-ij Verb, from irXiipow. 

r-o prfav com. rel. TO, rou, ru, TO, 
TO pr,6-e-v Participle, from psu. 

uVo 'lepsfiiou Preposition. 

a 'leps/xf-ou 1m. r? u > ? ttv > 

r-ou Tpo<pjTou 2 m. 'o, TOU, TU, TOV, 


VtfO IfpoyYjT-OV, 

1 m. 

ijj, ou >;, tjv, a. 


Xs/ow-off, * 

pO^^TOU, WV, 01 

/7off, ov], ov?a, wv. 

A voice 

(18) <f>wv-ii r ( xouc 

rdij 1 f. 

^ ^?> ^ *]*v> ^. 


Iv 'Pajxa 



Iv 'Pttfi-tt 

2 m. 

2 m. 

Verb from dxouw. 

Of, OU, U, 0V, 6. 


op, ou, u , o'v, 

Off OU, OJ, OV 


f, ou, w, nv, u. 

was heard, 
and 6pr t vos xcu 


wailing o"(5upfx-o ^xoutfflrj 2 m. 

much, iroX-ug 1 , o<Jupfxoj 2 m. 

Rachel 'Pcrj^X xXaioutfa fern, 

weeping 'Pa^X xXa'-ou-o y -a Present part, from xXaju. 
(for) the T-a T/xva 2 n. Ta, TWV, roi<r, ra, 

children xXaiourfa rlxv-a 2 n. a, uv, 015, a, a, 

fern. 11, >jff, ^, ^v, -^ 


Verb, from 6e\u. 
to be consoled irap-axX-rj-^-va/ Verb, from irapaxaXscj 
for ^sXs or/ EiVi Conjunction, 

not siVi' oux Adverb, 

(they) are (xuroi) eVi. Verb, from lifxi. 

having die^ (19) TEXsur^rfavr-oj 3m. Part, from rfXsvrau 

8 Conjunction, 

the r-oO 'Hpw^ou 2 m. 6, TOU, TU, TOV, 


of her rsxva. ai>r-r)S 

and xXa/outfa xa; 
not ^3X5 oux 







the angel 

of the Lord a 


a dream xad' 

appears ayyeXoj 

(to) the 

Joseph ycuvercu 


Eg}'pt Iv 

saying, (20) 

being arisen, (rfu) 

take up (<Tu) 


young child 

and #au$iov 


mother irapaXa^s 

of it fjwjrepa 

and <fapaXa/3s 

'Hpi5-ou, TeXeurjjrfavros r,e:, o v , t] jv, ij 
'tS-ov Imperative from Ii5w. 

<paiWai 2m. o, ou, , ov, s 
og , o u , w, ov, e. 
Verb, from <paivu. 
6, rw, <ru, rov, 

KupAou 2m. 
xar' ovap 

r-u 'lutf^ 2 m. 
ev Ai'yu*T6j 
Ay!3flrTU 2 f. 
As'y-uv a 

oj, ou, u, ov, s. 
3 m. Part., from Xsyu. 
'E/ep-d-s/-^, Participle from s/eipw. 
*ap-a-Xa/8-s Imp., from 9rapaXa/x/3avu. 





2 n. 
2 n. 

ro TOU, TW 

ov, ou, u, ov, ov. 



the land 

of Israel, 

have died 



seeking for 


life ^ 

of the 

young chi 




xou c'opeiJou 
e/V y^v 
-w 1 f. 

1 f. 
3 f. 
2 n. 


poff, pi, epa, ?p. 
ov, o u , u, ov, 8. 
Verb from iropEuofioi. 
j, ^?, ^, ?j v , ij 
Verb, from dv^xw. 
2 m. p. o 5 , TWV, <ro~$ , 
o? Participle, from 

1 f. ^, -rJ-j, TJ, T i) v , 
1 f. ^, ;?, jj, r; v , ij. 

r-ou *ai5i'ou 2 n. <ro, r o u TW , TO, 
iraiii-ou. 2 n. See *ju5cv above. 

yap 5v>jxao*i 


'IfUNNOT, Ke<p. a. 

(1) 'Ev ^PX? ^ v ^ Xoyof, xa? 8 Xoyc> ijiv 

(1) In (the) beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
(1* In principio erat Sermo, et Sermo erat 

rov sov, xai Qeos ^v 6 Xoyo. (2) OI/TOJ r t v 
with (the) God, and God was the Word. This ( Word) was 
apud Deum, que Deus erat ille Sermo* Hie (Sermo) erat 

(3) Havrcc 8f au- 
in (the) beginning with (the) God. All (things) by this 
in principio apud Deum. Omnia per hunc 

rou sysvsro' xai %wp<V aurou ly/vero oWs 

(Word) were made ; and without him was made nothing 
(Sermonem)facta-sunt; et absque eo factum-est nihil 

o ysyovsv. (4) 'Ev auru ^wig ^"v xai y guy r t v TO 
that was made. In him life was, and the life was the 
quod factum-sit. In ipso vita erat, et vita erat ilia 

<pw TGJV 'avdpwirwv. (5) Kai ro <pw Iv <rjj tfxori'a 

light of the men. And the light in the darkness 

lux hominum. Et ista lux tenebris 

xai fj tfxori'a auro ou xar/Xa/3sv. (6) 

shineth, and the darkness it not comprehendeth 
lucet et tenebrae earn non comprehenderunt. 

aiv6pu<ifo$ 'airsg'aXfjis'voff'rapaGeoir ovo/xa 

There was a man sent from God ; the name of whom 

Exstitit homo missus a Deo ; nomen cui 

'IwavvT]. f) o3Vo JjXdsv sis (xaprupiav Tva '(xo 
John. He came for a witness that he might testify 

Joannes- Is venit ad testimonium ut testaretur 


*, TCU <pwro, vo. 
concerning the light, that all (men) might believe through 
de ilia luce, ut omnes crederent per 

(8) Oux ?jv IxsTvos TO <p) aXX' <va 

him. Not he was this the light, but (he was sent) thai 

eum. Non erat ilia lux, sed (missus est) ut 

fjuxpTupTJtfrj irspi TOU <puro. (9) Hv TO <pw, TO 

he might testify concerning the light. It was the light, the 
testaretur de ilia luce. (Hie) erat lux, ilia 

'aXrjdivov, o <puTiei iravTa avdpuifov Ip^ojxevov sig TOV xoc'fMv. 

true that lighteth all men coming into the world. 

veraquseilluminatomnemhominem venientem in mundum. 

(10) 'Ev TU totfftcd 1v xai 'o xotffxoj 6<* auTou 

In the world (he) was and the world by him was made, 
In mundo erat et mundus per eum factus est, 

xai 'o xorfjjws auTov oux lyvw. (ll)EiV TO. ISia r^s, 
and the world him not knew. Unto the his own he came, 
sed mundus eum non agnovit. Ad sua . venit, 

xai o! 75(oi auTov ou rap!Xa/3ov. (12)"Orfoi 51 
and the his own him not received. As many (as) but 
et sui eurn non exceperunt. Quotquot autem 

!Xct/3ov auTov, HSuxev auToiff sfouifiav Tg'xva eou 
received him, he gave to them power children of God 
exceperunt eum, dedit eis jus (ut) filii Dei 

rng ri<j'Teuou<fiv <V TO 

to become (even) to them (that) believe on the name of him; 
smt facti (nampe) iis (qui) credunt in nomen ejus; 

(13) Oi' ou> If AlfjwxTuv ou<$! Ix 6e\yiia.To$ tfapxo? 

blood nor of the will of the flesh, 
<4ui nor ex sanguine neque ex libidine carnis 


ou5l x 4E.\!fj.iX7og dv<5po, ccXX' Ix 0ou tyevvridrtfav. (14) 
nor of the will of men, but of God were born. 
neque ex libidine viri, sed ex Deo geniti sunt. 

Kii 'o Xoyo tfapf syfasw xai eVx^vuc'ev Iv TJ/JIIV (*at 
And the Word flesh became ; and dwelt among us (and 
Et ille Sermo caro factus est ; of commoratus est inter nos (et 

we beheld the glory , as of the only begotten 

spectavimus cjus gloriam ut unigeniti 

IIaTpo,) wX^pi^ p^apiroj xai 'aXiqdsi'aj. (15) 'Iwavvj 
of the Father,) full of grace and truth.' John 

a Patre,) plenis gratia? ac veritatis. Joannes 

fJwxpTupei rtepi auTou, xai xs'xpays, Xs'^uv, Ou-roj 

bear witness concerning him, and he cried, saying- This 
testatus est de eo, et clamavit, dicens, Hie 

vjv ov 6/flrov* f o oiritfu (xoi; ep\op,fvog 

was (he) of whom I spoke ; he (that) after me cometh, 
erat quibus dicebam; is (qui) pone me venit, 

(JLOU ysyovsv OTI irpwroj jxoi; r t v. (16) Koti 
preferred before me is ; for before me he was. And 
ante-positus mihi est; quia prior me erat. Et 

x TO tfTjpwttaroj aurou jfw flravrej Xa/o/xsv, xai 
of the fullness of him we all have received, and grace 
ex plenitudine ipsius nos omnes accepimus, et gratiam 

'am x a P t<ro $ ' (17)"O<n 'o vo'/xoj $10, Mwtf^wff ^od*)* 

for grace. For the law by Moses was given ; (but) 

pro gratia. Nam ilia lex per Mosen data est; (sed) 

j X a P' * ai % 'iXrjdfia <5ia 'Irjifou Xpi^ou lye'vero. 
ehe grace ani/ the truth by Jesus Christ came. 

gratia et veritas per Jesum Christum prsestita est 


(18) 0sov ou&/ Iwpaxs flTiWo-TS' 'o 

God no one hath seen ever; the only begotten Son, 
Deuin nemo vidit unquam ; ille unigenitus Filius, 

'a wv ei <rov xoX*ov rou Harpo^, sxsivos e^fiy^ffaro. 
\vha being in the bosom of the Father, he hath Declared. 
qui est in sinu Patris, ille exposuit (eum.) 

(19) Koc aUrrj Ipv ; fiaprupia roS 'Iwavvou, o<rs dtfaVsiXav 
And this is the record of the John, when sent 
Atque hoc est testimonium Joannis, quum miserunt 

oi 'lovSaTci If 'IspotfoXufiwv ^spsTg xa Asutrag, Jva 
the Jews from Jerusalem Priests and Levites, that 
Judaei Hierosolumis Sacerdotes et Levitas, ut 

aurov, 2u rig s/ ; (20) Ka 
they might ask him, Thou who art ? And he confessed 

interrogarent eum, Tu es qui? r Et professus est 

xcu oux ^pvrjtfaro, xa wjxoXoyiio'ev "On, oux EIUJ fyw *o 
and not denied, and confessed; That, not am I the 
que ne negavit, et professus est ; Ut, non sum ego ille 

Xpirfe- (21) Ka/ /jpwojo'av aurov, Ti, ouv, 'HXi'a^ 
Christ. And they asked him, Who, therefore, Elias 

Christus. Et interrogaverunt eum, Quid, ergo, Elias 

sT tiu ; Kou Xlysi, Oux s//x. *O iepo$i\<n\$ el <fu ; 
art thou ? And he said, Not I am. The prophet art thou ? 
es tune ? Et dixit, Non sum. Propheta es tu 't 

KOI cUrexpi'fy, Ob'. (22) E?*ov ouv auru, Tig ^ 
And he answered, No. They said then to him, Who an. 
Atque respondit, Non. Dixerunt ergo ei, Quis 6-. 

(tu ; 

ihou an answer that we may give to them ^who) sent 
lu 1 responsam ut demus is (qui) miserun' 


rl \iyst$ tfspi (tsavrov ; (23) *E<prj, 

us; what sayest (thou) of thyself? He said, I (am) 
nos ' quid dicis de teipso? Ait, (t>um) 

sv rjj 

the voice (of one) crying in the wilderness, Make straight 
vox (unius) clamantis in deserto, Complanate 

r^v 55ov Kupi'ov, 

the way of the Lord, as said Esaias the prophet. 

viam Domini, ut dixit Esaias propheta. 

(24) Kou o" dirsfaXfi/voi, ^Vav Ix ruv fapirfaiwv 
And they (which) were sent, were of the Pharisees. 
Vero iis (qui) missi fuerant, erant ex Pharisaeis. 

(25) Kou tipiJT^tfav auTov, xou sTtov auru, T/, 
And they asked him, and said to him, Why, 
Et interrogaverunt euro, ac dixerunt ei, Cur, 

ouv, f3a.if<r(sis, si rfu oux si 'o Xpiro?^ obVs 

therefore, haptizest thou, if thou not art the Christ, nor 
ergo, baptizas, si tu non es ille Christus, neque 

o'Jrs o flTpo<p^r;g ; (26) 'Afsxpidri av<ro~g 6 
Elias, nor the prophe>? Answered them the John, 

Elias, neque ille prophe^a? Respondit iis Joannes, 

X/ywv, 'Eyci (3a<if<rlu iv C5ari* fxltfoff is ufiwv 

.laying, I baptize with water ; in the midst but of you 
dicens, Ego baptizo aqua ; (in) medio vestrum 

ov tips'is oux o!5ars. (27) Auro? <T<v, o, 
itandeth (one) whom ye not know. He (it) is, who, 

ata<; (unus) quern vos non nostis. Ille (hie) est, qui, 

li'i'o'cj fjwu, Ip^o'fisvoj, 05 e/xir'poo'^av u,oiJ yiymsv tu lyC. tux s/'/xi 
after me, cgming, who before me is ; I not am 

pcne 1 mCjVeniens, qui antepositus mihi est; ego non sum 


-io va utfw CCUTOU <rv 

worthy thit I should unloose of him the latchet of the 
dignus ut solvam cujus corrigiam 

. (28) TaiJra sv Br^ajSapa lyg'vevro T='pav TOO 
shoes. These things in Bethabara were done beyond the 
solearum. Hasc in Bathabara facta sunt secus 

ou, 0*00 *jv Twavv7j /<ri?uv. (29) Tj J 
Jordan, where was John baptizing. The next day 

Jordanem, ubi Joannes baptizabat. Postero die 

/SXfVfi 6 'IwavvTjs TOV 'iTjtfoCv lppo'fjt,svov crpo avrov, xa/ Xe'yei, 
seeth the John the Jesus coming unto him, and he said, 
videt Joannes Jesum venientem ad se, et dixit, 

*!$ 6 afx,vo <roiJ Sou 6 a'pwv r^v afiapT/av TOO 

Behold the lamb of the God that taketh away the sins of the 
Ecce agnus Dei qui tollit peccatum 

>otf/xou. (30) Qurtig IrfTi wspi ou lyw s/Vov, 'OtfiVcd JAOU Ip^srai 
world. This is (he) of whom I said, After me cometh 

mundi. Hie est de quo dicebam, Pone me venit 

av^p o 6/JWpoo'^ev /xou ys'yovsv on irpwro'^ JJLOW 

a man which preferred before me is ; for before me he 

vir qui antepositus mihi est; quia prior me 

jv. (31) Ktt'yu oux ySsiv CCUTOV, etXX' "va 

was. And I not knew him, but that be should be made 

erat. Et ego non noveram eum, sed ut manifestus 

TO) 'IrfpcngX, Sia rovro %\6ov JyoJ sv rvi 

manifest to the Israel, by which am come I with the water 

Israeli, propterea veni ego per aqua 

/8cMr<n'guv. (32) KOI IfjwxprJprio'gv 'IwavvTjf, Xlyuv, "On 
baptizing. And bare record John, saying, That 

baptizans. Et testatus es? Joannes, dicens, Ut 


TO TIv=v|xa xaTa/3aivov wrfei irspis fpdv, s'g oupavou, 
I saw the Spirit descending like a dove, from heaven, 
conspexi Spiritual descendentem quasi columbamexcoelo, 

xou IfASivsv I*' auTov. (33) Ka'yiJ oux ^6eiv CCUTOV dXX' 
and abode above him. And I not knew him but 

etiam mansit super eum. Et ego non noveram eum sed 

o 'ii^a.g |xs /SowTTi'^eiv sv WCCTI, IxeTvos (xo 

(he) who sent me to baptize with water, the same unto me 

qui missit me baptizare aqua, ille mihi 

eiVev, 'E<p' ov av 15ys TO Hvevpa. xcwa/Saivov 

said, Upon whom shall thou see the Spirit descending 

dixerat, Super quern videris Spiritum descendentem 

xcc) fxivov if' CCUTOV, ouro'j ls"iv i ^Sa^ri^wv 

and remaining on him, the same is (he) that baptizeth 
et manentem super eum, hie est qui baptizat 

Iv nveuftan ayiu. (34) Ka'y" 
with Ghost Holy. And I saw, and bare record 

Spiritu Sancto. Et ego videbam, et tester 

V 6 UlOff TOU 050U. (35) T) 

that he is the Son of the God. The next day again 
ille est Filius Dei. Postero die iterum 

o 'Iwaw>]^, xai sx TWV /xa^rjTuv aurou <JJo. (36) Kol 
stood the John, and of the disciples of him two. And 
stabat Joannes, et discipulis ejus duo. Et 

TW 'Iigo'oo irspiirarouvrai, X/yei, *l$s i 
looking (upon) the Jesus walking, he said, Beho.d the 
intuitus Jesum ambulantem, dixit, Ecce ille 

ct|xvo TOU Gsou. (37) Koi ^xoufl'av auTou o! Suo 

Lamb of the God. And 'heard him the two disciples 

Agnus Dei. Et audierunteumilli duo discipuli 


XaXoCV<ro, xu] fat ).o JdrjoVxv <ru 'I^rfou. (38) ZTnacpsjj,- 61 o 
speaking, and they followed the Jesus. Turned then the 
loquentem, et sequuti sunt Jesum. Conversus vero 

xai Ssoufa^svosavTovs dxoXoudoCWas, Xs'yei 
Jesus, and saw them following, and said unto them, 
Jesus, et videbat eos sequentes, dicit eis, 

(39) Ti &<re~rs ; OS Ss sTfm auru, 'Pa/3i, (I 

What seek (ye)? They and said (unto) him, Rabbi, (which 
Quid quaritis ? Illi vero dixerunt ei, Rabbi, (quod 

Xs'ysrai, fpfwjvsvSuo/jisvov, ta<fxa\s,) itw 
is to say, being interpreted. Master,) where dwellest thou* 
dicitur, interpreteris, praeceptor,) ubi moraris? 

(40) Afysi avToTs, *Ef>-)(S<t6s xaj *8ers. r HXdov xai 

He saith unto them, come and see. (And) they came and 

Dicit eis, venite et videte. (Et) venerunt ac 

e/6ov <ifw psver xa -rap' CCUTU ipenav r^v yiitpav Ixsivrjv* 
saw where he dwelt; and with him abode the day that; 
viderunt ubi moraretur ; et apud eum manserunt diem ilium; 

wpa ds 3jv us Ssxarri. (41) *Hv 

hour for it was about the tenth. Was Andrew, the 

hora enim erat quasi decima. Erat Andreas, 

po Si'/xwvoj IIsTpoiJ, s!g ix TOJW Siio <ruv axourfavrwv tfapA 
brother Simon Peter, one of the two the hearing with 
frater Simonis Petri, unus ex duobus (qui) audierunt cum 

'Ljavvou, xai 'axoXou5>](favTc)v auri5. (42) EupiVxsi ourof ifpZrog 
John, and followed him. Findeth he first 

Joanne, et sequuti erant eum. Invenit hie prior 

rov '<x5sX<pov TOV 7<5iov SI'/AWVCC, xa X^ysi auTU, 
the brother the own Simon, and saith ^unto) him, 
fratrem Simonem et iixit ei, 


rov Metftfiav, 6 sVn, 
We have found the Messiah, which is, being interpreted, 
Invenimus ilium Messiam, quod est, si interpreteris, 

6 Xpirfrfe. (43) Kai 
the Christ. And he brought him unto the Jesus. 

ille Christus. Et adduxit eum ad Jesum. 

be ocuru 6 'Ititfou^, /, 2u ei 
Beheld and when him the Jesus, he said, Thou art Simon 
Intuitus autem eum Jesus, dixit, Tu es Simon 

6 u!o 'luva* tfu xXrjdjjtfTj Kj<pa, 6 

the son of Jona ; thou shall be called Cephas, which (is) 
Filius Jona ; tu vocaberis Cephas, quod (est) 

i<rf>Qg. (44) TJJ eVowpiov yjdsXrjo'ev 6 '!*]- 
by interpretation, a stone. The next day would the Je- 
si interpreteris, petra. Postero die voluit Je- 

e<V ^v FaXiXaiav* xai eupirfxsi 4>iXjflrwov, xai 
sus go forth into the Galilee ; and findeth Philip, and 
sus abire in Galilaeam ; et invenit Philippum, et 

(xoi. (45) 'Hv $ 6 <f>iXiT'i'o^ CX-JTO 
saith to him, Follow me. Was now the Philip of 
dixit ei, Sequere me. Erat autem Philippus ex 

"Bq&tfaiSa., Ix T% ifoXeug 'Avips'ou xa< IleVpou. (46) EupiVxei 
Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. Findeth 
Bethsaida, civitate Andreas et Petri. Invenit 

rov Na^ava^X, xcu X/yfi aury, "Ov 

Philip the Nathaniel, and saith unto Mim, (Him) of whom 
Philippus Nathanaelum, et dixit ei, (Ilium) de qud 

s'v TU VO/JLU xou oi *po!p>5Tai, e-j 
wrote Moses in the law and the prophets, we have found, 
ftcripsit Moses ir lege et prophetae, .'nvenimus, 


'Ii]<fovv TOV d*o Na^apsV. (47) Ka etirev 

Jesus the of Nazareth. And said to him Nathaniel 

Jesus ex Nazareth. Et dixit ei Nathanael 

Ex Na^apsV S'Jva.Ta.1 <rl ctyadov /va; As'ysi aurui 

Out of Nazareth can any good (thing) be? Said to him 

Ex Nazaretha potest aliquid boni esse ? Dixit ei 

<f>i'Xjtf-iroc:, "Ep^ou xa/ Ids. (48) E/<Jsv 'o 'I^tfou^ <rov Nadava^X 
Philip, Come and see. Saw the Jesus the Nathaniel 

Philippus, Veni et vide. Vidit Jesus Nathanaelum 

p2b'f/,svov ifpog CCSJTOV, xa; \iyti ifSpi aurou, "iSs dXrj^wj 
coming unto him, and said of him, Behold indeed 
venientem ad se, et dixit de eo, Ecce vere 

sv u So\os oux ifi. (49) As'yfi aurw Na- 
an Israelite in whom deceit not is. Said to him Na 

Israelita in quo dolus non est. Dixit ei Na- 

(is yivwtfxei?; irexpiij o I^rfog 

thaniel, Whence me knowest thou ? Answered the Jesus 
thanael, Unde me nosti? Respondit Jesus 

xa/ siVsv auTU, IIpo <rw rfa ^iXurirov (pwvjjtfai, ovra iiro 
and said to him, Before that thee Philip called, being under 
et dixit ei, Priusquam te Philippus vocaret,quum esses subtei 

rfiv tfux/jv, siS-'v di. (50) 'A-jrexpidi] NodavaigX xat Xe'ysi 

the fig tree, I saw thee. Answered Nathaniel and said 

ficum, videbam te. Respondit Nathanael et dixit 

auTU, 'Pa/S/Si, tfu si 'o MS <rw <> tfu sf 
unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of the God; thou art 
ei, Rabbi, tu es Filius Dei; tu es 

'o /SatfiXsus TOU 'Itfpa^X. (51) 'A-rsxp/^Tj 'Irjtfouff, xcu 

the king of the Israel. Answered Jesus, and said 

rex ille Israeli Respondit Jesus, et dixit 


"On siVov rfoi, 5/<Jov tfs utfoxaru rr t $ rfuxljg 
to him, Because I said to thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, 
ei, Quia dicebam tibi, Vidi te sub ficu, 

Mei'^u ro^rwv OK]/EI. 

believest thou ? Greater (things) (than) these shall thou see. 
credis? Majora istis videbis. 

(52) Ka/ Xlysi aurw, 'Ajj^v, ctfxigv, Xs'yu fifiiv, 'A*-* 
And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I tell you, After 
Praeterea dixit ei, Amen, amen, dico vobis, Ab 

a'pri 5-^<f6s rov oupavov etvewyora, xou rovg 

now thou shall see the heavens opened, and the angels 

hoc videbitis coelum apertum, et ange'os 

rov sou dva/3aivovra xau xara/Saivovra^ l*< TOV in'o'v TOO 
of the God ascending and descending upon the Son of the 
Dei ascendentes et descendentes super Filium 


fi?, Key. xg-'. ACTA, CAP. XXVI. ACTS, CHAP. XXVI. 

(1) 'Aypiirira 61 jrpo rov naO.ov I<prj, 'E-n'irpsVsrai 
Agrippa then unto (the) Paul said, (it) is permitted 
Agrippa turn Paulo dixit, permittitur 

tfoi uirlp tfeaurou Xs'ysw. Tors 6 IlauXoff 'aflrsXoyerro, 
to thee for thyself to speak. Then the Paul defended himself 
tibi pro teipso dicere. Tune Paulus hie defensione usus 

r t v ^s~pa. (2) Ilep* 
extending the hand. Concerning all (things) of which 
est extensa manu. Super omnibus de quibus 



utfo 'Iou5a/wv, /SarfiX.*? *AypiV*U, 
I am accused by (the) Jews, O, king Agrippa, I think 
postulor a Judaeis, rex Agrippa, cogico 

JfAaurov jxaxapiov juisXXwv ewroXoysro^ai Itfi tfou 

myself happy (that) I am about to defend myself before you 

me beatum (quod) sim dicturus apud te 

tfrjfASpov (3) MaXioVa yvojrfrrjv ovra tfl iravTiJV TWV 
this day : Especially knowing being you in all things which 
hodie: Maxime gnarum sciam quod te omnium qua 

xardt 'Iou<5ai'ov, sdwv <rs xai ^rr^aruv. Aio 
(are) among Jews, manners . and the customs. Therefore 
(sunt) apud Judseos, rituum et questionum. Ideo 

tfou /xaxpo^jaw^ dxo~<fai jxou. (4) T^v jut,sv ouv 
I pray you patiently to hear me. The truly, therefoie, 
rogo te (ut) patienter audias me. Itaque vitam 

JAW rv x veorTjTo^, TTJV a* . 

manner of life of me the from (my) youth, the from (the) 
actam meam a juventute, a 

'app>j ysvo^.lv>]v Iv rw sdvsi f*o'u v 'I>jpe 

beginning which was at first in the nation of me m Jeru- 
principio quaeque fuit in gente mea in Hiero- 

a'oX^fAojff, jtfao'i -jravrsj ol 'lovSoiiot' (5) Upvytv&tfxwris ^ 
rusalem, know all the Jews; (That) know me 

solymis, sciunt omnes Judaei; (Qui) noverunt me 

cLvuSev lav dsXcJO*! (ttaprupsrv,) OTI xara 

from the beginning (if (they) would testify,) that aftet 

a majoribus (si velint testari,) secundum 

n\M axpi/SsifraTrjv aipsiftv .rrjj ij^srspas 6pvi<fxe'itt.s t 
the most rigorous (and) strict of the our sect of religion, 
illam ex^uisitisiraan nostros heresin reMgionis, 


(6) Kou viJv *' 
I lived a Pharisee. And now for hope which the (was) 
vixisse Pharisaeum. Vero nunc ob spem 

<roi> ifa.Tpas JirayysXias yevopsvys tiro TOU eou, 
unto the fathers (of the) promise constituted by the God, 
patribus promissionis factae a Deo, 

(7) E/V )v <ro 
1 stand (and) am judged ; To which the twelve tribes 
sto injudicium; Ad quern duodecim tribus 

fywjv ^v Jxrevia vi>xra xai l/x^pav Xarpsuov iX-ri'^Ji xaravrVa** 
of us constantly night and day serving 'hope to come ; 
nostra perpetuo nocte et die servientis sperant perventuras ; 

for which hope I am accused, king Agrippa, by the Jews. 
de qua spe postular, rex Agrippa, a Judaeis. 

(8) T a-ritfTov xpivsrai *ap' UJJL?V, si o 

Why incredible should (it) be judged by you, that the 
Quid incredibile judicatur apud vos, quod 

vsxpouff lysi'psi ; (9) 'Eyw (xsv ouv 

God should raise up (the) dead ? I even therefore 
Deus excitet mortuos ? (Ego) equidem statueram 

vfpog TO ovojxa T^rfou TOU Na^wpaiou 

with myself, against the name of Jesus of the Nazareth 
apud adversus nomen Jesu Nazareni 

6s~v tfoXXA ivavTia ifpagai. (10) "O xai 

taught many (things) hostile to practice. "Which also I 
multa contraria facere. Quod etiam 

iv 'IsporfoXufAois xai <jroXXou ruv dyi'wv lyi 
performed in Jerusalem, and many of the saints I in prisons 
feci in Hierosolymis, et mullus sanctorum egocarceribus 


TV irapa TWV ap^ip;wv 

confined, which from the Chief Priests, authori:y 
inclusi, a. principibus Sacerdotum, potestate 


having obtained; being put to death and when they 
accepta; interimerentur et quam 

xa 4/Jjipov. (11) Kai xarot -ratfaj rag tfuvaywy K 

I gave against (them my) voice. And in all the synagogues 
tuli (ab eis) suffragium. Ac per omnes synagogas 

<roXXaxi Ti/xwpuv oijrws, ^vayxa^ov /SXatfpTjfxsrv 

often punishing them, I compelled (them) to blaspheme ; 
sepe puniens ipsos, coegi ad blasphemandum ; 

TS S|j,|mivo{Avo auroi, |<5uxov eu$ 

exceedingly and being mad against them, I persecuted them 
supramodum et furens adversus eos, persequutus sum 

xai ra ^cj flroXsij. ( 12) 'Ev 015 

even also (to) the foreign cities. Thro' which as I passed 

etiam in exteras civitates. Inter qu & etiam proficiseens 

/xsr' igovtfiotg xai 
into the Damascus with authority and commission from 
Damascum cum potestate et procuratione a 

TWV 'ap^isps'wv, (13) 'HfASpag fJ^Vjff, xara r^v 65ov, s/6ov, 
the Chief Priests, Day at mid, in the way, I saw, 

principibus sacerdotum, Die medio, in via, vidi, 

king, from heaven above the brightness (of) the sun, 
rex, coelitus quse superans splendorem solis, 

frspiXajju^o.v (xs (pug xa rovs tfOv fxo iropsuofi/vouj 

shining around me a light, and those with me journeying. 

circumfudit me lucem, et eos curn me iterfaciebant 


(14) ITavrwv Se 

All and when having fallen of us upon the earth, 
Omnes autem quum decidissemus in terram, 

rjXMjU. yuvyv XaXourfav ifpog M-s, xa X/yourfav r * 'E- 
I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying (in) the He- 
audivi vocem alloquentem me, ac decentum He- 

/Spai<5 SiotXsxru, SaoCX, SaoCX, ri fAS 6iwxsi ; 

brew dialect, Saul, Saul, why me persecutes! (thou) ? 

braica lingua, Saul, Saul, quid me persequeris? 

tfxX^po'v <fo7 ifpos xa'vrpa Xaxri^siv. (15)'Eyw(Js s;Vov, 

Hard for you against (such) power to kick. I and said, 
duram tibi contra stimulos calctrare. Ego autem dixi, 

Ti si Kupis ; 6 (51 sitev, 'E^/w s!f/, 'Irrfou^ ov 

Who art (thou,) Lord? he and said, I am Jesus whom 
Quis es, Domini ? ille et dixit, Ego sum Jesus quern 

tfu <5jwxsi. (16) 'AXXa 'avas"]$i, xai tfr^i liri TOUJ iro'^ag 

thou persecutes!. But rise up, and stand upon the feet 

persequeris Sed exsurge, et sta in pedes 

tfoiJ, sis TOUTO ydp w<p$*]v tfoi, 

of you, for this because I have come to you, to choose 
tuos, idcirco enim apparui tibi, designarem 

tfe vifripyv xa (xaprupa &v rs 

you a minister and witness the things which thou hast seen 
ministrum ac testum turn eorum quae vidisti, 

'uv T6 ocp6r)<fo^a.l tfoi, (17) 'Ef-aipoiJaevos (ft 
the things and I will show to you, Delivering you 

turn eorum quibus apperebo tibi, Eruens te 

ix rw Xocro xai TWV Jdvuv j 5 cuff vuv tfe arr ^^ 
from the people and the heathen unto whom now you I send. 
ex hoc populo et gentibus ad quod nunc te mitto. 



(IS) 'AvoT^ai o<p0aXfjLoug aurwv rou J<jris"ps'^ou 'UTS (fxo'rovs 
To open (the) eyes of them to turn from darkness 
Ut aperias oculos corum (et) convertas (eos) a tenebris 

ti$ <pw, xo rr t s sgovtfias TOU Sarava evl rov sov, rou 

unto light, and the power of the Satan unto the God, that 

ad lucem, et (a) potestate Satanae ad Deum, ut 

Xa/Sen/ auroOff eupstfiv a/xaprcDv, xaj xX5jpoj 

they receive to them remission of offences, and a share 

accipiant remissionem peccatorum, et sortem 

Iv ToTs rjyiatffj^voig 1 fis'si vy V s^s. 

among theni who are sanctified by faith which (is) in me. 

inter illos sanctificatos per fidem quae est in me. 

(19) "Odiv, ^atfiXsiJ 'AypiVira, oux ^ysvofi]v d#i6ri$ rjj 

Whence, king Agrippa, not I was disobedient (to) the 
Unde, rex Agrippa, non fui rebellis illi 

oupavi'u wrratfia. (20) 'AXXa ro~s ev Aajxatfxu wpwrov xou 
heavenly vision. But (to) those in Damascus first and 

coelesti apparitioni. Sed iis (qui sunt) Damasci primum et 

etg tfatfav re TT^V j^wpav rr^ 'Icu6ai'a, xcu 
at Jerusalem in all and (he coasts of the Judea, and 
Hierosolymis in omnes et regione Judeae, et 

(then) to the Gentiles, showing (that they) might repent 
(deinde) Gentibus, anunciavi ut resipiscerent 

xcu VflVps'<pev ;Vi rov sov, a^ia <rrje 

and turn unto the God, (and) worthy of the 
et converterent (se) ad Deum, convenientia 

(21)"Evexaro^rwv /xe oJ *Iou<5aToi 
repentance works do. For which me the ? Jews 

tesipicentiae ope ra facientcs. Horum causa me Judani 


m/XXa/3o'(ji?vci Iv TW Ispu sVeipwyro 

have seized in the temple (and) attempted to kill (me). 

comorehensum (in) templum tentarunt interficere (me). 

(22) 'Ecrixcypias ouv <rv)(uv *% ifapa TOU sou, 
Assistance therefore having obtained from the God, 
Auxilium sed nactus a Deo, 

to this day thus I continue testifying to small both and 
in hanc diem usque perstiti testificans parvis turn turn 

ou<5sv ixros Xoywv uv TS oJ ifp<xpr,<rat 
great, nothing than saying which both the prophets 
magnis, nee quicqam dicens quae prophetae 

fxeXXovTwv yivstf^ai xai Mwo% 
did say should come and Moses. 
praedixerunt futura ac Moses. 


( 19) *Av6puitos 6s rig %v if\oixfK> j, xa/ tveStSiufxero 

A man and who was rich, and clothed (in) purple 

xai /3u(f(fov, U9paivo(xsvog xa0' v^i^pav Xafjiirpw^. (20) 

and fine linen, (and) feasted by day sumptuously. 

61 rig %v ovo'/xari 
A beggar and who was named Lazarus, who was thrown 

irpo TOV ir~jXwva aurou ^jXxcd/xs'voff, (21) Ka< liri^Dfxijv 
before the gate of the other full of ulcers, And desired 

i cwro TWV -^./iwv TUV < ITTOVTWV diro 
to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the table 


rou ffXcutfiou dXXd xai 01 xuvsj 
(of) the rich (man,) but also the dogs came (and) licked 

roL Xx>j auTou. (22) 'Eys'vsro 5s diro^avsiv TOV 

the sores of him. It came to pass and died the beggar, 

xcu d-jrsvs^ijvai aurov utfo rwv dyys'Xwv stg "ov xoXrov rou 
and was carried he by the angels into the bosom of the 

d/x, oiifsdavs Ss xou 6 flrXo^tfioj xai 

Abraham, died and also the rich (man) and was buried. 

(23) Kou Iv rw a8y * sirapas roug osp^aXftouj auTou, uirap^ww 
And in the hell he lifted the eyes of him, being 

v ^arfavoi, Spa <rov 'A/3paa,a dffo /xaxpo^ev xa< Aa^apov 
in torment, seeing the Abraham at a distance and Lazarus 

v rots xoXflroi avrw. (24) Ka auroj <puv^o' a ff l><ir Harep 
in the bosom of him. And he crying said, Father 

'A/3pad{jt,, JXs'rjtfov JULS, xai TSfj^ov Aa^apov "va 

Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he 

^a-vj/rj <ro axpov TOU 5ax<ri;Xou aurou C^aTOff, xa/ 
may dip the tip of the ringer of him in water, and cool 

ngv yXwrfrfav (xou* OT< oiJuvwfxcu ^v TT) <pXoy< 

the tongue of me ; for I am tormented in the flame this, 

(25) EVs Ss 'A/3pactfA, Ts'xvov, (ivrjo'^Tai or dirsXa^sj tfu 
Said and Abraham, Son, remember that received you 

-a 'ayo^a tfou Iv <r^i ^w^i tfou, xeu Aa^apog 

the good things of you in the life of you, and Lazarus 

j/,oiw TO, xoxd, vuv Ss SSs irapaXsirai, rfu 
likewise the evil things, no wand here he is comforted, you 

Literally, unseen, the invisible abode of the dead domed from 
fi"5w, to te. 


(26) Ka? lri flratfi ro^roiff, fisra%u Sj/xwv xai 
and tormen ad ; And besides all this between us and 

you a gulf very great is placed, so that they who would 

&a>jvai ivrtudev ifpos ^f-^ W 6iJvuvrai, fjwjos oJ 
pass from tLis place to you, not can, neither those 

IxsfiJsv ifpos jjxa^ (Jiacrspurfw. (27) EiVs <JI, 'Epwrw ouv 
from that to us can pass. He said then, I pray therefore 

tfs, *u<rsp, 7va flr/(Ji4/*j auTov eiV TOV o/xov rov 
thee, father, that thou wilt send him to the house of the 

father of me ; I have for five brethren, that he witness 

auroiff, "va f/,^ xou ouro/ e\6u<ftv el$ TOV roVov TOUTOV r^j 
to them, that not also they come into the place this of the 

^arfavoiJ. (29) Afysi auru 'A/3paafi, "E^outfi Mwrfs'a xa< 
torment. Said to him Abraham, They have Moses and 

rotfc *'po(pV a ' axoutfarwo'av auruv. (30) 'O 5s e/Vev, Ou^i, 
the prophets, let them hear them. He and said, Nay, 

raTp 'A/3paa/A, 'aXX' lav <rV 'airo vsxpwv <iropev6j) 
father Abraham, but if any one from the dead should go 

fflg avrovs, fxeravo^rfoyrfiv. (31) EiVs Si auTui, E/ 
unto them, they would repent. He said and to him, If 

Mutfe'w? xeu <ruv irpoip^TOJv oux dxoJoutfiv, ou5s lav TIJ & 
Moses and ihe prophets not they hear, neither if any one from 

VExpuv 'avatfT^, *SHf6ri<fovrcu. 

the dead shoa_d arise, will they be persuaded. 



(34) 1 Aia. Toure,* ISov, yu cwroa'TsXXw 3 ifpo$ uy,a irpopjjrar, xcu 
Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and 
Propterea, ecce, ego mitto ad vos prophetas, et 

xa ypamiOLTss' xa CCUTWV CC-JT'OXTSV- 

wise (men) and scribes ; and (some) of them shall ye 
sapientes (viros) et scribas ; et (nonnullos) ex ipsis trucid- 

;<r 4 xcu tfcaupwrfere, xaj If aurwv % uac'<nywc'T 

/till and crucify, and (some) of them shall ye scourge 
abitis et crucifigetis, et (nonnullos) ex ipsis flagellabitis 

Iv ra 

in the synagogues of you, and persecute from city unto 

in conventibus vestris, et persequemini ab urbe, in 

roXiv (35) "O-jfug IX^jj 6 ^9' u/xaj <rav 7 ai/xa 5i'xaiov, 
city ; That may come upon you all blood the righteous, 

urbem; Ut veniat super vos omnis sanguis Justus, 


shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the righteous, 
effusus super terram, a sanguine Abel justi, 

'ius rw af^aros Zap^api'ou, uiou Bapap^iou, ov 
until the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom 
usque ad sanguinem Zachariae, filii Barachiae, quern 

1 Jesus says this, speaking of Jerusalem ; it is a beauti- 
'ul passage. 

* Literally, through this also, PROPTEREA, on account 
if these things. 

3 Compound cf airo and <frl\\u send away. 

4 From airoxTS.vw. 6 From dtuxu. 6 From ep^oftai. 

T Greenfield says, "I. e., cu'/Act cravrwv rwv 5i'xaiwv" th 
Hood, of all the, just. 


jji,era|u nJ vaou xcu rou dttfiarfTTipicj. (36) ' 
ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily, 

occidistis inter templum et altare. Amen, 

Xvyu U/AIV, rjfsi Taura iravra tiri <rr,v 

I say (unto) you, shall come these (things) all upon the 
dico vobis, venient hoec omnia super 

<ra;;Tr]v. (37) 'IspoutfaX^/j., 'IspouffaX^fi, rj diroxrsivoiifl'a 
generation this. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, (thou) that killest 
aetatem istam. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, (tu) qui trucidas 

the prophets, and stonest them (that are) sent unto thee, 
prophetas, et lapidatrix* eorum (qui sunt) missi ad te, 

<roifa.xi r^f'XTjtfa tifKfvva'/a.'ysTv TO. rsma. tfou, ov 
how often would I have gathered the children of you, in 
quoties volui congregare liberos sui, 

Tpoirov Itfirfuvaygi opvig <ra votftfia laur% vxo 

like manner as gathereth a hen the chickens of her under 
quemadmodum congregat galina pullos suos sub 

ra$ irrs'puyas, xa/ oux r,6s\-f)<fa.7S ; (38) 'I6ou, d<piTait U/XM; 
the wings, and not ye would ! Behold, is left (to) you 
alas, et noluistis ! Ecce, relinquetur vobis 

6 o/xo u/xuv p]jxoff. (39) Ae'yw yap yfjJv, Ou fir; 

the house of you desolate. I say for (unto) you, In no wise 

domus vestra deserta. Dico enim vobis, Nequaquam 

us ISrirs ait 1 apr, sug av s7irj're, EuXoy;aevoj 

me shall ye see after now until shall ye say, Blessed (is he) 
me videbitis ab hoc usquedum dicatis, Benedictus 

o sp^ofisvojt v OVOJJWXTI Kupi'ou. 
that cometh in the name of the Lord. 
qui venit in nomine Domini. 

*A stoner of them. tFrom d^nj/xi. tLit. the one coming. 


MATTHEW XIX. 27-30. 

(27) Tors drfoxpiScig * o IIsVpos <Vev auru, 'I&rj, ^/uu;^ 
Then answering the Peter said (to) him, Behold, we 
Turn respondens Petrus dixit ei, Ecce, nos 

eupjjxa/xsv flravra, xcu ^xoXou^tfafASv tfou* apa 

have forsaken all, and followed thee ; what, therefore, 
relinquimus omnia, et sequuti sumus te ; quid ergo 

stfrou rjfjLlv ; (28) f O Ss 'Ijjrfoug eifsv aurofc, 'A/x^v 

will there be to us ? The and Jesus said unto them, Verily 

erit nobis? Autem Jesus dixit illis, Amen 

ujxw, on v^sTg 01 dxoXou^o'avTeV M-oi* ^ fji 
I say (unto) you, that ye which have followed me, in the 
dico vobis, vos qui sequuti estis me, in 

regeneration, when shall sit the son of the man upon the 
regeneratione, quurn sederit films hominis in 

dpovou <$o|] ai><rw, xa&i<fs<f6e xa< Cfis^ g*i Su5sxa, 

throne of the glory of him, shall sit and ye upon twelve 
throno glorias suae, sedebkis etiam vos super duodecim 

6fWOV$, XplVOVT TO^ SuSsxCt ^uXttff TW 'Irfptt^X. (29 

thrones, judging the twelve tribes of the Israel. 
<hronos, judicantes duodecim tribus Israel. 

Kau vag og 'o(p^xev t o/xio^, ^ 

And all who have forsaken houses, or brothers, or sisters, 

Et omnis qui reliquerit domos, aut fratres, aut sorores, 

* From 'aflToxpivofiai. t From 'a<pi7jiw. 


^ rar/pa, f) fjnp^pa, ^ yuva~xa, ^ r/xva, ^ a ?'pw, 
or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, 
aut patrera, aut matrem, aut uxorem, aut liberos, aut agros, 

?vexsv TOU ovGfxarog ffcou, IxaTovrairXao'iova X^srai, 

on account of the name of me, an hundred fold shall re- 

ob nominis mei, centuplicia accipiet, 

xcu wigv ec/wviov xX)povo/j(,j<rei. (30) IIoXXo;, 51 
ceive, and life everlasting shall inherit. Many, however 
et vitam aeternam haereditatis. Multi, autem, 

irpWToi, ftf^aroi* xcu srf^aroi, irpuroi. 
shall be first, last ; and last, first. 
erunt primi, ultimi; et ultimi, primi. 

ST. LUKE XV. 1-7. 

r aurw -ravTSs oi reXwvai xa o5 ijutaprwXo/, 
Were but coming to him all the publicans and the sinners, 
Autem accederunt ad eum omnes publicani et peccatores, 

Vixoueiv aurou. (2) Ka 5isyoyyuov oJ $a.pHfa.7oi xa oJ Fpajx- 
to hear him. And murmured the Pharisees and the 
audire eum. Et murmurabant Pharisee! et 

, \eyovTes, "On ouVos afjiapTwXoOg irpotf^s^srai, xa/ 
Scribes, saying, That he sinners receives and (he) eats 
Scribae, dicentes, Ut hie peccatores recipit, et edit 

(3) E(Vs 61 ifpos avrovs T^V *apa- 

(with) them. He spake, nevertheless, unto them thepara- 
^cum) illis. Loquutus est, autem, ad eos para- 



fyw* (4) Tig civ 
ble this, saying; What man of you having an hun 
bolam hanc, dicens; Quis homo ex vobis habens cent* 

flrpo/3ara, xa< cwroXsVaj sv l| auTwv, cu xaraXciVsi 
dred sheep, and if he loose one of them, not doth leave 
um oves, et perdiderit unam ex illis, non relinquit 

TO, svvfvrjxovTasvvs'a Iv TJJ IprjjxtJ, xcu flropsusrai eVj 
the ninety nine in the wilderness, and go after 
illas nonaginta novem in deserto, et abit ad 

TO cwroXwXos, sug eUpjj a-Jro ; (5) Kcu eupwv l-s'iTMrjtfiv 
the lost, until he find it ? And finding (it) he layeth 
perditam, usquedum invenerit earn? Et nactus (earn) imponit 

laurou ^ai'puv, (6) Kou 
(it) upon the shoulders of him rejoicing, And having 
(earn) super humeros suos gaudens, Et veniens 

elg *"ov o/xov, tfuyxaXsr rouj ipi'Xouff xai 

come into the house, he calleth together the friends and 

in domo (suo) convocat amicos et 

Twg ysiVovoff, Xs'ywv auTo^, Suy^apijrs ftoi, on upot 

the neighbors, saying to them, With rejoice me, for I have 

vicinos dicens eis, Gratulamini mihi, nempe 

ro irpo?aro'v (JLOU TO a-jroXcjXoj:. (7) Aiyw U/JL" V > 
found the sheep of me that was lost. I say unto you, 

inveni ovem meam quae perierat. Dico vobis, 

OT OUTU X^P* stfTai sv To3 oupavy, Ifi 

that likewise joy shall be in the heaven, over one sinner 

ut etiam gaudium erit in ccelo super uno peccator 


fisravooCWi, f) liri lvvsv]xovrasvva <5ixai- 

that repenteth, (more) than over ninety nine just 
resipiscente, magis quam super nonaginta novera jus- 

oi.c, OTIVS$ ou XP la 

(persons), which no need have of repentance. 

tis, qui non opus habent resipiscentiae. 

ST. LUKE XV. 11-32. 

(11) EHTS ta'i *Av6pu<if6$ ris /%s Suo ulou, (12) Kai e<V 
He said and, A man certain had two sons, And siid 
Ait autem, Homo quidam habebat duos filios, Et dixit 

o vsuTSpog aurwv T$ flfarpi, ITarfp, 66$ JJLOI TO 
the younger of them to (his) father, Father, give to me that 
junior illorum patri, Pater, da mihi 

!*aXXov jxs'poj T% outfi'a? Ka< 5i- 

falleth (to me) the portion of the property. And he 

attinentem (ad me) partem substantiae. Et par- 

av<ro~s TOV /3/ov. (13) Ka/ (* ou 

divided to them the living (of him.) And with not many 
titit eis illam vitam. Et post non multos 

tfuvayaywv owravra o vswrspoj uioj a. 

days collecting together all the younger son departed 
dies congestens omnibus junior filius egressus est 

tig X&jpav jaaxpav xou Ixsf ^iStfxop'n'Kfs r^v ouo'i'av aurou 
into country a distant; and there wasted ihe goods of him 
in regionem longinquam ; et illic dissipavit substantiam suam 


(14) Aa.ifavrjtfa.vTos 5s crj iu 

living with luxurious. He had consumed but when of him 
vivendo profuse. Consumpsisset autem quum 

fl-avra, lye'vero Xi|xo jrf^upoj <rr}v j^wpav sxe/vrjv. 
'goods) all, there came famine a mighty in the land that; 
omnia, orta est fames valida in regione ilia ; 

ou auro v?pfa<ro vtfrsps'iffda.i. (15) Kou 

and he began to be in want. And he went and joined 

et ipse ccepit defici. Et abiens et adhaesit 

kvi TWV -roXiruv <rr -^upas fatting* xat 
himself to one of the citizens of the country that ; and 
uni ex civibus regionis illus ; et 

f<B'f.<^ev orJTov els *"ou dypoug aurou /So'tfxsiv ^oi'pouj. (16) Ka/ 
he seat him into the fields of him to feed swine. And 
missit eum in agros suos pascere porcos. Et 

rf t v xoiXiav aurou d*o TWV xspaTi'wv uv ^ 
he wished to fill the belly of him with the husks that did eat 
desiderabat implere ventrem suum siliquis quas edebant 

o5 ^o?poi xa w8si$ I5i'6ou auru. (17) Efc laurov 

the swine ; and no one did give to him. Unto himself 

porci; et nemo dabat ei. Ad se 

siifs, IIoVoi (xitf^ioi rov irarpoj 

however coining, he said, How many servants of the father 
autem redens, ait, Quotquot mercenarii patris 

jxou spKf(fsuov<fiv aprwv, lyco 51 Xipj 

of me abound in bread, I however with want perish ? 

mei abundant panibus, ego autem feme pereo? 

( 18) 'Avatfrag ifopsixtofJMt irpoj <rov qraripa, JU.QU, xcu ipu 
Arising I will go unto the father of me, and will say 
Surgens proficiscar ad patrem mei, et dicaw 


aurw, HaTJp, tyxapTov el$ TOV oupavov xai 

unto him; Father, I have sinned against the heaven and 
ei, Pater, peccavi in ccelum et 

EVWTIO'V tfou (19)Kcu ouxeVi e/j*j afio xXrjd/jvai 
in the sight of you ; And no more am worthy to be called 
in conspectu suo; Et non amplius sum dignus vocari 


the son of you ; make me as one of the servants of you. 
filius tuus ; fac me ut unum (ex) mercenariis tuis 

X 20) Kai avatfrd^, %\6s if fig TOV rar/pa laurou. *En 
And arising, he came unto the father of him. Yet 
Et surgens, venit ad patrem ejus. Quum 

51 aurou fiaxpav dcrs'^ovrof, /Jsv aurov o irar^p auroff 

however way off a great he was, saw him the father of him 

autem adhuc longe abesset, vidit eum pater ejus 

xcw Irf-rXay^viV^ig * xa; <Jpa/xwv liretstfev l*i TOV Tpa 
and had compassion ; and running fell upon the neck 
et misericordiarn habuit; et accurrens incidit in collum 

aurou xeti xarsfpiX^ifsv aurov. (21) E;Vs 6s ai/ru o uJo^, 

of him and kissed him. Said and to him the son, 

ejus et deosculatus est eum. Dixit autem ei filius, 

ndrsp, Jj/xapTov f'i TOV oupavov xew Ivwwiov 

Father, I have sinned against the heaven and in the sight 
Pater, peccavi in coelum et in conspectu 

tfou, xa ouxlrj ei[u agios xXi^vai v\o$ tfou. 

of you, and no more am worthy to be called the son of you. 
tuo, et neque amplius sum dignus vocari fiL'us tuus- 

(22) E/Vs 8s o ifotT^p irpo^ ToOj <5ouXou aCToC, 'E|evs'yxaT* 
Said but the father unto the servants of him, Bring 
Dixit autem pater ad servos suos, Afferte 



<rrjv iTpwr^v, Kai ivSutfars CCUTOV, xa <Jorfi 
the robe the best, And put (it) upon him, and give 
stolam illam prascipuam, E* induite eum, et indite 

a ring to the hand of him, and shoes to the feet. 
annulum in manum ejus, et soleas in pedes. 


And bring the calf the fatted (and) kill (it,) and 
Et afferrentes vitulum ilium saginatummactate, et 

ii(ppav$w/jiev (24) "On OVTOS 6 uio'^ (xou vsxpog 
eating let us be merry; For this the son of me dead 

edentes exhilaremur; Quiaiste filiusmeiraortuus 

v xa< vv)0's, xat .ifouu$ v)V xa suprj. 

was and is alive (again), and lost he was and is found. 
erat et revixit, et perierat et inventus est. 

Kcu ^p|avro Eutppaivstf^ai. (25) r Hv Its 6 uloff aurou 
And they began to be merry. . Was now the son of him 
Et coeperunt sese exhilararet. Erat autem films ejus 

6 ifpe<fi>Tpos iv ccypu, xa &g Jp^ofxevog ^yyio's rjj 
the elder in the field, and as coming he drew near to the 
senior in agro, et ut veniens appropinquavit 

oxa Jjxouo'e tfu/jwpwvi'as xai p^opwv. 

house he heard music and dancing. And calling 
domui audivit concentum et chores. Et vocatum 

e'va TWV tfalSuv au-rou, irtvvda.vs<ro <ri e"ij raGVa 
one of the children of him, he asked what were these 
unum (ex) pueris ejus, interrogavit est quid essent 

(27) *O 8s siifsv aicrw, "On 6 a^eXipoj tfou 
[thhgs?) He and said to him, That the brother of yot- 
ha:c Is autem dixit ei. Fiater tuus 


Jjxsi, xcu tldvtfsv 6 ra<r]p tfou TOV (xotf^ov ro 
is come, and hath killed the father of you the calf the 
yenit, et mactavit pater tuus vitulum ilium 

or uyiaivovra aurov cwrs'Xa^sv. (28) ' 

fatted, for safe him (he) hath received. He was angry 
saginatum,quiatutumeum recepit. Indignatus est 

Ss r xcu oux ^jdsXsv eitfsXdsiv. 'O ouw wariip aurou 
and, and not would come in. The therefore father of him 
autem, et non voluit introire. Ergo pater ipsius 

irapsxaXsi aurov. (29) 'O S 
coming out entreated him. He but answering said to the 
egressus hortatus est eum. Ipse vero respondens dixit 

'l6ou, Totfaura ITTJ (JouXsuw tfoi, xai 
father j.Behold how many years I serve thee, and at no time 
patri ; Ecce tot annos servio tibi, et nunquam 

tfou tfapijXdov, xcu l/xoi ovtiii 

the commands of you have I transgressed, and to me never 
mandatum tuum sum transgressus, et mihi nunquam 

pupov, va 

gavest thou a kid, that with the friends of me I might make 
dedisti hoedum, ut cum amicis meis oblectarer. 

(30.)"Ors 8s I vtis tfou OUTOS, 5 xara^aywv 
merry. When but the son of you this, that hath devoured 
Cum sed filius tuus iste, qui clevoravit 

tfou TOV /3'ov (xeTct iropvuv ^X^sv, 
of you the living with harlots was come, thou hast killed 
tuam vitam cum meretricibus venit, mactasti 

TOV fjLOtfj^o/ TOV tf<rurov. (31) 'O Ss s/Vsv auru, 
for him the calf the fatted. He and said unto him, 
ei vitulum Hum saginatum. Ipse vero dixit ei, 


Te'xvov, tfu n'avro-TS jxer' s/jwu ei, xou iravra TO. Ijxa, tfA 

Son, thou always with me art. and all that (is) mine, thino 
Fill, tu semper mecum es et omnia mea, tua 

icT'v- (32.) Euppav/l/jvai, 8e, xou p^aprjvai iSsi, 

is. To rejoice, therefore, and to be glad it was meet, 

sunt. Exhilarari, vero, et gaudere opportebat, 

DTI lfpOJ rfoU OUTOS 1 VSXpO V, XOU ,vr)(TC * XOJ 

for the brother of you this dead was, and liveth; and 
quia frater tuus iste mortuus erat, et revixit; etiam 

vv, xai ups>] 
lost he was, and is found ! 
perierat et inventus est ! 

ROMANS III. 21-26. 

(21) Nuvi 8s "Xf^p'S vo'jxou (Jjxaiofl'Jvi'j sou 

Now but without the law the righteousness of God is 
Nunc vero absque lege justitia Dei 

xou rw* 

manifested, being witnessed by the law and the 

manifesta est, testificata a lege ac 

irpop7]<rwv (22) AixaiotfuvTj Ss sou 5jot 

prophets ; Even the righteousness of God by faith of 
prophetis ; Inqam justitia Dei per fidera 

'Irirfou Xpitfrou, sfc -ffavrcts xou irti ifavrag rov$ 

Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all that believe ; 

Jesu Christi, in omnes et super omnes qui credunt ; 

ou yap sVn tfiaoVoXig. (23) Havrss yap fytaprov xoo 
no for there is difference All for have sinned and 

non enim est distinctio. Omnes enim pecaverunt ac 


rfi$ S^ys sou. (24) AixaioufiSvoi Supsav 
come short of the glory of God. Being justified freely 

deficiunter gloria Dei. Justificati gratis 

TJ auou 

by the of him grace through the redemption that (is) in 
ejus gratia per redemptionem quse 

Xpitfru 'Ii-j^ou* (25) "Ov ifpoeQsro 6 soj 

Christ Jesus : Whom hath set forth the God a propitiation 

i Christo Jesu ; Quern proposuit Deus placamentum 

through the faith in the of him blood, to declare the 
per fidem in ipsius sanguine, ad demonstrandam 

iixaiotfJvTjs aurou, Sia. rqv <iraps<ftv ruv u'poysyovoTwv 

righteousness of him, for the remission of the past 
justitiam suam, per remissionem quse antecesserunt 

(26) 'Ev <rjj d.wffl <"ou sou, 

sins, Through the forbearance of the God, 

peccatorum, Per tolerante % Dei, 

rpoj gv5si|iv rr,s 5xaotfuv7]ff auTou Iv TU vuv 
for to declare the righteousness of him at the present 
ad demonstrandam justitiam suam present! 

xaipoa' e\g TO 6/vai auVov 5ixaiov, xco 5ixaiouvra rov 
time ; that might be he just, and the justifier of him 
tempore; ut sit ipse Justus, et justificans eum 

x *i<treus 'Irjtfou. 
which believeth in Jesus. 
qul est ex fide Jesu. 


ROMANS V. 6-12, 18, 21. 

(6)"E<r yap Xpttfros, ovruv *jpu3v drffo/wv, xara xaipov 
Yet for Christ, being we weak, by time 
Adhuc enirn Christus,existentibus nobis infirmis, in tempore 

(7) Mo'Xj yap <jrlp <5ixaiou 
for the impious died. Scarcely for for righteous 

pro impiis mortuus est. Vix enimpro justo 

rtg tfoaverai ' usrp yap <rou yaou 

person will one die ; for yet the good (man) possibly one 

quis moritur; pro enim bono forsitan quis 

xou ToXfitt difodavsTv. (8) Suvi'rfrrjo'j Ss r^v laurou 

even would dare to die. Commendeth but the of himself 

et audeat mori. Commendat sed illam ipsius 

sis ^)fwtff o 0so, on, sifi 

love unto us the God, since, yet sinners 
charitatem in nobis Deus, quoniam, adhuc peccatoribus 

OVTCJV rjjxwv, Xpitfroff i/vip ^/xuv difs6a.vs. (9) IIoXXu 

being we, Christ for us died. Much 

eiistentibus nobis. Christus pro nobis mortuus est. Multo 

ouv fjwtXXov, SixcuuSlvTSs viJv Iv TU arjj,ari aurou, 
therefore more, being justified now in the blood of him, 
igitur magis, justificati nunc in sanguine ipsius, 

tfudytfoiieda, $f aurou d-iro rys op/VS- (10) EJ yap 
we shall be saved by him from the wrath. If for 

servabimur per ipsum ab ira. Si enim 

enemies being we were reconciled to the God by the 
inimie existentes reconciliati sumus Deo per 

GREEK GRAMMAR. 215 vou ulou aurou, -roXXu jwtXXov, 

death of the son. of him, much more, teing reconciled, 

mortem filii ejus, multo magis, reconciliati, 

Iv <Hj <?wrj auTou. (11) Ou fiovov 
shall we be saved by the life of him. Not only (that) 
servabimur in vitam ipsius. Non solum 

Se t * ctXXa xou xau^wjxsvoi Iv ra eu $10. TouKupi'ow 

and, but also (are) glorying in the God through the Lord 

autem, sed etiam gloriantes in Deo per Dominum 

'Irj^ou XpitfroC', 61' oiii vuv T^V 
of us, Jesus Christ, by whom now the reconciliation 
nostrum, Jesum Christum, per quern nunc reconciliationem 

we have received. \Vh:refore as by one man the 
accepimus. Propierea sicut per unum hominum 

slg TOV xotffjwv jV5jX^?, xa< 6ia r^j afxapTia^ o ^a 
sin into the world came, and by the sin the death, 
peccatum in mundum venit, et per peccatum mors, 

KO.I oZrug cl$ <ira.vTa$ dv6puirovs o Sfi\dsv !<p' u tfavres 
and so upon all men the death passeth, for that all 
et sicnf in omnes homines mors pertransit, in quo omnes 


have sinned. 


(18) "Apa ouv ij &' !vo -rapa-n'TWfxa'rog 1 sis -jravraj vivdouifoog 
Therefore as by one offence (came) upon all men 
Igitur sicut per unam offensam in omnes homines 

* Translate the Ss before ou Ss ou /*ovov, &c. 


xou <i vo 

unto judgment; so also by one righteous (the free 
in condemnationem ; sic et per unum justitium. 

ei *a.v<rci dvdpoJ<jrou sis Sixalutfn %ur t $. 

gift came) upon all men unto justification of life. 
in omnes homines ad justificationem vitae. 

(21) "Iva wcVep S^arfiXsurfsv j afxapria Iv ru SavdrU, oZru 
That as hath reigned the sin unto the death, so even 
Ut sicut regnavit peccatum in morte, ita et x 


the grace might reign through righteousness unto life 
gratia regnaret per justitiam in vitam 

aiwviov, Sia. 'I^rfou Xpitfrou T 
eternal, by Jesus Christ the Lord of us. 
ffiternam, per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum. 

OUTU yap ^yairrjtfev o Qeog TOV xoVfiov wtfTE rov utoi 
So for loved the God the world that the son of him 
Ita enim dilexit Deus mundum ut filium ejus 

TOV fiovoysvij s$uxsv, Iva. ifoig 6 *i<f<reiiuv fls avrov 
the only begotten he gave, that all who believe in him 
unigenitum dederit, ut omnes qui credunt in eum 

dXX* ej^j) ^w^v aiuviov 
not might perish but have life eternal. John in. 16 
Kon pereant sed habeant vitam seternam. 



irpof (/. ifoLvrss oJ xoffiwyrej xa 

Come unto me all (ye) that (are) laboring and are ieavy 
Ven.te ad me omnes qui fatigati et onerati 

pvo, xq-yu avartctrfu 

laden, and I will give rest to you. Matthew zi. 28. 

estis, et ego dabo requiem vobis. 

Ka/ xad' * oVov diroxeiTai <ro~s t avdpoWois atfaf dirodavsiv, 
And as it is appointed to thees men once to die, 
Et sicut statutum est hominibus semel mori 

uerd 5s* TOUTO xpiVi^ QVTUS o XpirfToj a^a 

after however the judgment; So the Christ once offered 

'post vero hoc judicium; Ita Christus semel oblatus 

els TO tfoXXuv dvsvsyxsrv a(xapri'aff Ix ^eura'pou 

fur the many to bear the sins for a second time without 

multorum attollere peccata secundo absque 

o<p0ijo'rai TOI^ aurov dirsx^s^ofigvoi^ its 
sin he shall appear to those looking for him unto salvation. 
peccato conspicietur eis expectantis eum ad salutem. 

Hebrews ix. 27, 28. 

Tot yap o4/wvia <rr)$ ajxapriaj flavaroff, TO its ^dpifjxa TOU 

The for wages of the sin (is) death, the but gift of the 

Nam stipendia peccati mors, at donatio 

@eou guy aiuvios v XpitfTW 'I^tfou TU Kupi'u rjiw5v. 
God life eternal through Christ Jesus the Lord of us. 
Dei vita asterna in Christo Jesu Domino nostro. 

Romans zi, 23. 

* Contraction of xodus, conjunction. 
t The&i men the Priesthood of Aaron. 


(6) To yap (ppo'vTjfxa rys tfapxoj davaTo?, n Ss 

To be for minded of the flesh (is) death, to b out 

Nam prudentia carnis (est) mors, at 

(ppovrjjxo. TOU insu^aros u~n xcu eip^vtj. (7) AioVe <ro 
minded of the spirit (is) life and peace. Because the 
prudentia spiriti (est) vita et pax. Propterea 

rfapxo ej^pa els so'v. Tu yap vo'fjiu 
mind of flesh (is) enmity against God. To the for law 
prudentia carnis (est) inimica in Deum. Nam legi 

<rou ecu oux uflroTatftfSTai, ou5s yap &/varai. (8) Oi 
of the God not is subject, neither indeed can (it) be. Those 
Dei non subjicitur, nee enim potest. Qui 

&s Iv tfapxi v ovr, ew dpitfat ou 
but in the flesh being, God to please not can. 
at in carne existentes, Deo placere non possunt. 

Romans mii. 6-8 

(38) nsVeitffjLai yap on ours davaTojr, oUrs ^wi oUrs 
I am persuaded for that neither death, nor life, nor 
Persuasus sum enim ut neque mors, neque vita, neque 

ayysXof, OUTS dp^ai, ours 6uva{ii, ours 

angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, 

angeli, neque principatus, neque potestates, neque instantia, 

tlurs f/,s'XXov<ra, (39) Ours u^wfjia, ours /3adocr, 
nor things to come, Nor height, nor depth, 
neque futura, Neque altitudo, neque profunditas 

wrt rig xrlffis Ir/pa, 

Eor any creature other, shall be able us to separate 

neque aliqua creatura alia, poterit nos separare 


<rou sou, <nj Iv 

fron the love of the God, which (is) in Christ Jesus .he 
& charitate Dei, quae (est) in Christo Jesu 


Lord of us. Romans cm. 38, 39. 
Domino nostro. 

(10) 2u 5s ri xpivsi rov ciisXfpdv tfou ; ^ xa/ tfo 
Thou but why judgest the brother of you? or also thou 
Tu autem cur judicas fratrem tuum ? aut etiam tu 

ri %ov8evs~s rov a5sX<pov tfou; 
why set at nought the brother of you ? all for shall stand 
cur pro nihilo habes fratrem tuum ? omnes enim sistemur 

TU /S^(xan rou XpitfTou. (11) rfypcMirai ^ap, Zw 
at the tribunal of ihe Christ. It is written for, (As) live 
tribunali Christi. Scriptum est enim, vivo 

lyco, Xfy Kpio, on IJJLO? xotfi-^si irav yovu, cai 
I, saith the Lord, that to me shall bend every knee, and 
ego, dicit Dominus,ut mihi flectet omne genu, et 

f OJJLO> oy vjtferou TW 0ew. (12)"ApaoJvfxao'roff 
every tongu e shall confess to the God. So then every one 
omnis lingua confitebitur Deo. Itaque unusquisque 

*;(xoJv ifSpi lawou Xo'yov 8u<fst ru EOJ 

of us concerning himself an account shall give to the God 
nostrum de seipso rationem reddet Deo, 

Romans xiv. 10-. 2. 

(9) Tov Ss $p^ TI rfap' (xyysXouff ^XarTWfisvov 

The but Jittle than (the) angels made lower we see 
Ilium autem breve quid prse angelis minoratum videinua 


'Irjtfouv, (Jia ro <KuAt\\ut. rw 

Jesus, for the suffering of the death, with glory and honor 

Jesum, propter passionem mortis, gloria et honore 

tfr<pavw/j(,8'vov, oifug j^apiri eoui-rlp tfavroj ysirfrj. 

crowned, that by the grace of God for every one should 

coronatum, ut gratia Dei pro omnibus gus- 

rai (lOJ'Eirpeirs yap CCUTU, <5i' ov TO, 

taste death. It became for him, for whom (are) the 

taret mortem. Decebat enim eum, propter quern 

iravra, xcu <Ji' ov TO, KOMTO. iroXXouj uioug 

all (things,) and by whom the all (things are) many sons 
omnia, et per quem omnia multos filios 

5ff 3o|av dyayo'vra, rov dp^rjyov rys <furr)pia.s aicrwv 
unto glory in bringing, the captain of the salvation of them 
in gloriam adducentem, auctorem salutis eorum 

Sia. -<x/)]fjLa<rwv TsXsiwtfai. 

through sufferings to make perfect. Hebrews ii. 9, 10. 
per passiones consumare. 

Kcu diruXXagi') TOUTWS otfoi <po?u davaTou 

And that he might free those who through fear of death 
Et liberaret hos qui timore mortis 

i, ifavrog rou >v vo^oi 

during the whole of (their) life held were in servitude. 
per omne vivere obnoxii erant in servituti. 

Hebrews ii. 15. 

'Ev uJ yap iri<irm6ev av<ro 

In that for hath suffered he himself being tempted, he 

In quo enin passus est ipse tentatus, 

ii'varai TOI tfSipa^ufiivois /3oT]$7;tfai. 

is able them that are tempted to succor. Hebrews it. 18. 

poles.' illis tentatis auxiliari. 


(26) Tuwrof yap Jjfjuv IVpsirev dp^iepsO?, orfio^, axaxo^, 

Such for us became high priest, holy, harmless, 
Tahs enim nobis decebat pontifex, sanctus, innocens, 

d#o TWV a/*ap<rwXwv, xcu u- 
undefiled, separate from the sinners, and higher (than) 
impollutus, segregatus a peccatoribus, et excelsior 

rwv oupavwv ysvo'fjLEvoj. (27) "Off otx lx xa&' rj/xlpav dvayxTjv, 

Ae heavens made. Who not hath by day need, 

coelis factus. Qui non habet quotidie necessitatem, 

djdVfp 01 ctp^ispsr^, flfpoVspov uirlp rwv \Slum ajxaprjuv 

as those high priests, first for the his own sins 
quemadmodum pontifices, prius pro propiis peccatis 

6v<fict ctvoups'psiv, l*eiTa TWV TOO Xaou rauro 

sacrifice to ofier up, then (for) those of the people; this 
hostias ofiere, deinde populi; hoc 

yap liro/Tirffv l(paira| lauTov dvevsyxaj. 

because he did once himself when he offered up. 
enim fecit semel seipsum ofFerens. 

Hebrews viz. 26, 27. 

(3) 'AXX' Jv auTa~^ dvajavrio'ij afiapnuv 

But in those (sacrifices) a remembrance of sins 
Sed in ipsis commemoratio peccatorum 

xar' Eviaurov. (4) 'A^Jvarov yap 

(is made) every year. Impossible (it is) for 

(factum est) per singulos annos. Impossibile enim 

ai'jxa raiipuv xa< rpaycov d<pcups~v 

(that) the blood of bulls and of goats should take away 
sanguincm taurum et hircorum auferre 

ofxopTi'aff (5) Aio )Vsp^o(ASvo^ s/V TOV j^otffiov, XsVci, 
sins. Wherefore coming into the world, he saith 

peccata. Ideo ingrediens in mundum, dhit, 



xcu rfpotfcpopav oux r^sX^tfa^, tfoj/xa So 

Sacrifices and offering not thou wouldst, a body but 
Hostiam et oblationem non voluisti, corpus autem 

fj.oi. (6) 'OXoxaurwjxara xcu arspi aj 
hast thou prepared me. In burnt offerings and for sins 
aptasti mihi. Holocautomata et pro peccato 

oiix et'Jjxrjtfas. (7) TOTS SfVov, 'I&>u ijxw, 

not thou hast had pleasure. Then I said, Behold I come, 
non approbasti. Tune dixi, Ecce venio, 

(Iv xs;paXi5i /3iXi'ou 

(in the volume of the book it is written concerning me,) 

(in capite libri scriptum est de me,) 

row tfoj/jtfai, o Qs^s, <ro 60X^0. tfou. 

to do, 0, God, the will of thee. Heb. a:. 3-7. 

ad faciendum, Deus, voluntatem tuam. 

'Ev w ^sXrifxan f.yjatf/xa'voi ItffxSv o! Sia. T% 

In which will sanctified we are thro' the sacrifice 

In qua voluntate sanctificati sumus per oblationem 

oiJ 'Irjo'ou Xpirfrou l<pa*a|. 

of the body of the Jesus Christ once. Heb. x. 10. 
corporis Jesu Christi semel. 

(24) IliVrs/ Mwc% /xEyaff ysvo^xsvoff, ^pv^tfaro 

By faith Moses grown up being, refused to be called 
Fidi Moses grandis factus, negavit vocan 

*apaw. (25) MaXXov 
ihe son of the daughter of Pharaoh. Rather choosing 

filius filise Pharaonis." Malis eligens 

Oai TW Xaw <rou eou, ^ 
U) suffer affliction with the people of God, than for a season 
aflligi cum populo Dei, quam temporanarn 


(26) Mei'^ova 

to have of sin the pleasure. Greater riches esteeming 
habere peccatiemolumentam. Majores divitias aestimans 

<rou XpioVou* 

(Uan all) the in Egypt treasures the reproach of the Christ ; 
JEgypti thesauris improperium Christ! , 

'yap ei <rr,v (utfu 
he had regard for unto the recompense. Heb. xi. 24-26. 
aspiciebat enim in remunerationem. 

(2) 'Apopwvrsj / <rov Tr^ vfitfTSUg clp^rjyov xou 

Looking unto the of the faith (our) author and 
Aspicientes in fidei auctorem et con- 

'Itiifouv,* of avri r^g flrpoxsifxs'vT]? aurw 
finisher Jesus, who for the set before him joy, 
summatorem Jesum, qui pro proposito sibi gaudio, 

endured the cross, the shame despising, on the right hand 
sustinuit crucem, confusione contempta ad dextram 

rs TW (Jpovou TOU eou 
and of the throne of the God is set down.* 
que throni Dei sedit. 

(12)Aio rag 

\Therefore the which hang down hands and the feeble 

Ideo remissas manus et soluta 

yovara avopflurfars 
knees lift up. 
genua erigite. 

* Transposed it reads, 'A<popuvr tig 


(16) M^ <ri tfopvocr, ^ /Ss'^Xos, us 'Htfau 

Lest (theie be) any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, 
Ne (sit) quis fornicator, aut prophanus, ut Esau, 

05 cLvri /3pwtfswff fxiaj uirtSoTS <ra tfp&jTOToxia aurou. (17) 
who for morsel one sold the birthright of him. 
qui propter escam unam vendidit primogenita sua. 

"Itfrs yap OTS xa< 
Ye knew for that also afterward wishing to inherit the 
Scitis enim ut et postea volens haereditare 

fieTavoiag 1 yap 
blessing, he was rejected ; of repentance for place 
benedictionem, reprobatus est ; prenitentiae enim locum 

oup svps, xaiVsp fisra 6axpuwv 

no he, found, although with tears seeking it. 

non invenit, quanquam cum lachrymis exquirens earn. 

(18) Ou yap fl 

Not for are ye come unto the that might be touched 
Non enim accessistis tractibilem 

opi, xcu xexaufjus'vu irup/, xai yvo<pu, xco 

mount, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, and 
montem, et incensum igne, et turbinem, et 

(19) Kai x 

darkness, and tempest. And of a trumpet the sound, and 
calignem, et procellam, Et tuba? sonum, et 


the voice of words, which they hearing entreated not 
tocem verborum, quam illi audientes deprecati non 

Xoyov. (20) (Oux 
'.o set before them the word. (Not they could endure 

proponi eis sermonem (Non ferebant 


yap TO 5ia<J'<rXXojAevov Kav drjpiov 

for (that, whicb. (was) commanded ; And if (even) a beast 

enim :jui mandatus est; Et si bestia 

d/ytt TOU opot, Xido?oX]0/;tferai, y /3oXi'<5i 

touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or with a dart k 
tetigeret montem, lapidabitur, aut jaculo 

(21) Kcu, cured <po?pov ^v 
jhall be thrust through. And, so fearful was the sight 
configetur. Et, ita terribile erat appa- 

c/xsvov Mojtfvjs EiVsv, *Ex<poo eifw xou fvrpofxoj') (22) 

(that) Moses said, Terrified I am and (I) quake ;) 
rens(ut) Moses dixit, Exteritus sum et tremebundus ;) 

AXXa fl'poo'eXigXt^flwe 2iuv opsi, xco iroXsi eou 

But ye are come unto Sion mount, and to the city of God 
Sed accessistis Sion montem, et civitatem Dei 

'lepoutfaXi^f* sVoupavi'u, xcu (xupiatfiv 
the living, Jerusalem the heavenly, and myriads of angels, 
viventis, Hierusalem coelestem, et myriades angelorum, 

(23) IlavrjyiJpgi xco JxxXyjrfi'a flTpwroroxuv v 

To the general assembly and church of the first born in 

Frequentiam, et ecclesiam primogenitorum in 

ovpccvoig diroysypafjLe>uv, xai xpirjj Qey wavrwv, xou ir 
heaven written, and to the judge God of all, and to the spirits 
ccelis scriptorum, et judicem Deum omnium, et spintus 

v, (24)Kaj 6nfi6yxvis veag 

of just (mer/. made perfect, And covenant of the new 
justorum perfectorum, Et testamenti novi 

'lyjrfou, xcu ai^an 'pavntffjLou xps/r- 

the mediatoi o Jescs, and to the blood of sprinkling better 
mediatorem Jesum, et sangninem aspersionis pr 


rova XaXouvri jrapa rov "AsX. 

things speaking before the Abel. Heb xii. 2, 12, 16-24 

stantiora loquenten prae Abe!. 

(1) 'OpstXojxsv 8s y^tis ol 6uva<roj rot dcVtevrjftcwa ruv 

Ought then we that (are) strong the infirmities of the 
Debemus tune nos qui (sunt) potentes imbecillitates 

arfro^siv, xco py lauroiff dps'rfxsiv. (2) "-Exatf. 
weak to bear, and not ourselves to please. Let every 
impotentum portare, et non nobis ipsis placere. Unus- 

roff yap *jfiuv TU flrX/jo'iov dpstfxsru s]$ TO ctya^ov <pog 

one therefore of us the neighbor please for his good unto 
quisque enim nostrum proximo placeat in bonum ad 

edification. Romans xv. 1, 2. 

(22) re'/pa-arai yap on 'A/3paafj(, 5i5o uloug lo^sv Iva 
It is written for that Abraham two sons had ; one ' 
Scriptum est enim ut Abraham duos filios habuit ; unum. 

ix ryg flraj^irfxT]?, xa/ sva ix rrjs 

of these by a bond maid, and one of these by a freed woman. 

de his ancilla, et unum de his libera. 

(23) 'AXX' 6 |x=v ex r% flrai^itfx^j, xara tfapxa 
But the one (that was) of the bond maid, after the flesh 
Etiam qui (erat) de ancilla, secundum carnem 

yfyvvr)Tai* o 61 ix <rr)g ttevdipag Sia. 

was bora ; he but (who was) of the freed woman, (was) by 
natus est ; rui autem (erat) de libera, (erat) per 

. (24) "A Tiva 
the promise. Which things are an allegory; these 

promissioneiu Qua sunt allegorizata ; haec 


yap EiViv aJ lw iiadijxai' fAi'a fiv cliro opoug 1 2iva 

for are the two covenants ; the one from the mount Sinai, 

enim sunt iuo testamenta ; unum a monte Sina, 

els $w\eiav yevvutfa, r,ris eoV/v *Ayap. (25) To 

unto bondage which gendereth, which is Agar. This 

in servitutem generans, quae est Agar. 

ydp'Ayap, 2iva opoj itfriv Iv <nj 'Apa/a, (fv<f<ror)(e7 8s TJJ 
for Agar, Sinai mount is in the Arabia, answereth and to 
Nam Agar, Sina mons est in Arabia, respondet autem 

vuv TepoutfaXr/fA 6ouXsue 51 pera, TWV 

the now Jerusalem (which) is in bondage and with the 
nunc Hierusalem (quae) servit et cum 

rtmuv auT^ff. (26) 'H Ss avw 'lepoutfaXTJfA 

children of her. The but (which is) above Jerusalem 

filiis suis. Ilia autem (est) sublimis Hierusalem 

free is, which is the mother of all of us. * 
libera est, quae est mater omnium nostrum. 

(29) 'AXX' woVep TOTS 6 XCCTO. tfapxoc 

But as then he after the flesh (that was) born, 
Sed quomodo tune ille secundum carnem genitus, 

iSluxe TOV xaTo, ifvsv^a.' ovro xou vuv. 

persecuted him (born) after the spirit; so even (it is) now. 
persequebatur hunc secundum spiritum ; ita et (est) nunc. 

(31)"Apa, dSsXtpoi, OLIX Itf/xsv irai^iVxTis re'xva, 

Therefore, brothers, not we are of the bond woman children, 

Nempe, fratres, non sumus ancillae nati, 

dXXol <rris e\s-j6spas. 

but of the free.Galatians iv. 22-26, 29, 31. 
sed libera?. 


(2) 'AXX'/jXwv TO. /3ap>] (3a<fra^STS, xou OUTWJ dva*XjpijtfaTJ 
One another's burdens bear, and so fulfil 
Alii aliorura onera portate, et ita complete 

TOV voaou TOU XpitfTeu. (3) E/ yap SoxsT rig e/vai 
the law of the Christ, If for one imagine himself to be 
legem Christi. Si enim videtur quis esse 

<n, (Mj5!v uv, lauTov <ppsva#aTa. (4) To 
something, nothing being, himself he deceiveth. The 
aliquid, nihil existens, seipsum animo fallit. 

its spyov iaiiTou Soxifia^sru i'xatfTos, xa TOTS s}$ ICCUTOV 
but work his own let prove every one, and then in himself 
At opus suum probet unusquisque, et tune in seipsum 

ttovov <ro xec!;p7]|xa l'|si, xa< olx e}$ TOV i'rjpov. (5) 

alone rejoicing shall he have, and not in an other. 
solum gloriationem habebit, et non in alterum. 

yap TO Idiov (popn'ov 
Every one for the his own burden shall bear. Gal. vi. 
Dnusquisqe enim proprium onus portabit. [2-5. 

(14) Aio Xs'ysi, *Eyeipai 6 xa6siiSuv, xai dvag-a 

Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise 

Ideo dicit, Surge dormiens, et exurge 

ix TWV vsxpwv, xai % StfKpaixfei <toi 6 XpitfTo'f. (15) 

from the dead, and will give light to thee the Christ. See 

a mortuis, et illuminabit te Christus. Videte 

ouv ir&s dxpiwj ^spiifarsTrs. fi^ us arfotpoi, 
therefore that circumspectly ye walk ; not as fools, 
itaque quomodo accurate ambuletis ; non quasi insipientes, 

dXX' us tfo^o/' (16) 'Eayopao'fievoi TOV xaipov, OTI a) 

but as- wise; Redeeming the time, because the days 

Bed ut sapientes ; Kedimentes tempus, quoniam djea 


rovjpai eltft. (17) Aid ToDVo fxig yiveo'de a<ppov, ctXXol 
evil are. Wherefore not be ye unwise, but 

mail sunt. Propter hoc non estote imprudentes, sed 

tftvisWej <rj <ro dsXrjfjia rw Kupi'ou. (18) Kcu pt\ 

understanding what the will of the Lord (is). And not 
intelligentes qua? voluntas Domini (est). Et ne 

p.sG{i<fxe<f6s o'vcj, Iv u g*iv dtfuria, elXXa. <if\ripov<fd8 
be ye drunk with wine, in which is excess, but be filled 
inebriamini vino, in quo est luxuria, sed implemini 

v nvsu/xcwv (19) AaXouvrs? !au<roi ^aXfjLo"j xai 

with the Spirit ; Speaking to yourselves in psalms and 

Spiritu; Loquentes vobismelipsis psalmis et 

tJ/xvoi, xou uScug irvEujxaTixalff cLdovrsg xa< 

hymns, and songs spiritual; singing and making melody 

hymriis, et canticis spiritualibus ; cantentes et psallentes 

^v rjj xapSiq. CJJLWV TU Kupi'u* (20) El^apKfTovvrss iravrors 
in the heart of you to the Lord ; Giving thanks always 
in corde vestro Domino; Gratias agentes semper 

iruvrwv, ev ovo'/xaTj TOU Kupi'ou ^/JLUV 'Irjo'cu XpioVou, 
for all (things), in the name of the Lord of us Jesus Christ. 
pro omnibus, in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 

TU sw xai Tlarpi ' (21) -' 

onto God and the Father; Subjecting yourselves one 

Deo et Patri; Subject! alii 

CXX^Xoij Iv (po'jSu sou. 

to another in the fear of God. Ephesians v. 14-21. 
aliis in timore Dei. 



[NOTE. Tha two following Chapters from Matthew, can no 
easily translated into English, from a previous knowledge of the 
form of Greek and Latin words, gained by a thorough perusal 
of the preceding chapters and passages ; and a reference to the 
common English Testament for such parts as appear difficult or 
obscure. It would be advisable, however, to refer to it as seldom 
aa possible only when necessity requires. The following will 
afford a pleasant and agreeable exercise for the student] 

MAT0AIOT K<p. tS'. 

1 'Ev lxivw TW xaipu % 
'Upw^rjs o r<rpdp^7j Tijv dx^v 

2 Ka /* 9"o~g tfairfiv auro?* 
Oicroj itfrtv 'Iwdvv>]j 6 BaffTjo'- 
T^S' a^TO^ ^ys'pdTj d-o rwv vexpwv, 
xa/ Sid rauro a! (5uvd{j,t vpyou- 
tfiv Jv aiirw. 

3 'O yap 'Hpw^^j xpar^tfa^rov 
auTov, xoo I^STO v 

Oux e|srfTi tfoj ^e;v au 

5 Kco ds'Xwv auTov d 

OV oj^Xov, on wj *po<p'/j- 
aurov s/j^ov. 

6 rsvstfi'wv 5s clyafjLSvwv rou 


7 "O^ev fxed' opxou w 
<5cuvai o dv atrr/a'ijrcu 

8 'H 5e, 

/iTpog aCT 
< flrivaxi -r^v xs^aX^v 'Iwavvou 


9 Ka< JXurrjdij 6 . 
Sia, 6s <rov$ s'pxoug xa< roOg tfuvav- 
' ' <5ot37jvai. 


1 In illo tempore audivit 
Herodes Tetrarcha famam 

2 Et ait pueris suis: Hie 
est Joannes Baptista: ipse 
surrexit a mortuis, et propter 
hoc efficacise operantur in eo. 

3 Nam Herodes apprehen- 
dens Joannem, vinxit eum, 
et posuit in custodia, propter 
Herodiadem uxorem Philippi 
fratris sui. 

4 Dicebat enim il!e Joannes 
Non licet tibi habere earn. 

5 Et volens ilium occidere, 
timuit t urbam : quia sicut pro- 
phetara eum habebant. 

6 Natalities auteni agendis 
Herodis, saltavit* filia Hero- 
diadis in medio, et placuit 
Herod i. 

7 Unde cum juramentc 
spopondit ei dare quicquid 

8 Ilia vero prsBinstructa a 
matre sua: Da mihi, inquit, 
hie in disco caput Joanuia 

9 Et contristatus est rex: 
propter vero juramenta, et si- 
mul accumbentes, jussit dari 




10 Ko/ irs^as dirX<paXj<j' 
rov 'Iwavvrjv v <r>j <p'jXax?j. 

11 Ka/ r/vs'^rj /] x<paXig aurS 
eV -nivaxi, xa/ 806*1 ru xopatfiw* 
xa/ f t veyxe <rjj fA7]<rp/ aur%. 

12 Ka/ flrpotfEXdovrEs ol jxaOT]- 
ra/ a-Jrou jjpav TO tfwfxa, xa/ t'da- 
4-av aiiTo' xa/ s'XdovTEj cwn^ysi- 
Xav TCJ 'IrjO'oO'. 

13 Ka/ dxo'JO'ag 6 'iTjtfou?, txve- 
^wprjo'sv EXS^SV sv -rrXoiw <V e'p*]- 
fjiov ToVov xar' <6iav. Ka/ dxou- 
ffavTSg oi 0^X01, ^xoXoi^tfav au- 

TW TS^ Ct-JTO TWV -ffoX 

14 Ka/ i|sX^wv 6 ' 
c'sXov op^Xov xa/ 

o-Jff, xa/ sOepaireurfs "oOj 

15 'O^/i'as 6eyevofjLjv]c:, irpoo^-X- 
^ov auru ol (joa^TjTai aurou, Xe'yov- 
rsj *Ep>;(jioV Jtfnv o Tocrof:, xa/ rj 
c3pa ^TJ -rrap^X^sv diroXutfov rovg 

16 'O ^5 'rjtfouf Sjfv avroig, 
Ol p^psi'av Ij^ouo'iv d*X5srv JoVfi 
ai/ror^ Cf.*.^ (pay/v. 

17 Oi <$ XEVoutfiv aurw, Oux 
r r . ' > ' 


xa/ Suo I-X&JO.S. 

18 'O 5s /*' *pT JU.OI 

19 Ka/ xX0(faf ToOj 
dvaxXi^jjvai Iff/ rou? ^oproujr, Xa- 

/8iJV ToOf -TcVTE dpTOUJT, Xtt/ ToOf 

^iJo i^^aj, dvabX%|/acr i TOV 
oupavov suXoyrjtf^' xa/ xXatfap, 
l^wxg Tofj fxa^Tarf: TOU^ aprou? 
oi 6s p,a5rj<ra/ TOKT o^Xoij. 

20 Ka/ l(payov <iravTcr, xa/ I- 

* xa/ vjpav TO irHpitf- 
TWV xXarffji,a.* p wv 6w6exa xo- 

10 Et mittens decapitavit 
Joannem in cusfodia. 

11 Et allatum est caput pjus 
in disco, et datum est puellae: 
et attulit matri suae. 

12 Et accidentes discipuli 
ejus, tulerunt corpus, et sep- 
elierunt illud : et venientes 
nunciaverunt Jesu. 

13 Et audiens Jesus secessit 
inde in navicula in desertum 
locum privatim, et audientes 
turbse sequutae sunt eum pe- 
dibus de civitatibus. 

14 Et exiens Jesus vidit 
multam turbam, et visceribus 
affectus est erga eos, et cura- 
vit aegrotos eorum. 

15 Vespere autem facto, ac- 
cesserunt ad eum discipuli 
ejus, dicentes, Solitarius est 
locus, et hora jam praeteriit: 
absolve turbas, ut abeuntes 
in vicos, mercentursibi escas. 

16 At Jesus dixit eis: Non 
usum habent abire : date illis 
vos manducare. 

17 Illi autem dicunt ei : Non 
habemus hie si non quinque 
panes, et duos pisces. 

18 Hie autem ait: Afferte 
mihi illos hue. 

19 Et jubens turbas discum- 
bere super foena, accipiens 
quinque panes et duos pisces, 
suspiciens in coslum, benedix- 
it; et frangensdedit discipu- 
lis panes: at discipuli turbis. 

20 Et manducaverunt om- 
nes, et saturati sunt, et tuler- 
unt redundans fragrr.entorura 
duodecim cophinos plenos. 



21 OS 51 Vd<ov<T6 ijVay av<5p 

22 Ka e-Jds'wc: rjvayxatfev 6 'Iij- 
tfoiJff TOU fjLadrjTag aijToiJ jAr,vai 
s/c; TO -rXoibv, xa/ -rpoaysjv aurov 

23 Ka< airoXotfaj 701-5 

opo? xar' i5i'av 
'O-^ias 5s ysvo/xs'- 

24 To ^s irXorbv ^<Ji) fts'rfov T^J 
aXao'rf'/jg ^v, /3arfavj^6/xvnv u-ro 
WV xufxarwv r,v yap tvavTioj o 

25 Te-rapr); 5s (puXax^ T% vux- 
oj auToOg 6 'IijtfoO'S, 

26 Ka/ <(5o'vTj aurov oj 

v, XsyovTj, "On 
(paavrac'fia. JrfT* xa/ dwo TOU 

27 Ei/^'cijj 5s JXaXijrffv au 
b 'Irirfotlg, Xg'ywv, 

28 'Acroxp^s/V 5s aury 6 Il- 

TpOCT, <VS' Kop, 61 <fv 61, XXU- 
tfOV fiS *po'g tf6 ^X^Srv *J TO. 


29 '0 51 ^v, 'EX4e. Ka 

dj dflro Toil -rXoiou b IlfiVpo^, 
TO, U5aTa, X- 
irpoc; T^V 'Ir^tfoDv. 

30 BXsVwv 5i TOV avt'jxov rf^u- 
pov, g<po>;<)7)' xa dp^ajxEvoj: XT- 
a*ovri^<r5ai, xpa|, Xs'yuv, K^- 
p, tfwtfov fx,6. 

31 64U; 5 'iTjtfOL^ XTl'vaff 

Tri; J(.Tpa, -jr>asTo auTOU, xa; 
~g auTi' 'OXiyd-io'T, sis T' 

21 At edentes fuerunt viri 
fere quinque millia, prseter 
mulieres et pueros. 

22 Et statim corapulit Jesus 
discipulos suos ascendere in 
naviculara, et praecedere eurn 
in ulteriora, dum absolveret 

23 Et absolvens turbas, as- 
cendit in montein privatim 
orare. Vespere autem facto, 
solus erat ibi. 

24 Verum navicula jam me- 
dium maris erat, vexata a 
fluctibus: erat enim contra- 
rius ventus. 

25 Quarta autem vigilia 
noctis, abiit ad eos Jesus cir- 
cumambulans super mare. 

26 Et videntes eum discipuli 
super mare circumambulan- 
tem, turbati sunt, dicentes: 
Quod phantasma est, et prse 
timore clamaverunt. 

27 Statim autem loquutus 
est eis Jesus, dicens: Confi- 
dite, ego sum : ne metuatis. 

28 Respond ens autem ei Pe- 
trus, dixit: Domine, si tu es, 
jube me ad te venire super 

29 Ipse vero ait: Veni. Et 
descendens de navicula Pe- 
trus, ambalabat super aquam, 
venire ad Jesum. 

30 Intuitus vero ventum va- 
lidum, timuit: et incipiens 
demergi, clamavit, diceris: 
Domine, serva me. 

31 Statim vr ro Jesus exten- 
dens manum, excepit eum, et 
ait illi : Exiguae fidei, ad quid 
dubitasti ? 



32 Keu 


33 Oi 

yv eurwv eig TO 


'AX^Wff 0oO 

34 Kai 

sis "^v yig 

35 Kai sViyvovTsg ai/Tov o5 av- 
Spss TW TbVou ixsi'vou, 

Xav / oXr.v <r^v irepi'^wpov 
vijv, xa/ jrpoO'^vs^'xav CCLITW 

36 Ka wapsxaXouv auTov, ?va 

jao'vov a-^covTai <rou x 

auTou* xai otfoi 

32 Et ingressis illis in navi- 
gum, quievit ventus. 

33 Qui autem in navigio, 
venientes adoraverunt eum, 
dicentes: Vere Dei Filius es. 

34 Et transferentes vene- 
runt in terrain Gennesaret. 

35 Et cognoscentes eum viri 
loci illius, miserunt in univer- 
sam circumviciniam illam : 
et attulerunt ei omnes mal 

36 Et appellabant eum, ut 
TO-J vel solum tangerent fimbriam 

vestimefnti ejus: et quotquot 
tetigerunt, preservati sunt. 

MAT0AIOT Ks<p. x5'. 

1 Kai sgsXdwv 6 'lEffou^ sVo- 

etiro TOU ifpou, xai *potf^X- 
oS fjwx^rai ajTou t 
ai/TU raj: o'ixo6of/.aj rou i 

2 'O <5s 'IritfoiJff Vsv 
Ou /SXsVsTS *avra rauT 

Xe'yw CjutJv, ou j/,1? ctqjg^ w^e Xi'<)o 
^TI Xi'^ov, 6V ou 

3 Ka^Tifig'vou <Js aiiTou s-ri TOU 
opou? TWV sXaiwv, -rpo^X^ 
01 fjuxdrjTai' xar 1 i<5i'av, 
EiVi ^(xiv, TOTS TauTa ItfTai, xa< 
ri TO tf^(j,rov TTjff tfyjcr irapourfiaj, 
xou r*,g rfuvTsXsiaj TOU 

4 Kai 



5 IloXXof yap IXsuVovTai liri TU 
ivofiaT? (xou,Xg'yovr^* 'Eyw e/jxi o 
Xpi.cocr, xa/ woXXouc: flrXavrjtfourfi. 
6 MsXX^tfgTS 5s axoueiv iroXe- 

xa xoa 


CAPUT xxrv. 

1 Et egressus Jesus Ibat 
de templo: et accesserunt 
discipuli ejus ostendere ei 
asdificationes templi. 

2 At Jesus dixit illis: Non 
intuemini haecomnia? Amen 
dico vobis, non relinquetur 
hie lapis super lapidem, qui 
non dissolvetur. 

3 Sedente autem eo super 
montem Olivarum accesse- 
runt ad eum discipuli privat- 
im, dicentes: Dicnobis, quan- 
do haec erunt, et quod signum 
tuae praesentiae et consumma- 
tionis seculi ? 

4 Et respondens Jesus, 
dixit eis: Videte nequis vos 

5 Multi enim venient in no- 
mine meo,dicentes: Egosum 
Christus : et multos seducent. 

6 Futuri estis autem audi- 
opaTE re bella, et rumores bello- 



60.1' clXX' oiiifu stfTi TO Tc'Xo. 

7 'EySpdjjtfJTai yap I4vo 
idvo\, xai' /3atfiXs'a sV /Satfr 
iav x0' ftfovTai Xifjioi xou Xoifxo, 
<oo 1$Uf,u ToVo-jj. 

8 IlavTa 6s raSJra. apj^ w<5- 

9 TOTS flrapa^wtfoutfiv /xa e< 
$Xi'4/iv, xa/ dflroxTSvourfiv u^tag' 


roXXo, xa aXX^ 
tfouo'i, xai 
11 Koo oXXo< 

12 Ka< 5ia TO 

dvofii'av, vJ/uy^fl'STai ; ctyairrj TUV 

13 'O ^5 U 

14 Kai' 


catfi ro l^vstfr xcu TOTS ^s TO 


15 "OTav ouv 75jTS TO 

Aavi^XTou irpo(pf;Toi), tdrug ev TO'- 
"u ayi'u' 6 dvayivwtfxcdv VOEI'TW 

16 TOTS oi e'v TJ] 'Iou<5aia <psu- 
><ru<fav sift TO. oprj. 

17 'O If I 70\i ^WfJLOlTOff, fil} 

ij apai TI Sx T>J oix/- 

18 Kco 6 ^v TW 



rum: Videte ne turbemini: 
oportet enim omn.a fieri : sed 
nondum est finis. 

7 Excitabitur enim gens in 
gentem etregnuminregnum: 
et erunt fames, et pestilentiae, 
et terragmotus secundum loca. 

8 Omnia autem haec ini- 
tium dolorum. 

9 Tune tradent vos in trib- 
ulationem, et Occident vos: 
et eritis odio habiti ab om- 
nibus gentibus, propter no- 
men meum. 

10 Et tune offendentur mul- 
ti: et invicem tradent, et 
odio habebunt invicem. 

11 Et multi pseudoprophetae 
excitabuntur, et seducent 

12 Et propter multiplicati 
iniquitatem, refrigescet cha- 
ritas multorum. 

13 Qui autem permanensin 
finem, hie servabitur. 

J4 Et prasdicabitur hoc E- 
vangelium regni in universa 
habitata, in testimonium om- 
nibus gentibus : et tune ve- 
niet finis. 

15 Cum ergo vid eritis abomi- 
nationem desolationis effatam 
a Daniele Propheta, stans ir. 
locosancto: legensintelligat. 

16 Tune qui in Judaea fugi- 
ant ad montes. 

17 Qui super domiim, r.on 
descendat toLere quid de ssde 

18 Et qui in agro, non re- 
vertatur retro tollere vestem 




19 Oun/ Ss <ra.~s s" 
tfai, xa/ 

vaij: Ta 

20 Ilpoa'g^eo'ds 5s ?va pj y- 
vrjrai rj <puyii Cftwv pifjUJvo, ^8s 
iv rfaaTW. 

21"E(fTai yap TOTS OX/^i? f- 
ydX], oi'a oil yyovv a*' a 
fug TCU vtJv, oW ou 

22 Kai fiii !xoXo&j$>)o'av ai 
Tjjas'pai ^x?vai, oux av etfwdrj -rarfa 
tfap^- <5ia 5a -roOff IxXsxToOff xoXo- 
fw^tfovTai ai *)fte'pai 

23 TOTS lav TJ ufx 

u, cli^s 6 Xpitfroj, ^ uSs' py 


24 ' 

xa< T- 

aTa, wtfrf *Xavv5<fa, el <Juva<rov, 
xa/ ro 

25 'I<5ou, 

26 'Edv ouv elffutfiv u/xn/* 'I<5ou, 
v <rij I-^iW Itfri, jni se'X5*!Tf 

27 "ntf-iffp yap r; arfTpa-s"^ l|s'p- 
^rai d*o dvaroXwv, xa( <pai'vTa 
xa *j 

irapou(?ia TO? uoi roiJ v^poj-r 
28 "O*ou yap Jdv >j TO cr 
ol dsroi. 

29 Eufo'wj 5s fiTtt r>i 

=X(V6JV 6 JjXjOCT rfXOTjtf- 

Sij<ferat, xa/ rj tfsX^vii ou 6wcfi TO 
9'yyo ai7>;, xa/ 01 o.g~spss tfstfovv- 
Tai d*o TOU oupavou, xa/ aS (5uvd- 


TO <{i\- 

if t<: TWV oCpavwv 
33 Ka/ TOTE 

19 Vae autem in utero ha- 
bentibus, et lactantibus n 
illis diebus. 

20 Orate autem ut non fiat 
fuga vestra hyeme, neque in 

21 Erit enim tune tribulatio 
magna, qualis non fuit ab 
initio mundi, usque, modo, 
neque non fiet. 

22 Et si non contracti fais- 
sent dies illi.non esset servata 
omnes caro : propter autem 
electos contrahentur dies illi. 

23 Tune si quis vobis dix- 
erit: Ecce hie Christus, aut 
illic : ne credite. 

24 Excitabuntur enim pseu- 
dochristi et pseudoprophetae, 
et dabunt signa magna et 
prodigia ita ut seducere, si 
possibile, et electos. 

25 Ecce, praedixi vobis. 

26 Si ergo dixerint votis: 
Ecce, in deserto est, ne exe- 
atis: ecce in conclavibus, ne 

27 Sicut enim fulgur exit 
ab Orientibus, et apparet us- 
que Occidentes, ita erit et 
praesentia fihi hominis. 

28 Ubicunque enim fuerit 
cadaver, illuc congregabun- 
tur aquilae. 

29 Statim autem posttribu 
lationem dierum illorum Sol 
obscurabitur, et Luna non 
dabit lumen suum, et stellaB 
cadent de crelo, et efficaciie 
coelorum concutientur. 

30 Et tuns parebit signum 
filii hominis in coelo: et tune 



olpocvw' xai TOT? XO^OVTOCI 

al <puXc T?J 7?j, xeu o- 

TCV tiov TDU av^pu-TTou 

Siri TWV vjfpsXwv TO cupavoC, jXeTO. 

iu*Ofiu xai 56% 

31 Kai oLirog-sXs ro 

airou fAS-ra tfaXiriyyoj <pwv>j /xe- 
xai tViO'iivagou 
at/To? ex TWV 
ve/jLwv, cUr' axpwv oupavwv 
axpuv aiToJv. 

32 'Airo 5s Ti5 

c^v rapaCoX^V orav rjSi) 6 xXa- 
5oj aLT% ysv^rai acraXoV, xa/ 
rex, <pi;XXa sxpojj, yivwtfxsrs on 
77^ TO Ss'po. 

33 OUTW xa< v ufxs^, 6Yav "Syre 
iravra raC'ra^ivwo'xsre 

34 ' 

iravra TauTa ytverau. 
35 'O oupavo^ xa/ ^j 7^ ?rap5- 
r 01 6a Xo'7oi fiou oO ^ 

36 lisp/ 61 Tijg vjfilpaff 8xi'v5cr 
Kat <rr,s upas, oudeig, olSsv, ou6s 
o ct77XXoi TUV oupavwv, gi py 6 

37 "fitfirsp 5s ai rjfts'pai <rs Nus, 
OUTW^ Itfrai xai % Tapoytfia TOU 
oioO" rou ctv^pi-rou. 

3S"ntfrsp 7.p ^<fav Iv <ra~$ *j j s- 
Taiij irpo TOU 

NWS / 

39 Ka/ oux eTvwtfav, eu 

6 xaraxXutfiaog. xa/ ^psv a*av- 
raj* ourw Irfrai xa/ >j 
rou uSou Toil dv^pw*:u. 

40 TOTS 6 ) etfovTa s'v 

plangent omnes tribus terrap, 
et videbunt filiam hominis 
venientem in nubibus coeli, 
cum efficicia et gloria multa. 

31 Et legabit angelos suos 
cum tuba vocis magnse, et 
congregabunt electos ejus a 
quatuor ventis, a summis COB- 
lorum usque extrcma eorum. 

32 A vero ficu discite para- 
bolam: quum jam ramus ejus 
fuerit tener, et folia germi- 
navfirint, scitis quia prope 

33 Ita et vos, quum videntis 
base omnia scitote quia prope 
est in januis. 

34 Amen dico vobis, non 
praeteribit generatio hsec do- 
nee omnia ista fiant. 

35 Cffilum et terra prseteri- 
bunt : verum verba mea non 

36 De autem die ilia et hora 
nemo scit, neque angeli coe- 
lorum, si non Pater meus 

37 Sicut autem dies Noe, 
ita erit et adventus Filii ho- 
minis. . 

38 Sicut enim erant in die- 
bus ante diluvium, comeden- 
tes et bibentes, nubentes et 
nuptui tradentes, usque quo 
die intravit Noe in arcam: 

39 Et non cognoverunt do- 
nee venit diluvium, et tulit 
omnes: ita erit et praesentia 
Filii hominis. 

40 Tune duo erunt in BOTO: 



els c'apaXaffc&xvsrai, xcu a eT$ 

41 AJo dX^doutfai Iv T) fwXuvt' 
xou fju'a 

42 rpfj/opSiVs ouv, oYi oilx o"- 
a~ co/tt oupa b x^'p:oj fyiwv Ip- 

43 'Exeri/o <J= V yivwtfxfre, oVi el 
ijiJei b ojxc^srf'jroTTu -roia 

b xXfVrrjj Ipp^srai, l 
av, xcu oux av el'ao's 
r^v oixi'av aurou. 

44 Aia, ro^ro xa/ UJXE^ yivetf&e 
CTOI/XOI' OTI, ; wpa ou SoxeTrs, 6 

45 Tiff apa Itfr/'v o tfufros Sou- 
~/ji$ xai (ppovijiop, 

xupioc: ai/Tou ^ir< T 
aurou, Toil <Ji<$o'vcu 
Tpotpigv Iv xaipoj ; 

46 Ma.xa.pios 6 SovXog 
ov i^jduv 6 xt3pio aurotJ 
'oiouvra oC<rw. 

47 'Afx-^v Xe'yw ^n/, on eifi 

Ts ucap^outfiv a.v<rw xar- 

48 'Edv 5s eliri; o xaxo^ 
?xsrvoff ev r^ xap^ia a^rou 
vi^si 6 xJpio? JJLOU i\6s~v. 

49 Ka/ ap|]Tai rd<s<rsi 
tfuv(5o'jXouf, tf6ieiv 6s xco 
(tsra <rwv jxs^uovrwv* 

50 "H|EI f o xupioff rou 
sxsi'vou ^v *jf/.pa ^ ou ir 
xa; ='v wpa ^ DU 

51 Kai 5 

ro (Jc'poj aJro (x=Te rwv 
rwv ijjtfsr ex t r gtfrai 6 
xcu c fipuj-aoj ru* OOVTWV. 


, xa< 

unus assumitur, et unus re^ 

41 DuB molentes in mola: 
una assumetur, et una relin- 

42 Vigilate eigo, quia nes- 
citis qua hora Dominus ves- 
ter venit. 

43 Iliud autem scitote, qu> 
niam si sciret paterfamilias 
qua custodia fur venit, vigi- 
laret utique, et non sineret 
perfodi domum suam. 

44 Propter hoc et vos estote 
parati, quia qua hora non pu- 
tatis: Filius hominis ventu- 
rus est. 

45 Quis putas est fidelis 
servus et prudens, quern con- 
stituit dominus suus super 
familiam suam, ad dandum 
illis cibum in tempore ? 

46 Beatus servus ille, quern 
veniens dominus ejus, inve 
nerit facientem sic. 

47 Amen dico vobis, quoni- 
am super omnibus substantiis 
suis constituet eum. 

48 Si autem dixerit malus 
servus ille in corde suo : Tar- 
dat dominus meus venire. 

49 Et coeperit percutere con- 
servos, edere autem et bibere 
cum ebriosis: 

50 Veniet dominus servi 
illius in die quo non expectat, 
et in hora qua non scit. 

51 Et dividet eum, et pat- 
tern ejus cum hypocritis po- 
net: illic erit fletus, et stridor 



Prep. Au%. Root ind.imp.3pl. Prep, Root, lfut.3*. 

1. cap s ^sv o'vro. 12. ff sXsutfe rai. 
Around did come they. Out come shall one. 

Root. 3 *. Root. 1 fut. 3 . 

2. stfr i v. 13. -roi/iav ei". 

Is he. Protect shall who. 

Root . 1st pi. Jlug. Root. 1 aor. ind.3s 

3. i$ ojxsv. 14. rj xpicw cT5. 
See we. did inquire he. 

dug. Root. 1st pi. Root. 2 aor. 3 . 

4. r) i-6 ofifv. 15. V e. 
Have come we. Say did he. 

Prep. Root. inf. Prep. Root. I aor. imp 2 pi 

5. irpotf xuv Sjfl'ai. 16. E| STarf are. 
Before fall to. About inqure do ye. 

~4ug. Root. Pas. ind. 1 aor. 3 *. Root . 2 aor. sub. 2 pi. 

6. i Tccpa^ 6r}. 17. sup i\ <rs. 
Was troubled he. Found ye shall have. 

Jlug. Root. c.v.ind.imp.3s. Prep. Root. 1 aor. imp. 2 pi 

7. i fvvdav s ro. 18. a* ayysiX are. 
Did ask he. Back bring word do ye. 

Root. c. v. 2 fut. mid. 3 *. Prep. Root, (a E) 1 aor. sub. 1 

8. yfw a rai. 19. tfporf xuv j tf w. 

Born he should be. Before fall may I. 

Root.2 ayr.3pl. dug. Root. 1 aor. dep. 3 pi. 

9 sTf ov. 20 i wopsu 6 ij tfav. 

Said they. Depart did hey. 
Red. Root. Pas. inil. perf. 3 t. Root, imper. 3 . 

10. ye ypair rat. 2 ., IS ov. 

Written it has been Behold thou. 

Rsot . Zd i. Root. 2 acr. 3 pi. 

11. E T. 22. ?,$ ov. 
Art thou. Seen tad they. 


Prep. Hoot. 2 aor. 3 s. Root. imp. pr. 2 1. 

23. flrpo 5jy 6 v. 35. I<f6 i. 
Before led it. Be thou. 

aug.Root. 2 aor. ind. 3 . .Roof. r*o. 2 aor. 1 s. 

24. e <r<r *j. 36. * w. 

Stood it. Call I. 

Root . ind. imp. 3 . .Roof . ind. pr. 3 . 

25. ? v. 37. (JisXX ei. 
Was it. Is about 

Aug. Root. 1 aor. ind. 3 pi. Root. inf. pr. 

26. x"P *> tfav> 38* tfr r ^ v * 

Rejoice did they. Seek to. 

.Roof . 2 aor. cf . 3 j>J. Prep. Root. 1 aor. inf 

27. up ov. 39. euro Xs rf ai. 
Found they. De stroy to. 

Prep. .Roof . 1 aor. act. 3 pZ. Prep. Aug. Root. 2 aor * . 

28. flrpoo* s xuv 7j tfav. 40. -rap s Xa/3 s. 
Before fall did they. Up took he. 

Prep. Aug. Root. 1 aor. 3 pi. Prep. Root. 1 aor. 3 *. 

99. irpotf ) vsyx a. v. 41. avs j^wp ij rf sv. 

Before did bring they. Back went he. 

Prep. Root. 1 aor. inf. Root. 3 s. 

30. ava xctfjwr tf at. 42. ^ v. 
Back turn to. Was he. 

Prep. Aug. Root. 1 aor. a. 3 pi. Root. sub. 1 aor. pas. 3 1. 

31. av s xup f] tfav. 43. *X)]p u 6 i\. 
Back went they. Fulfilled might be it. 

Root. ind. pr. 3 s. mid. Aug. Root. ind. 1 av. 1 1. 

32 (pcciv s <rai. 44. I xaXs cf a. 

Appears he. Called I. 

Prep. Root . imp. 2 aor. 2 1. Root. 1 av. pass. ind. 3 s. 

33. *apaXa e. 45. ivsifai-% 6 *j. 

Up take (do) thou. Mocked was he. 

Root. imp. 2t. Aug.Root.ind.laor.pas.3s 

34* <psuy s. 46, duf/. w 4 J. 

Flee (do) thou. Enraged was he 


Root . 2 nor. ind. act. 3 . Root . ind. pres. 3 pi- 

47. av ?i X e. 53. /V i. 
Killed he. Are they. 

Aug. Root, 1 aor. ind. act. 3 s. Root. ind. pr. 3 s. mid. 

48. vj xpi/3 w <f 6. 54. <paiv s ran. 

Enquired had he. Appears he. 

Aug. Root. 1 aor. ind. pas. 3 *. Prep. Root. imp. 2 ./for act. 

49. 5 ffXigp w d *j . 55. crecpa Xa/3 s. 

Fulfilled was it. Up take (do) thou. 

Aug. Root. 1 aor. ind. pas. 3*. JZoo/. imp. pr. 2s. dep 

50. ^ xou tf 4 j. 56. wopffu ou. 

Heard was it. Depart thou. 

Aug. Root. imp. ind. Red. Root. ind. act.perf. 3 pi. 

51. ? 6s\ s. 57. <rs 6vfa a. rfi. 
did will Dead are they. 

Prep. Root. 1 aor. pass. inf. Aug. Root. 3 s. imp. ind. 

52. irapa xX TJ dij vou. 58. ^ Xd s . 
Consoled to be. Did come he. 


1 eTs, unus, 17 l*Taxai'5sxa, septemdecim, 

2 5uo, duo, 18 oxrwxauJexa, octodecim, 

3 Tpe^, tres, 19 swsaxai'tSsxa, noveradecim, 

4 rsVtfapss, quotuor, 20 e7xorfi, viginti, 

5 ifsvre, quinque, 21 emtfj eTs, viginti unus, 

6 i'f, sex, 22 sFxoo'i 5oo, viginti duo, 

7 !*,, septem, 30 rpi'axovra, triginta, 

8 OXTCJ, octo, 40 fl-stfrfapaxovrajquadraginta, 

9 we'a, novem, 50 TsvnjxovTa, quinquaginta, 

10 ^'xa, decem, 60 l^xovra, sexaginta, 

11 evSsxa, undecim, 70 /'^ofx^xovra, septuaginta, 

12 <Ji<5exa, duodecimi 80 oy^o^xovTa, octoginta, 

13 Tpitrxcttosxa., tredecim, 90 evvsv^xovra, nonaginta, 

14 Tsrf<fape(J'xai5xa,quotuorde. 100 sxarov, centum, 

15 *evTSxa('<$sxa, quindecim, 200 d'oxwfto*, ducenti, 

16 sxxoWaxa, sexdecim, 300 Tpiaxotfioj, trecenti. 





'A 2la 



A ah 

B S3 fc 




C Sc 




D D t> 




# gc 




^ gf 




G g 




7J $ 




7 3 i 




J 3f 




f 6> t 

A jv v 




21 . 




Jf SO? m 




JV ftn 




D o 



P 9>P 




^ Q <| 




72 91 r 




# f * 




T Zt 




V U u 




V S3 




TF 2C w 


JT Xy 

eex * 



r ) 9 




^ 3s 




& K. 



A ah 

B bay 

C say 

D day 

j'j ft 

F / 

G- /ay 

H aush 

I ee 

J 2/ee 

K kaw 

L e 

M em 

N e 


P pay 

Q kuh 

R err 

5 ess 
T tay 
U ue 
V vay 

X eex 

Y eegrede 

Z sze(Z 

6 cfc. 

* The former of these characters is -initial or medial; the latter 
always final. 

21 241 


There are also, in Spanish 

Ch Ll(Ztf) S" (Aft) Kr 

chay ailyeay anyeay air-ray 

[NOTE. Let the student remember that the name haa nothing to do 
Trith the pronunciation of a letter; no reliance will, therefors, t 
placed on the alphabetical cognomen of a letter for its sourd.~\ 


21 like a in far. 

la protracted sound of a; as fcttS $aar, the hair. 

23 At the commencement of syllables, it is like b in lend; 
but at the close of a syllable, it sounds much likej? orpb; as 
gelfc, yellow. 

33t enunciate both consonants; as lefct, (lebt) lives. 

G before e, t, a, 6, ii, 9, like ts; as fcer Girfel, the circle. 
Before a, o, U, and the consonants, like k; as frfl3 Concert, the 

( (Tsay-hah) before a, 0, it, sounds like k; also at the 
commencement of a syllable, and before the consonants. After 
vowels and consonants, and before c and t, in French and 
Latin words, has a peculiar guttural sound, difficult to repre- 
sent in English. Observe the position of your tongue while 
enunciating the consonant &, in the word kind move the 
tongue back towards the throat a little distance, force the 
breath audibly, without the intonations of the voice, through 
he aperture between the tongue and the roof of the mouth, 
and you have the sound as exactly as it can be made by a 
foreigner. This sound occurs in such words as ba3 Jli(^, the 
cloth; fcie 5Md), the milk; &c. It has the sound of sh n 
3(6, 1; retd), rich, &c. &c. 

GbS like x; as bcr Cd)3, the ox. 

6! like k; as ticf, thick. 


!> This letter approximates more closely to the sound of 
t or TH. The tongue is placed against the teeth (instead of 
the roof of the mouth), a little above where it is placed for 
TII; closing the aperture between the roof of the mouth and 
the tongue the breath is emitted with the intonation of tho 
voice, forming the sound of the German to, 

(J long, like a in mate; as fyabe, have: short,* like e in 

ft ; as baS Snbe, the end. 

<Ee protracted e. 

3 like f in from, for, fount, &c. 

gf a little heavier sound than f single. 

like gk ; as gut, good ; <jro, great, &c. At th'f end of 
syllables, g has a sound similar to cJi; as tier SBeg, the way. 
Also, sometimes in the middle of syllables; as ber 3tegen, the 

$ aspirates vowels, when placed before them ; as ber Jpf nt* 
met, the heaven. It is silent, and prolongs the vowel, when 
placed after it; as ba3 3afyr, the year; feafylen, to choose; tie 
Ut)r, the watch, &c. 

3 long? like e in me: short, like i in pin. 

3 (0 like#; as ja, yes. 

R like k; as ba3 $inb, the child. 

2 like I; as bag Jantm, <fo femi. 

537 like m ; as ber SOiann, the man. 

9? like n ; as neu, new. 

9?g like </; as iun$, young. 

D long, like o in no; as ober: or short, like u in tub; an 
oft, o/fcn. 

3) --like ^ ; as prefjen, to press. 

tyfy like /; as ber $ropl)et, the prophet. 

jQ like q ; as bie ual, the torment. 

* A short vowel maintains its original sound, but is pronounced 
quicker, and a little more compressed. Vowels before double letters 
are short, af due Saffc, a cup. 


9t like r ; as bag >erj, the heart, 
<5 like s; as fcaS alj, the salt. 
(2(6 like sh ; as bte <5c6ejhr, $e sister. 
3; like t; as tcr Jag, the day. 

In words of foreign derivation, terminating in tion, the t\ 

is pronounced like tse; as Contention, convention: $ like ts 

U like oo ; as fcer $ut, *Ae Act* : short, like u in /K#; at 

25 like /; as son, from. 

SB like v ; as tna^r, <re. 

3 like x ; as tie 2lrt, ike axe. 

J like i ; as ber hjl, the style. 

3 like ts ; as jefyn, fen. 

21 like at in hair, or e in men; as ber S35r, the bear. 

$D like e in'Jier ; as fd)6'n, beautiful.* 

U similar in sound to the French u. In English, we have 
i 5 such sound. Observe the position of the lips in saying 
oo : with the lips remaining in this position, pronounce e long; 
draw the tongue slightly backward, and you will have the de- 
sired sound. Bear in mind that this is a compressed sound : 
notice that in saying we, you first enunciate oo (w), and after- 
wards e ; manage so as to pronounce the e at the same moment 
with oo (tc), the tongue being drawn a little backward, and 
pressed firmly against the upper double teeth, and you will 
ercounter little difficulty in pronouncing the letter correctly. 


2ht like ou; as ba au3, the house. 
2H like i in pine; as fccr Sftat, May. 
5lp like i in pine. 

* This is ns near as this sound can be represented by the English 
rowel. The sound is a little more open than e in her; the tongue 
is mo^ed further forward. The best way to get this sound, is to 
eatck it from % German, or some other acquainted with it. 


g{ like i in pine. 

Sp like i iu pine. 

2lu like 01 in no'se (compressed sound). 

Su like 01 in (compressed sound). 

3e like ee in /ee<. 

Si like i in 7nt'?je. 


A is pronounced like ah ; as la cara, the face. 

B like o ; as bonito, pretty. 

C before e, i, like th in think ; as el pincel (ei peenthail), 
the pencil. Before a, o, u, like &; as cual (kooal), which. 

D see German 3X 

E like d; as me (may), me. Short, like e in hen; aa 
el, <fo. 

F like f; as cafe", the coffee. 

G like h before e, i; as genio (harneo), genius. B^x)re 
a, o, , before consonants and after all vowels, like g in go ; 
as grande, great. 

H is always silent. 

I like e in me ; as el vino, the wine. 

J like h, in all cases; as, Jose" (Hosay), Joseph. 

K like k ; as kali, seaweed. 

L like 1; as el papel, the paper. 

M like m ; as manana (manyana), to-morrow. 

N like n ; as no, 710?, no. 

like o; as con gusto, with pleasure. 

P like J9 ; as pan, bread. 

Q like k; the subsequent w is not pronounced; as quo 
(kay), what. C is now generally used in the place of q. We 
write cual (kwdl), instead of qual, which. 

B soft like r in bar, far, &c. : hard, like rr in parrar, to 


extend. The soft sound is represented by a single r; the bard 
sound, by double rr. 

S like s in so; as sefidr (sainydr), sir. 

T very similar to the German bj ten go, I have. 

U like oo ; as su (soo), your. 

V like v; as el vino, the wine. 

X occurs but seldom; pronounced the same as x in 

Y IfKe ee, or y; as muy (moo-e"), very; y, and. 

Z like th in throne; as el lapiz (Idpeeth), the pencil. 

Ch pronounced in all cases like ch in church ; as el chal&o, 
(hz vest. 

LI like ly ; as bello (bailyo), beautiful. 

5f like ny; as seiiorita (sainyoreeta), Miss. 

Rr see R. 


A is pronounced like ah; as alezan (al-zang), bay or sorrel 
\orse, Paris, &c. : short, like a in hat; as datte, date, a fruit. 

B like b; as le bal (leh bal), the ball. 

C like k before a, o, u, I, r, t, in the same word; as calcul, 
calculation; clou (kloo), nail, tack. Before e, i, y, like s; 
likewise, with the cedilla ( , ) under it, before a, o, u } is pro- 
nounced like s; as a (sah), this, that. 

Ch like k; as chlamyde, a cloak. Like sh; as un cheval, 
a horse. 

D like d; as done, fAn. 

E [unaccented], like e in Acr. Often silent. See Ger 
man 6. 

6 [aciente*!], like d long; as cafe" (coff-ay), coffee. 

ii like a in arh; as le pere, the fafJter. 

6 same as e but longer ; as tete, the head. 


F like /; as fer, iron. 

G like g; as gant (gang), glore : like zh; as ge*sir, to lie, 
lc buried. 

H like h. Often silent. 

I like e in English; as petite (pettit), little: short, like i 
In pin; as ici (isy), here. 

J like s in measure; as jamais (zhama), never; jour 
(zhoor), efay. 

] like A; ; as kynancie, quinsy. 

L like 1 : 11 like ly or J-yu&. 

i e m. ij^ g uttura j soun d ; somewhat similar to ngJc. 

N like n.* ) 

like o. 

P like p ; as pain, bread. 

Ph like f; as phare, light-house. 

Q like Spanish q; as que, $a. 

R like r. Silent where it terminates a word, if preceded 
by e. 

S like s or z. Often silent. 

Sc like s before e, i, y : before a, o } u, I, r, like s7c. 

T like t. It has also, before ia, ie } ieu, ion, a sound like 
ts or c; as tial, tion, tieux, &c. Often silent. 

Th like t, in all cases. 

U like German it. 

V like v. 

X like ks, gz, ss, kj (before c), and z. Silent. 

Y like ee. 

Z like z and s. 


Ai is pronounced like ai in "hair : also like ay in day. 
Ey is pronounced like ey in prey. 
Ei is pronounced like ai in hair. 

* The sound of the French nasals (m, n), can never be learnei 
eiiept thej are hea~d repeatedly. 



Ay is pronounced like ai in hair. 

At, aie, ais, ait, aix, oi, like ai in hair, but longer. 

Oi like wa m water : in a few words, like ai in hair ; aa 
fianois, void, affoiblir, &c. 

Au, eau, aux, eaux, aud, auds, ao, ault, aults, auex, aut, 
ants, e?, oc, ocs, ods, oh, op, oqs, ot, 6t, ots, oth, oths, ate 
each pionounced like o in no. 

le like yea. 


Am, an nearly like ang ; as ambition (angbissyong), ambi- 
tim ; ancre (angkr), anchor. 

Aim, ain, ein, em, en nearly like short ang. 
Om, on nearly like ong. 
Um, un nearly like ung. 







Noa. Gen. Dat Aec. 

2>er, be3, bem, ben. 

ie, ber, ber, bte. 
> be?, bent, bas. 



Nom. Gen. Dat Ace. 

La, de la, a la, la.f 
El, del, al, el.J 
Lo, de lo, a lo, lo. 



Nom. Gen. Dat Ace. 

Le, du, an, le. 

La, de la, a la, la. 


Gen. Dat Aec. 

ber, ben, bie. 




Gen. Dat 


de las, a las, las. 
de los, d los, los.|| 
No plural. 


Xom. Gen. Dat Aoc, 

Les, des, aux, les. 
a n a 

* If the m or n is followed by a vowel, it ceases to be nasal; but 
if it precedes a consonant, or terminates a word, it is a nasal. If it 
terminates a word, the next word commencing with a vowel, there ia 
sound of n after the nasal. 

f Or, a la. J Or, 4 eL g Or, a las. || Or, 4 lo*. 


[NOTE. When the French article, in the siigular, precedes 
another ward commencing with a vowel or silent A, the final vowel 
of the article ia dropped ; as 1'oncle, the uncle, for le oncle ; l'6tude > 
tht ttudy, for la e"tu.e ; 1'honeur, the honour, for le honeur.J 



Nom. Gen. Vat. Ace. 

Mas. Sin, eineS, einen, einent. 

Fern Sine, einer, etner, eine. No plural. 

Neut. Sin, tints, einent, ein. 



Nom. Gen. Dat Ace. 

Mas. Un, de un, a un, un. No plural. 

Fern. Una, de uua, a una, una. 



Nom. Gen. Dat Ace. 

Mas. Un, d'un, a un, un. No plural. 

Fern. Une, d'une, a une, une. 



Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. Du, de,f a du, du. des, de,")" a des, des. 

Fern. De la, def , a de la, de la. 


The German noun is subject to certain terminal mutations, 
which, when they are arranged and classified, are denominated 
Declensions. Of these Declensions, some authors recognise 
eight, five, or four, while many accord that there are, in fact, 
but three. 

For the sake of simplicity and brevity, we shall arrange all 
the German nouns into three separate heads or declensions no 
more ; and in following out this arrangement, we shall class 

* Translated, jowif, of some, &c. f Or, d' 


all the singulars first in order, and afterwards the plurals, in 
their own place, on the plan of Le Bas and Regnier. 

The Declensions arc determined by their mode of termina- 


. First Declension. All nouns of this declension are either 
masculine or neuter, and make their genitive in g, e3, and en3, 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

)er ->tmmel,* beS immet3, bent immet, ben immel. 

In like manner are declined all masculine and neuter nouns 
terminating in el, em, en, erj neuter, in it, djf n, lein, &c. c. 

Nouns which already terminate in &, j, gt, fj, j}, take an t in 
the genitive before the $, for sake of euphony ; as 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Das arj,t bes parses, bent fyav$,l bag arj. 

Many nouns, also, take e, in this manner, when the final let- 
ter produces too close a sound to admit of an immediate sub- 
sequent $. These nouns are of various terminations, as follows : 

>a$ Sanb, the land; ba3 ^inb, the child; ber fDcann, the 
man; ber ut, the hat; ber SBein, the wine, &c. 

Nouns in en3. 

Nom. Gon. Dat. Ace. 

T)er 8unfe, beg gitnfeng, bent gunten, ben gttnfen. 
Second Declension. This declension comprises none but 
masculine nouns. The genitive termination is n or en. All 
the other cases of the singular and plural are like the genitive 

Der ^na&e, the boy. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Der $nafce, bc$ .Rnafcen, bem Jlnafcen, ben Jlnafcen. 
Most of the nouns of this declension, terminating in a con 
Bonant, make their genitive in en. 

* Heaven. [NoiK. The German noun always commences with A 
capital letter.] 

f The rorin. J Or, $atjt. 

{ Formerly, and occasionally at the present day, Junfcn 


T> e r SB a r, f Ac tear. 

Nom. Gen. Dat Aco. 

)et 33ar, beS 33aren, bent 23aren, ben 23aren. 
Third Declension. All the nouns of this declension are of 
the feminine gender. It takes no inflection in the singular, 
nor does it terminate in any fixed letter. 
5 r a it, a woman. 
Die grau, ber grau, ber grau, bte grau. 


The various terminations of the nominative plural are t, 
It, en, en3, or like the nominative singular. 

When the nominative plural ends in n, all the other cases 
are the same. 

When the nominative plural does not end in n, the dative 
alone takes an n, and the genitive and accusative are like the 

No inconsiderable number of nouns change a, 0, U, and ail,, 
of the singular, into a, 6, ii, and ait. 

Masculine and neuter nouns, of the first declension, in el, 
cr, en, lien, have their nominative plural like the nominative 
singular, and add n for the dative. 

D e r 21 b I e r, the eagle. 


Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

SMe 8tbler, ber Slbler, ben Siblern, bie Stbler. 
) fl 3 < i e Q e I, the seal. 


!Dte (Siegel, ber <5tegel, ben tegel, bie (Steget. 
The greater part of the masculine nouns of the first declen- 
sion take e, in the nominative, genitive, and accusative, and n ; 
in the dative plural ; as 

> e r g r e m b 1 1 n g, tlie stranger. 


Die5rcmbltnge,ber grembltnge,ben grembtingen,ber Steniblinjje, 
Feminine and neuter nouns in ip, also take e ; as 

) fl 3 e I) e i m n t fj, t7ie secret. 

'Lit e^ Eimni|[e,ber el)eimni|]e,bene()eimnif[en,bie ct>eimmj|e. 
[Nois When 9 comes between two vowels, it is changed into ff.] 


A great number of nouns of the third declension in the 
singular also arc declined in the same manner in the plural ; 
BO also are nearly all neuter nouns, whose initial is the particle 
ge, and whose terminative is in any letter other than e, I, or er, 
in the nominative singular; as, singular, tag tjdjenf; plural, 
fcie efcfyenfe, the gift, the gifts. 

Thus, also, are declined all neuter nouns terminating in 
tncnt ; as aframent, afrantente, &c. There are, also, man j 
neuters, whose distinctive features cannot be established. 

All such nouns of the first declension as ending properly 
in e, are often terminated by e or en ; all nouns of the second 
declension, which take e in the genitive singular, and all 
feminine nouns in el, e, ee, ie,* form their plural by adding an 
n to the nominative singular. 

All nouns of the second declension, whose genitive ends in 
en, as 33ar, 33aren ; all feminine nouns not noticed hitherto, in 
this description of the plurals ; and especially such as termi- 
nate in ent, ei, Ijett, in, feit, fdjaft, ung; and those derived 
from foreign tongues; also a number of masculine nouns, the 
nouns SSett, bed; emt, shirt; erj, heart; DIjr, ear; and 
nouns in or, incorporated from the Latin language; and a 
greater part of the nouns in tir, are all declined by adding ett 
to the nominative singular termination. 

All masculine and neuter nouns in ttjiim, as (sing.) ter 
Steid)t^um, the fortune; (plu.) tie 9kid)tfyumer, the fortunes; 
(sing.) tag er3ogtl)inn, the dukedom; (plu.) tie ^er^ogttjumer, 
the dukedoms. All such neuters as have not been included in 
the preceding explication, terminating generally in a mute, or 
the letters g, tf, fdj) : as (sing.) ta3 23ift, the image; (plu.) tie 
SMIter, the images; (sing.) tag )orf, tlie. village; (plu.) tie 
I)orfer, the villages ; and the following masculine nouns : 
335fennrf)t, Dorn, eift, ott, 2etb, 9ftann, Drt, 9lant, 25ormnnt, 

* With the exception of Me Butter, mother; fctc Softer, daughter, 
Which make their plural with the Umlaut (")/ tic 9XuttCt, tie 3cd)tec. 


, SGurnt, all make their plural in er, at the same time 
placing the Umlaut (") over the vowel or diphthong, in the last 
syllable in the word; as 65ott, otter, God; Sftann, 9)uinner, 
man; au3, aufer, house, &c. &c. 

We have been thus prolix with the German noun, in com- 
parison with the general brief style of this work, that the 
student might have no room for doubt ; and for the sake of 
simplifying in a degree the preceding pages on the German 
noun, we submit, in one general view, a table, so arranged as 
to comprehend all the entire terminations in a body. 

Masculine and Neuter Nouns. 

2d DECL'N. 

tVmiuine Nouns. 


N. . 



(e) n. 
- (0 n. 



N. e. 
D. en. 
A. e. 

= (). 



(e) n. 
(c) n. 
(e) n. 
(e) n. 

(e) n. 
(e) n. 
(e) n. 
(e) n. 



The Spanish and French nouns are indeclinable. They 
merely add an s for the plural, (a few exceptions) ; but their 
terminations never vary for the case, which can only be deter- 
mined by the article or adjective prefixed, or by its syntactic 

[NOTE. The genders, in German, are three, masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. In Spanish, three, but the neuter in Spanish includes 
onlj & few adjectives, used in the sense of nouns, and not limited in 
their extension ; as lo util, the useful; it has no plural. In French, 
there is no neuter nouns are either masculine or feminine, accord 
ing to usage, or as the termination of the word denotes.] 

German. The method of forming the plural of German 
nouns has been shown in the preceding Table of Declension. 

Spanish. When the Spanish noun is terminated by a short 


vowel,* the plural is formed by adding an s to the termination 
of the singular; when the noun terminates in a long vowel or 
a consonant, the plural adds es to the singular terminative : 
e. g. first, carta, letter ; cartas, letters; padre, father; padres, 
fathers: second, verdad, truth; verdades, truths; tribii, tribe; 
tribiies, tribes. Nouns which terminate in z, change z to ces; 
as Idpiz, pencil; lapices. The plural of adjectives is formed 
in the same manner. 

French. The plural of French nouns is usually formed by 
the addition of an s; but when the noun (or adjective) ter- 
minates in u, preceded by one or more vowels, the plural ia 
made by adding x ; as beau, beaux ; also nouns ending in al, 
ail, not followed by e final (ale, aile), make their plural by 
changing al, ail, into aux ; as travail, travaux ; mal, maux. 
These nouns, ciel, ceil, aieul, also make their plural in x; 
cieux, yeux, aieux. These rules are also applicable to the 


When the adjective is employed as an attribute, it is inde- 
clinable, but when it occurs in a qualifying phrase as an 
epithet, it becomes declinable ; so that the same adjective is at 
one time indeclinable, at another, declinable. We say, bet 
SSater gut tjl, the father is good; bie Gutter gut tjl, tJie mother 
is good; baS $inb gut tfl, the child is good, &c. &c. But when 
it is employed as an epithet, it is declined as follows : 

1st. If the adjective immediately precedes the noun, an>3 is 
not itself preceded by either the article definite or indefinite, 
or any other declinable word, it is declined thus : 


Norn. Gen. Dat. Arc. 

Mas. utctyf gutetf (guten), gutem, gutetu 
Fern, ute, guter, guter, gute. 

Neut. ute$, gates (guten), gutem, guteS. 

* An accented vowel (a, t 6, &c.) is long ; unaccented, is short. 

j- Good, of good, &c. 



Mas. Fern. Neut. ute, guter, guten, gute. 
2d. "When the adjective is preceded by the definite article, . 
or Bonu other determinate word, it is declined as follows : 


Nom. Gen. Dak Ace. 

Mas. ute, guten, guten, guten. 
Fern, ute, guten, guten, gute. 
Neut. ute, guten, guten, gute. 


Mas. Fern. Neut. uten, guten, guten, guten. 
3d. When preceded by the indefinite article, eitt, or any of 
the possessive pronouns, mein, my; betn, thy; fein, his, her; 
unfer, our ; euer,yowr; itjr, their; and lein, any, it is declined 
in this wise : 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. uter, guten, guten, guten. 
Fern, ute, guten, guten, gute. 
Neut. uteS, jpiten, guten, guteS. 
9&~ Participles are declined in the same manner. 


The Spanish and French adjectives are indeclinable, and 
only form their plural in order to be of the same number as 
the noun to which they are attached, according to the rules 
laid down on page 253. 

The Spanish and French participles conform to the same 
fules as their adjectives. 

N. B. The adjective must be of the same gender, number, 
and case as the noun to which it is attached in all the three 
tongues. _____ 



jDtefer, bfefe, fciefeS, (hie, haec, hoc, Lett. ; ofro?, ovnj, f ov*o, 
<7r.) this, these ; declined like guter. 

3ener, jene, jeneS, (ille, ilia, illud, Lett.; lxtiros,+j, ->, GV.) 
that, those; declined in the same manner. 


>er, tie, bag, used as a pronoun, instead of btefer, in imita- 
tion of the Gre^k (see page 153, Gr. Gram.), is thus declined: 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. >er, bejjen, bem, ben. 
Fern. He, beren, ber, bte. 

Neut. )ag, beffen (bef,) bent, bag. 


Mas. Fern. Neut. )ie, beren (berer), benen, bte. 

jDerjentge, this, that, those; berfelfce, the same, are compounds. 
The first part of the words, ber, follows the declension of the 
article, while the other part follows the declension of the 

otdjer, such, like, declined like biefer. 


Este (mas.), esta (fern, sing.), this; indeclinable. 
Estos (mas.), estas (fern, plu.), these; indeclinable. 
Ese (mas.), esa (fern, sing.), thalj indeclinable. 
Esos (mas.), esas (fern, plu.), those ; indeclinable. 
Also, esto (neut. sing.), this, this thing, any thing; indeclinable. 
And eso, (neut. sing.), that, that thing, any thing; " 
[NOTE. All these adjectives are indeclinable, and follow the 
general rule in forming their plural to agree with their nouns.] 


Mas. Fern. Mas. fern. 

Ce, cet, cette, this; ces, these. 

Celui, celle, that; ceux, celles, those. 

Cel.ii-la, celle-15,, the former; ceux-la, celles-la, the former. 

Celai-ci ; celle-ci, the latter; ceux-ci, celles-ci, the latter. 


SB e I cfy e r, who, ichich, what; thus declined : 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. 2BcId)er, rcelcfyeS, ft element, n>eld)en. 
Fern. SCelcfye, ivelcfyer, tvelcfycr, tuelcfye. 
Neut. 2BeId)e$, ttelcfyetf, melcfyem, iueld)e$. 


Mas Fcm. Neut. 2i3eld)e, welder, it>eld>cn, 


535 e f, who ? toaS, what? thus declined : 

Norn. Gen. Dat Ace. 

Mas. Fern. 2Ber, e|T in (wp)/ toent, en. 


Quien, que, who? which? &c., is declined by being placed 
after the same particles as the definite article el. 
Cual (sing.), cuales (plu.) both genders, which ? 
Quo" (both genders and numbers), what ? 


Quel, quclle, quels, quelles, which? what? declined by placing 
oefore it the same particles that are placed before the article 
le, la. 

Qui (of both genders and numbers), declined in the same 
manner. Quoi, what; like que. 


SBeldjeS, which, that; declined same as tuetdjeS. 
2Ba3, which, what ; like a3. 
0, who, whom; indeclinable. 


En, it, them, so; indeclinable. 

Y, it, so ; relating to something before it ; indeclinable. 

Le, it, &c., indeclinable. 

Ce qui, that which ; thus declined : 

Nom. Ce qui, that which. Dat. Ce a quoi, that to which, 
Gen. Ce dont, that of which. Ace. Ce que, that which. 
[J'ai oublie" ce dont vous me parliez, / have forgotten thtit 
if which you were speaking to me.'] 

The pronoun cuyo is used as a preconjunctive or interroga- 
tive. It always agrees with the thing possessed ("not with the 
possessor), in gender, number, and case. \_Whosepens art 
these ? Guy as sou estas plumas ? Whose Look is this ? ; Cuyo 

es cst libro ?] 

* Relatives. 



Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Sing. 3$, I; nteinr.', my, mine, of me ; ntir, me, to me; mid), me, 
Plu.2Gir,iw; unfer, our, ours; un$, us, to us; un3, us. 

)tt, thou. 

Sing. 2)u, ?Ao ; bettter, thine, ofthee ; fcir, $ee, to ihee ; btdj, $e. 
Plu. 3r,you,ye; tntr f yours, of you; tn^,you } toyou; md),you. 

Sr, fie, t f he, she, it. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

r, he; fetner, his; tfym, Aim, to Aim; tfott, Aim. 
te, sAe; i^rcr, hers; ifyr, Aer, to Aer; fte, her. 
&$,it; feiner, t/s; i^m, it, to it; tyn, it. 


ic, they, itjrer, theirs; i^ncn, <Aem, to *Aem; ftc, /Aem. 
The reflective pronoun has no nominative, and is thus 
declined : 

Gen. Dat Aec. 

Mas. (Seiner, of one's seJf; fid), to one' s self ; ftd), one's self. 
Fern. 3fyrcr/ of one's self; fidj, to one's self; $$, one's self. 
Neut. (Seiner, of one's self; ftd), to one's self; fid), one's se//*. 


3tjrer, of themselves; flrf), to themselves; fhJj, themselves. 

[NOTE. The word fctbfl, or fcltcr, often added to the personal pro- 
nouns, and answers the place of our word self; as id) fclbft, myself, 

The pronouns Sftan, owe; 3emanb, some one; Sftemanb, no 
one, take e3 in the genitive, and en in the dative and accusa- 
tive. Occasionally^also, they are used indeclinable. 

StWdS, something ; SttcfytS, nothing, are indeclinable. 

Stner, some one; Reiner, any cne, are declined like Lho ad- 
jective, guter. 


Yo, I. 

Nom Gen. ' Dat Ace. 

M. F. Yo /; de mi, of me; d mi ; to me; a mi, me. 


Mas. Nos, nosotros, we; de nosotros, of us; a nosotros, nos, 
to us ; d nosotros, nos, vs. 

Fcm Nosotras, we; de nosotras, of us; d nosotras, nos, to us; 
4 nosostras, nos, us. 

Tii, thou. 
M. F. Tii,* thou; de ti, ofthee; & ti, te, to thee; & ti, te, thee. 


Mas, Vos,* vosotros, ye, you ; de vosotros, of you; d vosotroa, oa^ 
to you ; d vosotros, os, you. 

Fern. Vosotras, ye, you ; de vosotras, of you ; d vosotras, as, 
to you ; d vosotras, os, you. 

El, he; Ella, sAe. 

Mas. El, he; de 61, of him; d 61, le, se, to him.; d 61, le, lo, him. 
Fern. Ella, sAe; de ella, of her; della,le, se, to her; d ella, la, her. 


Mas. Ellos, they; de ellos, of them; d ellos, les, se, to them; & 

ellos, los, them. 
Fern. Ellas, /Aey; de ellas, of them; d ellas, les, se, to them; 

d ellas, las, them. 

The reflective pronoun has no nominative, and is thus de' 

Norn, (ten. Dat 

De sf, of one's self; d si, se, to one's self; d si, se, one's self. 
N. B. Plural is declined like singular. 


Je, moi, I. 

Je,f moi,J /; de moi, of me, my, mine; , moi, to me; me> 
moi, me.~\ 


Nous, me ; de nous, of us, ours ; & nous, to us ; nous, us. 

* Tfi, TOB, are seldom used in Spanish. Usted, (abbreviated U ) 
takes its place, except in very familiar conversation. 

f Used in all cases before the verb. 

J Used, 1st, After an intransitive verb ; as c'est moi, it is 7, for 
c'est je ; c'est lui, it u he, instead of c'est il ; ce sont eux, it is they, 
or, they are. 2d, After an imperative mood, if it is affirmative, in- 
Btead of me ; as donnez-moi, give me ; leve-toi, raiet thyself; but if the 
imperative is negative, it follows the general rule and takes me; M 
ne me donnez pas, do not give me; ne te leve pas, do not raise up. 


Tu, toi, thou. 
Tu,* toi,| thou; de toi, of thee ; b, toi, to thee; te, toi,f thee, 


Vous, you, ye; de vous, of you', & YOUS, to you ; vous, you. 

II, elle, on, fe, sA, one. 

Mas. II,* lui,f fo ; de lui, of him ; & lui, to him; le, lui,"f- Aim. 
Fern. Elle, she ; d'elle, of her ; a elle, to her ; la elle, her. 
Neut. On, one, $<?y, he, somebody, anybody, (indefinite inde- 


Mas . Us,* eux,"}" they ; d'eux, of them ; leur, h, eux, to then j 

les, eux, them. 
Fern. Elles, they ; d'elles, of them ; h, elles, to them; elles, them.. 

The pronoun reflective, soi, is declined by adding the pre- 
position d and de. 

N. B. In imitation of the German and English, we fre- 
quently find meme attached to the personals, which we 
translate self; as moi-meme, myself, &c. 



9ft e in, my. 

$fte\n,my; mtine$,ofmy; mnnem,tomy; mcinen, my. 
SJMne, my ; metner, of my; ntetner, to my; rneine f my. 
ein, my; jneineS, of my ; meinem, to my ; meine, my. 


C; my; ntefncr, of my ; tneinen, to my; mcine, my. 

Unfer, unfcrc (or, unfrc), wnfer, our, ours. 

etn, bctne, tietn, thy, thine. 

(Euer, euere (or, cure), euer, your, yours. 

@dn, feme, fetn, his, her, its. [Used when the 
came of the possessor is masculine or neuter]. 

3tyr, tfyte, tfyr, his, hers, its. [Used when the 
name of the possessor is feminine]. 

3f)r, ifyre, U)r, their, theirs. [For the plural of 
ffin and tfyr, and for all the three genders]. 
* See emit, (note f, P- 259). f See ana, (note f , p. 259). 


When the adjective mine relates to an antecedent, or agrees 
with a noun previously mentioned; as this is your hat, but 
where is mine? the word mine is represented in German by 
meiner, meiner, meineS, or by ber, fete, ba<3 meintge. 

2fteiner, nteiue, meineS, mine, that of mine. 

Unferer, unfere, unfereS, ours, that of ours. 

>er, bie, bag nteimge, mine, that of mine. 

Dcr, bte, ba$ unfrige, ours, that of ours. 

cr, tie, las? beintge, thine, that of thine. 

3)er, bie, bas eurige, yours, that of yours. 

Der, tie, ba3 feinige, his, her, its. [Used if A ho 
name of the possessor is masculine or neuter]. 

>er, bie, bag ifyrige, his, her its, theirs. [U&cd 
if the name of the possessor is feminine, or if the substantive 
for which they stand is plural]. 


Mi, my. 
Mi, my ; de mi, of my ; d mi, to my ; mi, & mi, my. 


Mis, my ; de mis, of 'my ; 4 mis, to my; & mis, my. 
Tu* (sing.), tus* (plu.), thy ; declined as above. 
Su (sing.), sus (plu.), his, hers, its; declined as above. 
Nuestro, -a, -os, -as (mas. fern, plu.), our ; " u 
Vuestro, -a, -os, -as (M. F. sing, plu.), your; " " 
Su (sing.), sus (plu.), their; " " 

The Spaniards, like the Germans, use some of these adjec- 
tives with the definite article prefixed, thus : 
Mas. El mio, mine; del mio, of mine; al mio, to mine; el or 

al mio, mine 

Fern. La mia, mine; de la mia, of mine ; & la mia, to mine; 
la or a la mia, mine. 

* In all god society, and ordinary conversation, the Spaniard 
makes use of de ut'ed, cr de utteds, (abbreviated de U.), instead of 
tv, tus, &c. 



Mas. Los mios, mine; de los mios, of mine; a los mios, to 

mine; los or a los mios, mine. 
Las mias, mine; de las mias, of mine; a las mias, to 

mine; las or d las mias, mine. 

And el tuyo, la tuya, thine; el suyo, la suya, his, hers; 
el nuestro, la nuestra, ours; el vuestro, la vuestra, yours; el 
suyo, la suya, theirs, with their plurals ; los tuyos, las tuyas, 
thine ; los suyos, las suyas, his, hers ; los nuestros, las nuestras, 
ours ; los vuestros, las vuestras, yours ; los suyos, las suyas, 
theirs, are all declined the same as el mio. 


Mon, my ; ton, thy; son, his, hers, its; notre, our; votre, 
your; leur, their; are indeclinable, and add s to form the 
plural. Mon, ton, son, though masculine, are used before 
all feminine nouns commencing with a vowel or mute h; as, 
mon heur, my hour ; ton ignorance, thy ignorance ; son assu- 
rette, his or her assurance. 

Mien, mine, is declined by prefixing the definite article, 
mienne (fern.), miens (mas. plu.), miennes (fern, plu.) ; tien, 
thine; sien, his, hers, its; notre (mas. and fern, sing.), notres 
(mas. and fern, plu.), our, ours; votre (mas. and fern, sing.), 
votres (mas. and fern, plu.), your, yours; leur (mas. and fern, 
sing.), leurs (mas. and fern, plu.), theirs, are all declined in the 
same manner as mien, and cannot be used in any case without 
the article. In imitation of the German, these adjectives re- 
late to an antecedent noun, with which they agree in gender, 
cumber and case. 



Pres. Imp. Perf. Plup. 1st Fut. 2d Fut 

Ger. -e. te. haOe ge fjattc QCS nxtbe. -en nxrbc. } 


Sp. -o. ba,*ia,f he,*habia.f liabia, r. habre do. 

Fr. -r, re. ai(ions,fl a,*i,fu,2ai. avals, eus. er. aurai. 

Eng. do- -ed. have. had. shall, shall have. 


Ger. -e. (e) te. babe QCS fyitte $es wetbe. Like Indio, 

Sp. -o. ase,*iese. All others like Indicative. 

Fr. Like Indicative. 

Eng. may. might. may have, might have, shall, shall have. 



Ger. rofirbc en. tofirbc ,qc t fja&en. 

Sp. 1st, aria,* eria,f iria.g 2d, ara,* 1st, habria. 2d, hubier*. 

iera,f iese,f ase.f 

Fr. rai- (ions,^[ -iez.J) aurai, aasse, -4. 

Eng. should. should have. 

2d. 3d. 1st 2d. 3d. 

Ger. (e). -e, cr. -en mit. -t -en ftc. 

Sp. -a tfi -e 61. -mos noso- -d vos- -en ellos. 

tros otros. 

Fr. -e. qu'il -e. -ons. -er. qu'ils -nt. 

Eng. do thou. let him. let us. do ye. let them. 


German. Spanish. French. English. 

Pres. -en. -ar, -er, -ir. er, ir, oir, re. tc. 

Perf. fiaben. haber -do. avoir. to have. 


Pres. -enb. -do. nt. -bg. 

Past. -t. habiendo, -do. 4. -d having 


Sing. Plu. Sing. Plu. Sing. Plu. 

1st. c. en. 0, a, e, i. mas. The personal terminations of the 
2d. ji. t, en. s, ste. is. French are numerous, and are 

8d. t, en. en- a, e, o. an, en. determined by the pronoun. 

* lei Conjug. f 2d Conjug. \ 3d Conjug. fl 1st person plurmi. 

1 2d person plural. 



ser (or) estar ; etre, to be. 
@Ctcnt> (or) nxfcnfc ; siendo (or) estendo ; e"tant, being. 


Ger. 3d) fctn, l>u bift, cr tfr, rotr finb, ifjr fc'tb, ftc finb. 
Sp. Yo soy, tu eres, el, la es, nosotras somos, vosotros sois, ellos son. 
Sp. Yo estoy, tfl estas, el, la esta, " estamos, " estais, " estan. 
Fr. Je suis, tu es, il, elle est, nous sommes, vous etes, ils, elles sont. 
Eng. I am, thou art, he, she, is, we are, you are, they are. 

3d) roar, tu n>Gr(e)ft, cr roar, rotr roarcn, ifjr roar(c)t, fie roarcn. 
Yo era, tu eras, el era, nosotros e"ramos, vosotros e"rais, ellos eran. 
Yo estaba, tu estabas, el estaba, nosotros estabamos, vosotros estabais, 

ellos estaban. 

Yo fui, tu fuiste, el fiie", nosot. fuimos, vosot. fuisteis, ellos fueron. 
"Estuve, "estuviste, "estuvo, "estuvimos, " estuvisteis, "estuvieron, 
J'^tais, tu 6tais, il e"tait, nous ^tions, vous 6tiez, ils e"taient. 
Je fus, tu fus, il fut, nous fumes, vous futes, ils furent. 
I was, thou wast, he was, we were, you were, they were. 


SHngcnxfcn^lnft gerocf^cn/iflgcroefcn^nt) gcrocfcn^rfctt, &c., jlcfinb, 

He sido, has sido, ha sido, hemos sido, habeis sido, han sido. 

He estado, has estado, ha estado, hemos estado, habeis estado, han 


Ai e"te", as 6t6, a e"te", avons e'te', avez ^t^, ont 6t6. 
Have been, hast been, has been, have been, have been, have been. 

2Bor gcroefcn/nxirdOf^&c., tva^&c., roarcn, &c., roarCOt, &c., roarcn, &o. 
Hube sido (or) estado, hubiste, &c., hubo, &c., hubimos, &c., hubis- 

teis, &c., hubieron, &c. 
Yo habia sido (or) estado, habias, &c., habia, &c., habiamos, &c. 

habiais, &c., hubian, &c. 
Avais (or) eus e'te", avais, eus, &c., avait, cut, &c., avions, eumes, &o 

aviez, &c. &c. &c. 

Had been, hadst been, had been, had been, had been, had been. 

2Bcrt>e fctn, tmrft fetn, rctrb jcttr, nxrbcn fctn, crt)ct,&c., tccrben, &c. 
Sere" (estare"), seras (estaras), sera (estara), ser^mos (ester^mos), 

serlis (estar^is), seran (esteran). 
Serai, seras, sera, serons, serez, seront. 
Shall be, shalt be, shall be, shall be, &c. &c. 

SBerbc gcrocfcn fctn, rctrft, &c., roirb, &c., rocrfccn/ &c., acrtct, &<$., 

rocrtcn, &c. 
Habr6 sido.f habrds sido,f habr4 sido.f habrdmos sido,f habr^ia 

8ido,f habran sido.f 

Aurai GtG, auras 6t, aura (ite", aurons dtt?, aurez 6t6, auront ^t4. 
Shall have, shalt have, shall have, shall have, &c. &o. 

A repetition of the pronoun is unnecessary. t Or esUdo. 



THE TEXT is not encumbered by too much literalism; 
and great pains have been taken to use correct expressions. 
Those words connected in a brace belong to one phrase, and 
are for the most part idiomatic expressions. All the notes to 
the references through the text explaining expressions, etc. 
will be found at the close of each part. The small figures are 
guides to the literal translation : thus enabling a person ac- 
quainted with one, to translate correctly the other three languages. 

Inasmuch as there exist certain sounds in tfie foreign tongue* 
u*iich we do not have in English, the following table will be 
very important to him who has no teacher. 


GIj, $ (guttural), represented in fig. pron. by CH. 
< (like sh), ' " " " sh. 

GKlikek), " " " k. 

), " " oe. 

ii, " " " ue. 

2It, 09, et, (1), " " " t. 

2iu, eu, " oi. 


$", represented in figured pronunciation by ny. 
LI, " " ly. 


TJ, represented in figured pronunciation by ue. 

Eu, " " oe. 

The nasals " " ng. 

Oi, oix, &c. " " " ucaw. 

3, " " zh. 

The accents have been arranged according to the actual pro- 
nunciation. This (~) over a vowel denotes the vowel to be 
long; (~) is short; and (~) is the broad accent. Where it 

was thought necessary, the word has been divided into syllables. 




3n cinem Sucfytoben. 

nennen 4 ie 3 btefes 5 ? 
Vee nenen see deses? 

<$* ifP ein 3 

Ase ist ine shahl. 

Vee feel istder prise? 

Tsane dollars. 

SBetdje 1 Sinlaufc 3 Jsaten 3 <5ie 4 
Velcha ine-koifd b hah-ben see 

in 8 Sonbon 7 gemacfyt 5 ? 
t'tt Lundiin gemdCHt f 

36 1 faufte 9 eine 3 2lu3tt>a1jt 4 
^A Jcowftd Ina owswahl 

on 5 pt^en 6 , iBanbern 7 , 

spitsen, bendem, musd- 

9 , SGoUeitjlojfcn 10 , 
Tcalicos, ucolenstvfen, 
11 ; sMhls; 

oond fun Paris Inen ballen 

ier 18 fdjonflen 20 , itnb 21 
<?er sJioensten, oond 

rcic^jlen 83 Siic^cr 33 , JlaftmtrS", 
risJie-ten faecher, kasemers, 

tt, f. tt>. 25 , It. f. JW. 38 c 

@te 2 onnenf^frme 4 ? 
Ifahben see sunensheermd f 

fd)6ne s < 

Ish hafibu sure shocnd sunen- 
fd)irme 8 sheerma, 

Tienda de paHo y di lienzo. 

I Como 1 se 3 llama 31 * eso 5 ? 
komo say lyalvaidh, dad ? 

Es 1 - 8 un s chal 4 . 
Es oon dial. 

I Cual 1 es 9 el 3 precio 4 ? 
Quahl es el praihed? 

Diez 1 pesos 9 . 
De-dth pdsos. 

iQue 1 articulos a ha 3 comprado* 
Aa articoolos ah comprado 

U. 4 en 8 Londres 7 ? 
Oosted. en Londres ? 

lie comprado 1 * 2 un 3 surtido* 
A comprdhdo oon soortiao 

de 5 encages 8 , cintas 7 , museli- 
dd encdhes, thintds, moosdlte- 

nas 8 , nas, 

zaraza 9 , lana merina 10 , 
sarasa, lan-ah mereenah 
chales"; chaldse ; 

yia (J e i3 Paris" un 15 cantidad 18 
e da Paris oon cantedad 

de 17 panos 93 y casimires 94 , muy 
dd panyos e casemeres, mwy 

hermosos 20 y 21 muy ricos 28 , 
ermosos e mwy rekos, 

etc. 95 etc. 98 et cetera 28 . 

jTiene 1 - 3 U. a quitasoles 4 ? 
Te-dnd oosted kitasolis f 

Tengo 1 ' 9 quitasoles 8 muy 4 her- 
Tengo kitasules mwy ft*- 
mosos 5 mdsos 



Magasin It drops. 

Comment 1 ceci 3 s'appelle 4 -t-il ? a 
Comdng sesy s'apel - t-il ? 

C' 1 est a un 8 schale 4 . 
S' ate ung shdl. 

Quel 1 en& est a le 8 prix 4 ? 
Kel any a luhpree? 

Dix 1 piastres 9 . 
Dee pyastr. 

Quelles 1 emplettes' avez s -vous* 
Kel - z-ang-plet avy - voo 

faites 5 a 8 Londres 7 ? 
fat ah Londr f 

J'ai achete" 1 * * un s assortment* 
Zh'd ashtd ung asortimdng 

de* dentelles 8 , de rubans 7 , de 
duh ddngtel, duh mebang, duh 
mousselines 8 , moosleen, 

de calicos 9 , d'dtoffcs de laine 10 , 
duh calico, d'etof duh Ian, 
de schales"; duh shal; 

et u a 13 Paris 14 , le 18 plus 1 " beau 80 
d ah Pary, luhplue bo 

et** le plus pr&ieux 23 choix 18 
a luh pine presyoe shwaw 

de draps 23 , de casimirs 94 , 
duh drah, duh casimeer, 

etc." etc. 26 etc. 28 

Tenez 1>3 -vons* des parasols 4 ? 
Teny - voo dd parasol f 

J' 1 enc ai 2 de 3 tres 4 -beaux 5 
Zhang d dvh trd - bo 

At a dry-goodt itore. 
What 1 do 3 you 8 call 4 this 5 ? 

It 1 is 8 a 8 shawl 4 . 

What 1 is a the 8 priee* ? 

Ten 1 dollars'. 

What 1 purchases' did 3 you* 

make 5 in 8 London 7 ? 

I 1 bought* an 8 assortment* 

of 5 laces 8 , ribbons 7 , muslins', 

prints 9 , de-laines to , shawls"; 

and" from" Paris 14 , a 15 lot 18 

of 17 the" most 19 beautiful 
and 21 

rich 23 cloths' 8 , casimeres 84 , 

&c." &c* 

Do 1 you 9 have 3 parasols 4 ? 

I 1 have' some 8 very* fine* para- 





gu 7 etnem 8 fe^r 9 ntetrtgen 10 5)retfe 11 , 

67 un 8 precio" muy 9 equita- 
ah oon prdtheo micy dkita- 
tivo 10 . te-vo. 

Hahben see flanela f 

3a, 1>9 fofl 3 W 3fjnen 8 

Yah, soil ish e-nen velcJid 
getgcn 5 ? tsiken? 

Sa 1 , rotfjert 8 glanefl 4 . 

Yah, roten flannel. 

^ U. s bayetas 4 (frane- 

Te-dndoosted bah-ydtas (franc- 
las)? a 

nut 3 ftetfjen 4 . 
Ish hahbd noor vise-sen. 

V bag 9 gettugt 315 ntdjt 4 . 
O, das gdnvezht nisht. 

3d) 1 mu 9 etwas 4 rotten 5 Jjatien 3 ,. 
TsA moos etwds roten hahben. 

(Ste 1 fonnen 9 tfyn 4 ju 5 einem 8 
>&e koenen een tsoo i-nem 

Tengo 13 algunas. ;Le mostra- 
Tengo, dlgoonds. ltd mostrah* 

r6 s a U. 8 algunas 7 ? 

rd ah U. dlgoonds f 

Si 1 , las de a rojo 8 . 
>Sfee, las dd rdho. 

No 3 tengo 1 ^ mas que 3 blancas* 
No tengo mas kd bldnkas. 

No 1 ' 9 me 3 bastan* 5 . 
No md bahstdn. 

Necesito 1 ' 3 * 3 algunas 4 rojas 5 . 
Netheseto algoonas rohas. 

Puede 9 U. 1 llevarlas 3 ^ al 5 -* 
Pwddd oosted lyd-varlahs dl 

Bringen 8 , unb 8 tljtt 10 ge* tintorero 7 , y 8 hacerlas 9110 
Ferler bringen, oond een gd- teentordro e hatherlahs 
farbt u kfommen 9 ./er6ioa^o?7itf. tenir**. td-nyeer. 

Das 1 tviirbe 9 gu 4 foflfptelig 5 
Das vnerdd tsoo kostspeelizh 

unb 8 ju 4 mu^fatn 7 fetn 8 
teoo muesawi si/ie. 

Es<5 1 me costaria 213 - 4 demasia- 
^.soT/id costdreeah ddmahseah- 
do 5 , <fo, 

y 9 seria* 3 tambien demasiado 
eseryah tambyen ddmahseahdo 
tedioso 7 .b ta-de-oso. 

1 '*, fo tDie 3 * 4 @te 5 e3 toun Muy 1 bien 9 , sea 3 como 4 loqui- 
so vee see dse zme.t Mtcy byen, sd-ah komo lo kee- 
ere 6 U. 4 era U. 

f$en. 8 3|VfonjVnod>Gtoa<3 l0 ' 11 < ^Quiere 14 U. 13 algo - 10 
Tiocn etvds Ket-erU oosted alyo 


&7 tres B -bas 10 prix 11 at 7 a 8 very 9 low 10 price". 

ah trd-bah pree. 

Avez^vous 3 de la 3 flanelle 4 ? Have 1 you 8 any 3 flannels* ? 
Avay-voo duh lah&flanel? 

Oni. Vous 8 en 7 montrerai- 3 ' 4 I 1 have". Shall 3 1* show 5 you 1 
We. Vooz - any monytrerd- some 7 ? 
je 4 ? zhuh ? 

Oui 1 , de la 3 rouge 3 . Yes 1 , some' red 3 flannel 4 . 

TP2, d' la roozh. 

Je 1 n' 3 ai a que 3 de la blanche 4 . I 1 have' only 8 white 4 . 
"Zhuh no, Jcuh d' la blangsh. 

Oh 1 , ce Vest pas mon aflFaire. O 1 , that' will 3 never 4 do 5 
O, suh n'd pah mong of are. 

Je 1 veux s>3 de la* rouge 5 . I 1 must' have 8 some 4 red 5 . 

Zhuh VOQ d' la roozh. 

Vous 1 n'avez 3 qu' a la 4 porter 3 You 1 can' take 3 it 4 to* a 8 
Voo n'avy k' ah lah pond 
chez 5 shd 

le 6 teinturier 7 ,* et 8 la 10 faire 8 dyer 7 ,and 8 have 9 it 10 coloured 11 . 
luh tanytueryd, d lah fare 
teindre". tangdr. 

Ce 1 serait 2 ^ trop 4 couteux 5 et 9 That 1 would' be 8 too 4 expen- 
Suh sird tro cootoe d sive 5 

trop ennuyeux 7 . and 8 troublesome 7 . 

tro enue-yoe. 

Soit.f A votre plaisir 31 * 1516 . Very 1 well 3 , just 3 as 4 you* 
Sicdh. AJi votr pldzeer. 

Desireriez t4 -vous 13 autre 9 choose 8 . Is 7 there 8 any thing 10 

Udzeer-er-ya-vwz d-tr 



rcaS 13 @te ra tjeitte 15 tyaben mod)* mas" hoy"? 

fd/is see hoita hahben moech- mas oy? 

ten 1 *? ten? 

ftt&ts 1 , metn ^err 3 , id) 4 Nada 1 mas 1 ahora a ,d senor, 1 
Hoita nix, mine her, ish Nahdahmdsah-drdh,sain-yor t 
n 6 ; c'dnkd eenen', 

after 7 tdj 8 tcrbe 9 in 13 etntgen 14 - 15 gracias 4 - 5 ' 8 ; pero 7 volvere 8 "" 
Cikbcr ish verdd in i-nizhen grathee-as ; pdro volva-rd 

iwtcber 13 ctnfprc^cn 10 ' 11 , en 13 pocas" dias 18 . 

Tahgen veeder ine-spreshen. en pokds de-as. 

S^ 1 werbe* 3^nen 6 ' 7 fe^r 4 Quedar^* 3 muy 4 agradecido* 

Ish verdd e-nen sdre Ka-ddhrdmwydgrdhdd-tJie-dd 

er6unben 5 fein 3 , mcin ^crr*. & 8 U 7 . 
ferboonden sine, mine her. ah oosted. 

D 1 , ntc^t 8 im 3 cringfien*,* ntctn No hay de que. 
O, nisht im geringsten, mine No i dd kd. 

uten 8 Jag 7 , tnetn 8 grcunb 9 . Buen 8 dia 7 , amigo 9 mio 8 . 

Gooten tag, mine frolnd. Bwen de-ah, ami-go me-6. 

uten 1 Jog 9 . Buen 1 dia 9 . 

Gooten Tag. Bwen de-ah. 

SBoIIen 1 (Ste a mt(^ 4 etn{ge 7 ^aIi!og 8 ^Kagame ver 1 " 6 algunas 7 

Vollen see mish i-nizhd Jcalikoes Ha-gahmd ver algoonas 

fc^en 516 laffen 3 , ntcin ^)err 9 ? telas pintadas 8 ,f senor 9 ? 

sa-dn Idssen, mine her ? tolas pintah-das, sainyor? 

Zit 1 bent 3 gropten 3 SSergnugen*. Con 1 muchisimo* 8 gusto 4 . 

Mit dcm groesten fergnuezhen. Kon moochisemo goosto. 

2Bie "iel* ifl 9 bet 3 $reti5 4 ? 'i A' como vende U. eso ? g 

Vee fed ist der prise f Ah komo vendd (7. dso f 

Die 1 *Pretfe* ftnb 3 toerfdjieben 4 , Los 1 precios 9 son 3 varios 4 , 

Dee pri-sd sind fersheeden, Los prd-the-os son var-e-os f 

i^rer 7 iite 9 cntfprcc^cnb 5 ' 8 .' en razon de 5 * 8 !* su 7 cualidad 8 . 
eo-rer guQtd mtsfreshend. enrah-thonddsooquahl-e-dtui. 


chose 10 ' u en ce moment 15 ; g else 11 that" you 13 wish 14 wt 
tJwze ang suh momdngf day 15 ? 

Ricn 1 , aujourd' hui 9 , monsieur, 8 Nothing 1 to-day 9 , sir 3 , 1 4 thank* 
Rydng, ozhoord'we, musyoe, 
je* vous 8 zhuh voo 

remercie 5 ; mais 7 j'aurai soin you 8 ; but 7 I 8 will 9 call 10 in u 
remerse; ma, zh'ord swawng 

de repasser 8 " 13 sous peu 13-l8 .li again" in 13 a 1 * few 15 days 18 . 
duh repdssd soo poe. 

Vous m'obligerez beaucoup 1 " 7 ,! I 1 shall 8 be 3 much 4 obliged* 
Voo m'obleezherd bdkoo, 

monsieur 8 . to 8 you 7 , sir 8 . 


Oh 1 , il n'y a pas de quoi* 8 - 4 ,* O 1 , not 3 at 3 all 4 , sir 5 . 
0, il n'ee ah pah duh guaw } 
monsieur 5 , musyoe. 

Bon 8 -jour 7 , mon 8 ami 9 . Good 8 day 7 , my 8 friend 9 . 

Bong zhoor, numg nammy. 

Bon^jour 8 . Good 1 day 9 . 


Voudriez^vous 8 bien me* faire 8 Will 1 you 8 3et 8 me 4 look 5 at 8 
Vood-rya -voo byang muh fare 

voir 5 des 7 calicos 8 , monsieur 8 ? some 7 prints 8 , sir 9 ? 
vwaw da Jcaleko, musyoe ? 

Avec 1 le 3 plus grand 3 ! plaisir 4 . With 1 the 9 greatest 3 pleasure 4 . 
Avck luh plu.Q grang pldzeer. 

De quel 1 prix 4 sont-ils 9 ? m What 1 is a the 8 price 4 ? 

Duh feel pree songl-v",? 

Le 1 prix 3 varie 3 - 4 The 1 prices 3 are* various 4 , 

Luhpree vdree 

suivant 5 - 8 la 7 qualite^.n according 5 to 6 their 7 quality'. 

iwce-vang lah kdhle-td. 


$ter l ijt a tin 3 tudf 4 , frfjr 5 fdjon 8 , Aqui 1 esta* una 3 pieza*, 
Heer ist ine stuek, sdre shoen, Ak-ki estah oonah pyd-thah, 

bellisima 518 , bellis-e-mah, 

fetn 7 im eroefce 8 , unb 9 bauer de tegido 8 , muy lindo 7 , y" 
fine im gd-vdbd, oond dower- da td-he-do, mwy Undo, 

tyaft 10 , fitr u nut 1 

haft, fuer noor tswi skill- doordblc, por solah-mentd dos 

(ngc 1 * nt) 15 fe^^Sent^ 18 , chelines 14 y 15 seis centavos. 1 * 

ingd oond sex sents. chdinenes e sd-is thentahvos 

SOBtrV er a erbtet(^en 3 ? ^Perdera su color 1 - * 3 ?i 

Veerd der ferbllchen ? Perdd-rah soo kdlor f 

O 1 , netn 9 , it^ 3 fjafce 4 i^n 8 fcIBfl 7 O 1 , no 8 , la 8 he* probado* yo^ 

0, nine, ish hahbd een selbst 0, no, lah d pro-bah-do yo 

(Sic 1 f onnen* fedjSjdjn 5 mismo. 7 Corteme*~*k 

gd-prdbpt. See koetien sextsdne mees-mo. Kor-td-md 

Sffen 8 a&meffett 4 ' 3 , unb 7 t^n 9 in 10 diez y seis 5 varas 6 , y 7 

elen dhbmessen, oond. een in dee-aith e sd-is varas, e 

metne 11 2Bo^nung ia / 5 f io. 13 (340 envielas 8 - 9 4 10 mi" casa 13 , 

mind vo-riung, nummero (tsoJiT) enve-d-lds ah me cdsah, 

42 1 * Paulus 18 calle 17 de San" Pablo 18 

tswi-oond-feertsig Powloos Icdld dd San PaMo 

eh-a^e 17 f^tcfen 9 . No. 13 42". 

strassd shiken. Nbomd-ro quahr-enfah e dos. 

gr 1 fott fogletd) 5 fljcfd^itf t 4 terbcn 3 , Le 1 enviere 2 * 4 d U. alpunto 5 .! 

aer sol sogllshe gdshitct verdtn. Ld enve-ard ah U. attpoonto. 

ttttr* 3>^ 8 W^ 7 He 1 - 9 comprado 3 hilo 8 , 

fsh hahbd meer tsveern oond d komprah-do e-lo, 

57abeln*, einen 9 gtnger^ut 10 , agujas 8 , dedal 10 , 

Nahdeln, i-nen fing-er-hoot, aligoohas, dd-daJ, 

, (Sdjeeren 13 , unb 1 * fe^r 18 cera u , unas tijeras", 
Vox, shd-ren, oond sdre thd-rah, oonds te-her-as, 

fetnen toff ju ^entben 18 y 14 telas 18 muy 18 finas 17 , 

/i-nn stoff tsoo hcmden 6 td-lds mwy fi-as f 


Voici 1 ' 9 une 3 piece 4 fort 5 belle 8 , Here 1 is 9 a 3 piece 4 , very 5 
Vwawse uen pe-ds for bel, 

tres fine 7 , i'un grand usage 10 , beautiful 8 , fine 7 texture 8 , and 9 
trd Jin, <Z Ung grangd uezozA, 

k 11 deux 13 chelines 14 durable 10 , for 11 only 13 two u 

ah doe sJtelin shillings 1 * 

six sola i5 , net.o and 15 sixpence 18 (six cents.) 

see sol, nd. 

La couleur passera li8 -t-elle 9 ? Will 1 it a fade 3 ? 
Ldh cooloer -passd-rah-t-el ? 

Oh 1 , non s , j' 3 en 8 ai 4 O 1 , no 8 , 1 3 have 4 tried 5 it fl 

0, nong zh'ang d 

fait l'e"preuve s . Donnez-m'en 1 " 4 myself. 7 You 1 may 3 
fay I'uhproev. Don-nd-m'ang 

seize 5 aunes 8 , measure 3 off 4 sixteen* 

sdze on 

et 7 envoyez*-les 9 a 10 ma" yards 8 , and 7 send 8 it 9 to 10 

e arig-voyd - Id ah mah 

residence", rue 17 saint 15 my" residence 13 , No. 13 42 14 

rese-dangs rue sang 

Paul 18 , numero 13 42 14 St." Paul 18 street 17 . 

Pole, numdro karangt-dis. 

Je vais vous les envoyer de- It 1 shall 3 be 3 sent 4 imme- 
ZJiuh vd voo Id-z-angvoyd duh diately 5 . 
suite s .p swit. 

Je 1 viens 3 de m' 4 acheter 3 du 5 I 1 have 3 bought 3 me 4 
Zhuh vydng duh m'dshtd c?ue 

fil 8 , des aiguilles 8 , un de^, some 5 thread 8 and 7 needles 9 , 
JU, dd - z- dgwil, ung dd, 

de la 11 cire 13 , une paire de a 'thimble 10 , some" bee swax", 
d' lah seer, uen pare dd 

ciseaux 1 *, et" de 15 tres 18 belle 17 scissors 13 , and 14 some" 
tlz-o, d duh trd lei 


gefaitft 3 . para camisas 18 .m 

gd-kowft. par ah kdmesas. 

Sftein 1 S3rui ;r a fjat 3 ein 5 neueS 8 Mi 1 hermano 3 ha 3 comprado 4 
Mine brooder hat ine noiyes Me ermdhno ah kom-prado 

3>aar 8 amafdjtn 7 ' 9 gefauft 4 . un 5 par 6 de 7 polaynas 9 nuevas. 8 
pahr gd-mdshen gd-kowft. oonpdhrddpold-enasnoo-d-vds. 

Sfteine 1 ante a tyat 3 fo efcen 4 Mia 1 tia 9 acaba 3 - 4 n de com 
Mind tdhntd hdht so aben Me-dh te-dh dk-alibdh dd kom- 

ctnen 8 fc^onen 7 neuen 8 ^>ut 9 prar s un 8 sombrero 9 hermoso 7 y 

i-nen shoenen noi-yen hoot prahr oon som-brd-rd er-mo-so e 

riftt 10 etner 11 Ileinen 13 Blauer 13 nuevo 8 , con 10 Tina" garzoti- 

mit i-ner kli-nen blow-er nwd-vo, kon oonah gartJiote- 

gebcr 14 gefauft 5 , toel^eS 15 fte 17 ca 12 - 14 azul 13 que 15 la 17 embell- 

fd-der gd-kowft, vetches see kah dth-ool kd lah pinbel- 

auf 18 cine 1 ' 9 fdjotte 20 Slrt 21 jtert 16 , ice 10 - 18 muchisimo 1 * 30 - 21 . 

owf i-nd shoend art tseert. e-thd moo-chis-e-mo. 

3^* foitrbe 2 mic^ nic^t 3 luunbcrn 4 No 3 serid 1 ' 2 sorprendido 4 ,o si 5 

Jsh vuerdd mish nisht voon-dern No sd-re-ah sor-pren-de-do se 

Jcnn s i^r^^Scmanb 8 ' 7 fctnen 10 algum)* 7 la 13 - 13 cortejaria 8 " 11 ; 

ven eer yd-mdnd si-iien dlyoo-no lah kor-td-hdr-yah; 

mac^te 8 - 9 j ungcac^tet 1 * aunque 14 sea 15 - 18 una 18 don- 

dntrdg maCHtd; oongd-dCHtet ah-oon-kd sd-ah oonah don- 

f!c 15 dne 18 ganj^attc^aungfer 20 celliduena 19 - 20 Perdone- 

see i-nd gants dltd young fer thelye-doo-enyah Per-do-nd' 

ifl te 3(^ S1 Bitte 29 urn (SntfcMb* me 91 - 23 Queria 91 - 81 

ist Ish bittd oom ent-slioold- md Kd-re-ali 

igung 33 id) 34 tneinc 25 a fe^r 27 decir 96 muy 27 adelantada" 

egung ish mi-nd sure dd-thecr mwy ddeldntahda 

ttorgeruiJt 28 im 28 STIter 30 en 29 anos 30 . 

im &lter. en dnyfis. 


toile pour faire des chemises' 8 . very 18 fine 17 shirting 18 . 
twaicl poor fare da sJimis. 

Mon 1 frere a a 3 achet4 4 une 5 paire 9 My 1 brother 2 has 3 bought* 
Momj frare ah ashty uen. pare 

de 7 geutres 9 neuves 8 . a 5 pair 6 of 7 new 8 gaiters 9 . 

duh yQQtr noev. 

Ma 1 tante 8 vient 3 ** d'acheter 5 My 1 aunt 3 has 3 just* 
Mah tangt vyangt d'ashtd 

un 8 beau 7 chapeau 9 neuf 8 , purchased 3 a 8 beautiful 7 

ung bo shap-o noe/j 

orne" d' 10 une" plume 1 * bleue 13 new 8 hat 9 , with 10 a 11 little 18 
Srnd d' uen pl\iQm Wue 

qui ls la 17 rend 16 - 18 blue 13 plume 14 that" sets 1 " 

Tee lah rang 

tres jolie 19 - 80 - 81 . her 17 off" in 18 fine 20 style 8 *. 

trd zholy. 

Je 1 ne 3 serais 9 point 3 4tonn6*, I 1 shouldn't 2 - 3 wonder* if 5 
Zhuh nuh sera pwawngt d-ton-d } 

que 5 quelqu' 8 un 7 lui 1 * u some 8 one 7 were 8 paying 9 his 1 * 

huh kelk' ung IwS 

fit la cour 8 " 11 ; quoiqu' 1 * addresses" to" her 13 ; not- 
fe lah koor; Jcwawk withstanding 14 

elle 15 soit 18 surann^e 191 20 q she" is 18 quite 1 * an 18 old 1 * 
el swaw suer-dn-d 

]Bien des pardons 81 " 23 r maid 90 I ai beg 18 pardon 8 

Byang dd pdrdong 

Jo 24 voulais 25 dire' 8 , I s * should 95 say 28 , quit*? 1 

Zhuh voo-ld , decr ) 

Sgee 28 - 30 . advanced* ii. att life 80 . 



3n etncn djncitetlabcn. ConunSasire. 

uten 1 Jag 9 , mein ^err 3 . Buenos 1 dias 9 , senor*. 

Gooten tag, mine her. Bwd-nos de-ds, sainyor. 

J^a'6en 1 @te 2 9t6cfe 4 3U s erlaufen 6 ? ^Tiene 1 U. 9 vestidos 4 que ven- 
HaJiienseerQekdtsooferkowfen? Te-dnd U. veste-dos kd ven- 
der 5 * 6 ? der f 

3ft 1 , mein ^err 9 , i$ 8 Ijafce 4 SRocfe 5 Si 1 , senor 9 , tengo 3 - 4 vestidos 1 

Yah, mine her, ish hahbd roe-kd Se, sain-yor, tengo veste-doa 

on 6 atfen 7 ortc 8 . SBelt^e 9 ^! 10 de 6 todos 7 generos 8 . i Que 9 

fun alien sortd. Velchd art dd todos hendros. Kd 

on u 3iod a futt 14 tdj u S^ncn 17 genero 10 de" vestidos 13 le mos- 
fun roek sol ish ee-nen hendro dd veste-dos Id mas~ 
tsiJcenf trar^-^^U. 17 ? trdrdahU.? 

etncn 9 ft^tBarjcn* g^<J 5 / Bien 1 , un 9 vestido fino 3 - 5 , y 
Noon, i-nen shicdrtsen frahk, Byen, oon vestedo fe-no } i 

Don feinem Jitdje 3 3t^ 8 tcnfe 7 negro 4 . Creo 6>7 este 8 ' 9 vestido 
fun fi-nern toocbd ish denkd nd-gro. Krd-o estd vestedd 

bag 8 tfl 9 am 10 ntobcrnflcn". de modo 11 . 

das ist ohm modernsten. dd modo. 

3e^t 5 ntdjt 1 ganj* fo 3 ntobern* No 1 es tan 3 de modo 4 ahora* 

Tetst nisht gants so modern No es tan dd modo ah-6-rah 

at3 8 ber 7 Uberroif 8 Ufcerrocf e 9 como 8 el 7 saco 8 los sacos 9 

ah der \\ober-rock ueber-roekd komo el sako Ids sakus 

me^r" gctragcn 19 . son 10 muy de modo"-". 

verden mare gd-trah-gen. son micy dd modo. 

Out 1 *', benn 3 , jcigen <Sie 4 nttr* Muy 1 bien 9 , enseneme 4 - 3 

Goot, den, tsi-ken see mcer J/<ry tyen, ensdin-yd-ma 

einen 8 iibcrrodf 7 . un 8 saco 7 . 

i-nen uzber-rok. oon sdko. 

r 1 tjl s ciner 3 ici 4 benfc 5 bad Aqui 1 esta 9 uno 3 que 8 viene 8 

Beer ist i-ner ish denkd das Ah-ke estah oo-no kd ve-end 

er 8 3^nen 7 pafjt 8 . bien & U. 8 P 

are eenen past. byin ah oosted. 


Avec un Tailleur. At a Tailor-shop. 

Bon jour 1 a . monsieur. 8 Good 1 morning 8 , sir 3 . 

BoiKj-zhojr, mus-t/oe. 

Avez^vous 9 des 3 habits 4 & Have 1 you 9 any 3 coats 4 to 8 
A vy - voo dd-z- abe -z-ah sell 8 ? 
vendre 8 ? vangdr f 

Oui 1 J monsieur 9 ,j'ai 8 ' 4 des habits 5 Yes 1 , sir 9 , I 3 have 4 coats 8 D 
We, mus-yoe, zh'a dd-z-abe 

de 8 toutes 7 espece 8 . QueUe 9 every 7 description. 8 What 9 
duh toot - s- Ispes. Kel 

. sorte 10 d'habit 1113 rous 17 mon-~_ kind 10 of " a 19 coat 18 shall 14 1" 
sor d'abe voo mong- show 18 you 17 ? 
trerai-je 14 " 19 ? trera-zhuh ? 

Shbicn 1 , un a noir 4 de beau drap 3 . Well 1 , a 9 broadcloth 8 black 4 , 
Eh byang } ung nwawrduh bodrd. 

Celui-la 8 me 8 semble 7 plus 10 frock 5 I 6 think 7 that 8 is 9 
Selwe-luh muh sangbl pl\\Q~z- 

a la mode". most 10 fashionable". 

ah lah mod. 

Pas t autant 3 que 8 le 7 paleteau 8 Not 1 quite 3 so 3 fashionable* 
Pali-z-d-tang ka luh paleto 

les paleteaux 9 sont 10 now 5 as 6 the 7 sack 8 sacks' 

Id paletd song 

plus d' usage"* 13 . are 10 much" worn 19 . 

>/ue d'ne-zazh. 

Shbien 1 - 9 , done, 3 faites moi Very 1 well 9 , then 8 , show 4 aae* 
Eh byang, dongk,fat mwaw 

voir*- 5 un 8 paleteau. 7 a 8 sack 7 . 

vwaw-r-ung pdlcto. 

En voici 1 ' 9 un s , qui 8 vous 8 Here 1 is 9 one* 1 I 4 think* vwawsy ung, kti voo 

siera 7 ' 8 , je 4 pense 5 . it 6 is r your 8 fit 9 

t^Srah } zhuh pangs. 


ID 1 , ttein, gcm$ unb gar mi)t !i ~* f S O 1 , de ninguna manera 2 " 4 ; es 5 * 9 

<?, nine, gants oond gar nisht, 0, dd neen-goona mdndrahj it 

er 5 ifl 6 iel 7 ju s grof} 9 er 10 ttrirb" demasiado 7 ' 8 audio 8 - 9 , 

are utfcel tsoo yrose are veerd dd-mds-e-ah-do ancho, 

nte" geniigen 13 , no me ira jamas 1 * ".q 

nee gd-n\3LQzlien. no md e-rah hdmds. 

Jptet 1 tjl a dn anbern 3 , ctn Aqui 1 esta 9 unotro 8 

Heer ist Ine andern, ine Ah-ke estah oon-o-tro 

Itetnercr* cr(u^cn@te 5 t)tcfcn 8 , mas pequeno 4 , pmebela 5 ' 8 U. s 
Mi-nerer -fersoochen see deesen. rnahspdkdnyo } proo-d-bdlah U. 

ifl 8 tejfer 3 er pafjt 8 fc^r 4 Es 1>s mejor 3 va muy bien 1 ^ 3 . 
Dee-ser ist besser aerpast sdre Ase md-hor vah mwy byen. 

gut 5 . 2Ca3 7 ben!cn 10 (Ste 9 i Que 7 le parece 8 " 10 de u eso M , 

goot. Vas denken see Ka Id pard-tlid dd, dso, 

3 , (S^neibcr 13 ? seSor sastre 13 ? 

ddrueber, shni - der f sainyor sastrd f 

(Er p0t 31)nen 1 - 3 fdjr* gut 5 , Va muy bien 1 - 3 ; muy 4 bien 5 , 

Are sit-st e-nen sdre goot, Vah micy byen ; micy byen, 

WdjtS 8 ciertamente 8 . Nada 9 pue- 

vaJir-lish. Proeshttzh nix the-ertamentd. Nail-dak pwd- 

fonntc 10 Bcflfer 12 ft^en". da 10 ir 7 mejor". 

koentd besser sitseti. dah eer mdJior. 

1 ifl 2 tcr 3 5)ret5 4 ? ^A como le vende U. ? 

V&s ist der prise? Ah kdmo Id vendd oosted f 

gr'fatragFnur^refjefjn^otfarS 5 Solamente 8 trece 4 pesos 5 . 

Are betregt noor dritsdne dollars. Sol-ah-mentd trd-thd pd-sos. 

* ffl* ganj 3 HtHg 4 . Es 1 - 8 muy 8 de barato 4 . 

Das ist (/ants billizh. Es mwy dd barahto. 

3^ 1 crfaufe s atle s mcinc 4 ^letter 5 Vendo 1 -* todos 8 mis 4 vestidos* 

hh ferkoTe/d olid mind kll-dcr Vendo todos mis vesteddt 


Oh 1 , non 9 , point 8 du s tout 4 . II* O 1 , not 9 at 3 all 4 ; it* 
0, nong, pwawng due too. 11 

a trop 8 d'ampleur 9 .s Cela 10 is 6 quite 7 too 8 large" it 10 
ah tro d'ang-ploer. S'lah 

ne me va pas 11 "" 13 . will 11 never 13 do 13 . 

null muh vah pah. 

En voici 1 ' 2 un .autre 3 Here 1 is 3 another 8 

Ang vicawsy ung-n-dtr 

plus e"troit 4 , essayez'-le 8 . smaller* try 5 this 6 . 
plne-z-etrwaw, essay -a -la. 

H 1 va 2 1 mieux 3 . ll sied k mer- That 1 is 3 better 8 very* fine* 
11 vah myoe. 11 syd-d-ah mer- 

veille*- 8 .n Qu' 7 en"- 12 pensez 10 - fit 8 . What 7 do 8 you 9 think 10 
vdlyuh. K' ang pangsa- 

vous 8 , monsieur le tailleur 13 ? of 11 it 13 , tailor 13 ? 
voo, musyoe luh tal-yoer ? 

ll sied & merveille 1 " 3 ;\ mer- Yery 1 fine 2 fit 3 . Very 4 fine', 
U syd ah mervalyuh ah mer- 

vielle** 5 , en v4rit6 8 . C'est un indeed. 8 Admirable 7 fit 8 . 
valyuh, ang veretd. S'd-t-ung 

chef-d'o3uvre,v on ne 9 saurait 10 Nothing 9 could 10 sit 11 better 1 *. 
shef-d'ocvr owgr nuh sd-rd 

rien 9 vous faire de mieux 11 ' 13 . 
ryany voo fare duh myoe. 

Quel 1 en est 9 le 3 prix 4 ? What 1 is 3 the 8 price 4 ? 

Kel ang a luh pree ? 

Ce 1 n'est 9 que 3 treize 4 piastres 5 . It 1 is 3 only 3 thirteen 4 dollars*. 
Suh n'd kuh trdze pe-astr. 

C^cst 9 bien a bon march6 4 . That 1 is 8 quite 3 cheap 4 . 
jS"a byang ah bong marshd. 

Jc 1 vends 3 tous 8 mes 4 habits* I 1 sell 2 all 3 my 4 clothes* 
Zhuh vang too md-z-abe - z- 


tttftg 6 , >te3 7 ifl 8 ber 9 
biliiy. Dees isi der 

ttoljlfeth 10 Saben". 
vole-Ji'ld laden. 

baratismos 8 . Aqui 7 esta 8 
baratismos. Ak-ke estah 

la 9 tienda u baratisima 10 . 
lah tyenda bardtisemah. 

ifi j bag 3 eft) 4 tdj 5 Aqui 1 esta 3 su s dinero 4 . 

Heer ist das geld ish Ak-ke estdh soo de-nd-ro. 

benfe 6 e3 7 ijt 8 rtcfyttg 9 . A"miparecer 5>0 es 7i8 equitativo 9 . 

denied dse ist rlsh-tizh. Ah me pardther es dkitahtevo. 

anj 1 ric^ttg 2 ,ntetn^)err 3 ;fo'ttten 4 Si 1 ' 3 senor 3 . Cuando 4 neoe- 
Gants rish-tizhj mine her ; solten Se, sdinyor. Quando nd-ihe- 

tc 5 irgcnb 7 Stttias 8 mrfjr 9 ju 10 sitara 5 ' 8 alguna 7 cosa 8 , 
see eer-kend etvaJis mare tsoo setdrah dlgoonah 

ineinem efc^aft 11 ' 1211 fcelangenb, hagame el favor de darme 
mi-nem gd-sheft bd~ldng-end } hdgdmd el fahvor dd ddrmd 

8 , fo lapn <ic e0 un3 la preferencia. 13 - 

gdbrowcnen, so Idsen see dse oons lah preferenthedh. 
JDijJen. 13 " 18 vissen. 

Sc^ 1 Wcrfcc 8 c3 4 tfyun 3 , metn^err. 5 Lo* hare 1 " 3 , senor 5 . 

Ish verdd dse toon, mine her. Ldh dh-rd, sain-yor. 

itten 6 9ftorgen 7 . Buen 6 dia 7 . 

Gooten morken. Bwen de-ah. 

<te s SBetnHeiber 3 ? i Tiene 1 U. 8 pantalones* ? 

Haben see blne-kli-der ? Tyd-nd U. pantald-nes? 

Setnf letter 5 Tengo 1 - 3 pantalones s de 4 todas* 

Yah, ish hah-bd bine-kli-der Tengo pdntdld-nes dd todas 

toon 4 jeber 5 Slrt 8 unt 7 ute 8 . calidades 8 y 7 de todos generos 8 . 

fun ydder art oond guetd. kaledades e dd todos hend-ros. 

forbern 4 ie 3 fur 5 btefeS 8 ^Cuanto 1 qaiere 8 " 4 U. 8 por 
Vdhs furdern see /uer decses Quanto ke-erd U. por 
5)aflV 7 ? pahr ? este 8 par 7 ? esta pdlir ? 

Sicten 1 IDol'arS 9 . Siete 1 pesos 9 . 

fieeben dollars. Se-dtd pd-sos. 


u bon niarcli6 8 . C' 7 est 9 cheap . This 7 is 3 

all bong marshti. S'd 

le 9 magasin" au bon march.6 10 . the 9 cheap 10 store 11 , 
liui magctzang o bong mdrshd. 

Vous voici 1 ' 8 1' 3 argent* Here 1 is 8 the' money 4 

Voo vwawsy l-arzhang 

C' 7 cst 8 just 9 n'est ce pasfw I s think 8 that? is 8 right 9 . 
S'd zhuLQst n'd suhpdkf 

C'estbien lia , monsieur 3 . Quand 4 All 1 right 2 , sir 3 . When* 
tS a bi/ang, musyoe. Kang 

vous 5 d&irerez 8 quelque 7 you 5 want 6 any 7 thing 8 

voo dd-sera-rd kelk 

chose 8 de 10 notre 11 resort 13 , more 9 in 10 my 11 line 12 , 

shoz duh ndtr resor } 

venez nous voir. 13 " 18 * give 13 us 14 a 15 call 18 . 

vend noo vicawr. 

Je n'y manquerai pas, M r- 5 I 1 shall 8 do 3 so 4 , sir*. 
Zhuh n'd mang-kera pah, M. 

Bonjour 8 ' 7 . Good 8 morning 7 . 


Avez^vous 2 des 3 pan talons 4 ? Have 1 you 8 any 3 pantaloons 4 ? 
Avd - voo dd pang-talong f 

Te 1 tiens 8 tovites 5 sortes 8 de 4 I 1 have 9 pantaloons 3 of 4 all 
Zhuh tyang toot sort duh 

pantalons 3 , et 7 d'une grande kinds 8 and 7 descriptions 8 . 
pang-ta-long , d d'ung grang 
varie'te' 8 . vare-etd. 

Que 1 voulez-vous 8 " 4 de 5 cette 8 "What 1 do 8 you 3 ask 4 for 5 this' 
Kd voold- voo iuh set pair 7 ? 

paire 7 ? par? 

Sop', 1 piastrjs*. Seven 1 dollars 9 . 

tSd pc-aslr 



3) as 1 ift 9 jit 3 iel 4 . Es 1 ' 2 demasiado 3 - 4 . 

Das ist tsoo fed, Es dd-mahs-e-ddo. 

9NdJi l , enn a ie 3 bie 5 lite 8 No 1 , S r -, si 3 se 3 lia de juzgar* 

Jficht, ven see dee gn&ta No, Sr., si sd ah da Iwoth-gar 

beg 7 ' 8 udje3 9 unb 10 ben" der la 5 calidad 6 y 10 de la" 

des tooches oond den da lah kdl-e-dad e da lah 

Sdinitt 1 * in 23etrad)t j'e^en*. hechura 13 de 13 este 8 pano 9 . 
schn it in bd-traCKt tse-en. a-choo-rah da esta pdnyo. 

SEcflcn* gu s cr* ^Tiene U. 1 "* chalecos 4 quo 

Haliben see vesten tsoo fer- Tyana U. chcddkose ka 
fflufen 6 ? koicfenf vender 5 ' 8 ? vender? 

3ft 1 , meitt err a . @otI 3 i(^ 4 3^nen 8 Si 1 , senor 9 . ^Le ensenare 3 ^* 

Yah, mine her, sol ish e-nen Se, sainyor. La ensa-nyara 

cine 7 SltrafTOcflc 8 - 9 jctgen 5 ? d U. 8 un 7 chaleco 9 de raso 8 ? 

i-na Atlas-vesta tsi-ken? ah U. oon chala-koddrah-so? 

1 , idj a njunf^c 314 etne 5 Son 8 No 1 , prefereria 9 " 4 uno 5 
Nine, ish vnenshd i-nd fun JVb, prdfer-er-e-ah oond 

. S^ 1 fangt an 2 * 3 ju 4 de casimiro 8 . Empesa 1 " 3 d* 

kasl-meer. Asefengt an tsoo dd kdse-me-ro. Empes-ah ah 

regnen 5 ; id) 8 benle 7 id) get>e Hover 5 , y voy 8 " 40 & casa 11 . 

rdzhnen ; ish denkd ish gd-d lyouer, e voy ah kah-sth. 

nad) ^aufc 8 " 11 . Scgen^Sicmir 13 Enfardelad 1 * 14 estos 15 panta- 

*iach how-za. Lazhen see meer Enfahr-dd-ldd estos panta- 

jcne 15 SBeinflciber 18 unb 17 biefe 18 lones 18 y 17 este 18 chaleco 19 . 

yd-Kd bine-kli-der oond deesd lo-nes e estd chald-ko. 

e 19 jufammen 14 . ^ier 20 ifl 21 Aqui esta 81 una 23 camisa a . 
vestd tsoosammen. Heer ist Ah-ke estah oonah kam-e-sah 

id) 94 gcbenfe" cS 89 
ine hcmd i$h gd-denkd dse Ke-ero komprahr-lah tarn* 

aud) 30 ju faufcn 26 " 08 legen 81 bien 3 *. Enfardeladla 31 " 33 con 8 * 
ow jh <*x> koicfen Idzhen byen. Enfahrdaldd-lah kon 


C' 1 est 9 trop* 4 . That 1 is 3 too 3 much*. 

S'd trd. 

Non 1 , si vous examinez 9 "* bien Not 1 when 8 you 3 consider* 
Nong, se voo-z-ezdmind byang 

ja? qualit^ 8 du 7 - 8 drap 9 , the 5 quality 8 of 7 the 8 cloth , 

Idh kole-td due droh, 

ct 10 la" faon u . and 10 the" make 13 of 13 theaa 14 . 

d loh fosong. 

Avez-vous 1 " 3 dea gilets* a 5 Do 1 you 3 keep 3 vests 4 to s sell 9 ? 

Avy - voo dd zhild-z-ah 
vendre 6 ? vangdr ? 

Oui 1 , monsieur. 3 Vous 6 montre- Yes 1 , sir 3 . Shall 3 1 4 show 5 
We, musyoe. Voo mongtrd- 

rai"-je 4 un 7 gilet 3 de satin 9 f you 6 a 7 satin 8 vest 9 ? 
rd-zfiuh ung zhild dd sdtdng ? 

Non 1 , j'^n pr6f6rerais 3 ' 4 un 5 No 1 ; I 3 would 3 like 4 a 5 
Kong, zh' ang prd-fererais ung 

de casmrir 8 . H 1 commence* 8 a 4 cassimere 6 . It 1 is 3 beginning" 
dd kazemeer. 11 kom-angs ah 

pleuvoir 5 je 8 vais 9 ,z je 8 to 4 rain 5 I 6 think 7 1 8 will 9 
ploe-vwawr zhuh vd } zhuh 

pense 7 , retourner 10 chez moi 11 . return 10 home 11 . Put" me 18 
pangs, rdtoornd chd mwaw. 

Empaquetez 1 * "-moi 13 ces 15 paa- up 14 those 15 pantaloons 16 and' 7 
Empdketd mwaw sd 

talons 18 et 17 ce 18 gilet 19 . Voici* that 18 vest 19 . Here 20 is 31 a 
tdlong d suh zhild. Vwawty, 

une 32 chemise 83 . Je^vais'Vje 94 shirt 93 . I s4 think 25 I 26 will 37 
uen. slimis. Zhuh va, zhuh 

pense 85 , 1'^acheter 28 e"galement 38 . purchase 28 that 39 also 80 . Put* 

rjs, I' ashta agalmang. 
Mettez^ 1 la 32 Met-d-lah 




Sne e3 M ju 31 tern 35 UbrtgMt 36 . 
see ase tsoo dem uebriyen. 

Sa, 1 ba3 a ijl 3 tin 1 fcfyr 5 fd)one3 8 
Yah, das ist ine sdre shoenes 
$emb 7 . hcmd. 

ijl 9 bet 3 $ret3 4 biefett 516 
IWis ist der preis deesen 
hdls-binder f 

los 35 otros articulos 38 . 
los 6-tros ahrtUcoolos. 

Si 1 , es 2 - 8 una 4 camisa 7 he? 

Se, es oona kdm-e-sa er 

mosisima 8 . mosis-e-mah. 

Cuanto 1 pid6 U. 2 - 4 por 5 esta 8 
Quanta pedd U, por estah 
corbata 7 ? korbatah f 

1 tfl 2 fdjr 3 niebrtg* 
s< sare ne-drizh 

uur 5 jmol 

noor tswoelf sh'dingd. 

t 2 ; tegen 3 ' 5 @ie btefelfce 4 
sure goot; Idzlien see dee-selbd 

jit 8 bent 7 Ubrtgen 8 . 
tsoo dent \iebrizhen. 

Es 1 ' 8 muy 3 de barato 4 . 
Es micy dd bdrdto. 

Solamente 5 doce 8 chelines 7 . 
Solamentd dot/id chel-e-nes. 

Bien 1 - 9 , bien 1 '", enfardelad 3 - 5 - 
Byen, tyen, enfahr-dd-lad- 

la 4 con 8 los 7 otros articulos 8 . 
la kon los o-lros artikoolos. 


34 1 bcnfe 2 ic^ 3 trill 4 untcn 8 
Jsh denkd ish vil oonten 

Con ttn Zapatero. 

Me propongo 1>3 8 de ir 5 d la 
Ma propongo dd eer ah lah 

in bic tabt 7 gefyen 5 , itnb 8 mtr 10 
in dee slat yd-en, oond meer 

eiu" ^aar 13 (Sttefet 13 - 14 faufcn 9 . 
t6 paAr steefel kowfen. 

SBotfcn 15 ie 18 mt(^ 18 fcegletten 17 ? 
Vollen see mish beyli-ten ? 

ciudad 7 baja 8 , y 8 de comprar 8 
tfie-oodad bdhd } edd 

un 11 par 12 de 13 botas 14 . 
oon pdhr dd bolds. 

6 ^, . 'venir 17 conmigo w f 

Ke-erd U. vd-neer kon-me-gof 

Con 1 gusto 8 , amigo 4 mio 8 . 
Kon goosto, dmeyo me-o 

I Iremos & pie 1 " 9 , 6* en coche*? 
Verden veerga-en oderfdJi-ren f Erdnws ah pe~d } o en kochd? 

5>crgnugfn s , 
Mit vcrg-nuezhen, mein/roind. 


avec w los 35 autrcs articles' 8 . it 33 up 33 with 34 the 35 rest 38 . 
&vek la-z- d-tre - zartild. 

Oui 1 , c' 3 est 3 une* tres 5 jolie 6 Yes 1 , that 3 is 3 a* very 5 fine* 
We, s'dte ue/i trd zholy shirt 7 . 
chsmise 7 . shmis. 

Quel 1 est s le 3 prix 4 de 5 cctte 8 What 1 is 9 the 3 price 4 of 5 this* 
Kd a lah pree duh set cravat 7 ? 

cravate 7 ? krdvat? 

Elle 1 est 3 a 4 tres 3 bon marche" 4 That 1 is 3 very 3 cheap 4 
El a ah trd long mdrshd 

Douze 8 chelins 7 , pas d' a vantage 5 , only 5 twelve 8 shillings 7 . 
Dooz shelang pah d'dvdngtazh. 

Fort 1 bien 9 , envelloppez^-la 4 Very 1 well 3 , put 3 that 4 
For byang, ang-vd-ovpd-lah 

avec 8 V achat 9 , up 5 with 8 the 7 rest 8 . 

avek I'dsJuih. 

Magasln d, Bottes. In a Shoe-store. 

Je suis d'avis de descendre 1 ^ 8 I 1 think 3 1 3 will 4 go 5 down 8 
Zhuh swe d'ave duh ddsdngdr 

en ville 7 pour m' 10 acheter 9 town 7 , and 8 buy* me 10 a 11 
&ng vil poor m'ashtd 

une" paire 12 de 13 bottes 14 . Vo\i- pair 12 of 13 boots 1 
ue par duh lot. Voo- 

lez ts -vous 18 m' 18 accompagner 17 ? Will 15 you 16 accompany 17 me" ? 
Id ~ voo m' 'ak-ompdn-yd ? 

Avec 1 plaisir 3 , mon 3 ami 4 . With 1 pleasure 3 , my 3 friend 4 . 

AJivek pldJizeer, mong-n-dme. 

lr onr -nous a pied 1 " 3 ou 4 prendrons- Shall we 3 walk 3 , or 4 ride 3 ? 
Irong-noo ah pyd oo prangdrong- 
nousv;iture s ? noovwawfaer? 


ID 1 , laffen te 2 nn& 3 gdjcn 4 ; Vamos, pues, 4 pie 1 -*. Porque 

0, lasen see oons gd-en; Vdmos,picdse,ahped. Porkd 

e8 5 ifl 6 nur 7 etn 8 djritt 9 MS no 7 hay 5 ' 8 que 7 un 8 paso 9 hasta 10 

dse ist noor ine shrit bis no i kd oon pdhso dstdJi 

gu 10 cittern" djufjlaben 13 ' 13 * la 11 (primera) zapateria 12 - 13 . 

tsoo i-nem shoo-lahden. luJi (pre-mdrdh) ihdpdlere-ah. 

etyt 1 rootyl 3 , tann s , tttottcn 5 iutr 4 Muy 1 bien 3 , vamos 4 -*. 

Sdre vole, dan, vollen veer Mwy byen, vdhmos. 
ge^en 6 . ga-en. 

S3ellauftg bemerft 1 " 3 , Bco^ac^* ^Apropos! to 1 - 3 , ha 4 visto 8 U. 
bd-merkt, bd-obdCR- Ah pro-poze-to ah veesto U. 

teten 4 - 6 ie 5 gepern 13 SIBenb 13 su 7 primo 8 al 9 - 10 teatro 11 
teten see gestern abend soo pre-mo al td-atro 

St)tett 7 Setter 8 im 9 ' 10 Beater"? ayer por la 

e-ren fetter im td-ah-ter ? aliyer por lah sdrdh f 

1 , idj a teoBac^tete 3 i^n nid^t 4 , No 1 , no 4 le he 8 visto 

Nine, ish bd-obaGHtetd een nicht, No, no la d veesto 

ntetne s ebatt!en 8 tt>arett 7 gu 8 fefjr 9 Mi 3 espiritu 6 era 7 captivado 10 

mi-ndgd-dankenvdr-entsoosdre Me espe-retoo d-rali kaptevddo 

wit" bent 12 piele 13 Befc^afttgt 10 . por" la u pieza 13 . 

tnit dem spe-ld bd-sheftigt. por la pidtlia. 

(S3 1 n>at 3 ein 3 fe^r 4 fc^oneg 5 Era 1 ' 3 una 3 pieza 6 muy 4 

Ase vdr ine sure shoenes A-rah oonah pe-d-thah micy 

tiicf 8 ; tvurbea 1 6er 7 bur^ 10 bett 11 agradable 5 ; pero 7 interompi- 

stuek ; voordd dJiber doorsh den agrddaTible ; pdro lnter-omp$ 

Unru^eflifter 13 im 14 - 15 parterre 18 da 10 demasiado 9 , por 11 este 13 

xm-roo-d-sti/ter im pdrter-rd da ddmahseddo, por estd 

git 8 oft 9 untertroc^en 10 , bribon 13 del 14 - 1S patio 18 . 

tsoo oft oonter-brochen. bre-bon del pahte-o. 

Sa 1 / er a tr>ar s ein 4 fe^r 5 fomifc^er Si 1 , era* 3 un 4 bufonillo 5 - 7 . 

Yah, are vdr ine sdre komisJier Se, d-rah oon buf-o-nilyu. 
7 , kalim-rdd. 


Marabous*- 4 , il n'y 7 O 1 , let 8 us 3 walk 4 ; it 4 

Marshong, il n'e 

a 8 qu' 7 un 8 pas 9 d'ici, a 10 un u is 8 but 7 a 8 step' 
ah Kung pah d'isy, ah ung 

magasiri* 3 h, soulier 13 . to 10 a u shoe^-shop 13 . 

magazang ah soolyer. 

Ehbien 1>a ,douc s ,allonsapied*- fl . Very 1 well 3 , then 3 , we* will* 
Eh byang, dongk, allong-z-ah pyd. go 8 . 

A 1 propos 2 - 3 , avez*-vous 5 vn e By 1 the" way 3 , did 4 you 5 
Ah propo - z - avd-voo vae 

hier 13 soir 13 , votre 7 cousin 8 observe 8 your 7 cousin 8 at 9 

yer swawr, votr koozang 

au ft 10 theatre" ? the 10 theatre 11 last 13 evening" f 

6 ta-ah-tr f 

Non 1 , je a ne 4 1'y ai 3 point 4 vu. No 1 , 1 3 did 3 not 4 my 5 
Nong, zhuh nuh I'e d pwong rue. 

Mon 5 esprit 8 e"tait 7 trop 8 - 9 mind 8 was 7 too 8 much" 

Mong^n-espre -t-lty tro 

occupe* 10 de M la 12 representation 13 , engrossed 10 with 11 the 13 play* 
olcuepdduh lahreprasentase-ong. 

C' 1 4tait a une 3 tres 4 belle 5 It 1 was 9 a 3 very 4 fine 5 

S'ety -t- uen trd bel 

piece 8 ; mais 7 trop 8 souvent 9 play 8 ; but 7 too 8 frequently* 
pe-cs ; md tro soo-vang-t- 

interrompuc 10 par" ce ia interrupted 10 by" that 13 

angter-umpMQ par suh 

plaisant 13 du 1 * 15 parterre 18 . rogue 13 in 14 the 15 pit 18 . 

pld-sang c?ue parter. 

Oui 1 , il a etait 3 tres 5 comique 8 . Jes 1 , he 9 was 3 a 4 very 5 comi- 
We, il eta trd kom-ik. cal 8 fellow 7 . 




j 1 fo a ; after 1 filer 2 fmb 4 irir 3 
Gants so ; aber heer sind veer 

Betm 5 -* cfyufjtaben 7 . ?affen 9 
bime shoo-ldden. Ldssen 

<te ung 10 etntreten 11 . 
see oons ine-treten. 

tdj 3 <2ie 4 mtt 5 cittern 8 
ish see mit i-nem 

$aat 7 dfyitfje 9 serfe^en 3 ? 
a versa-enf 


T/i, mt?ie Aer; ish ferlang-a 
ttefel 5 . ste-fel. 

2trt a son 3 (Stiefeln 4 
Velchd art fun ste-feln 

Es verdad J ' B .u Pero 1 aqui* 
Us verdad. Pdro ake 

estamos 3 - * delante 5 de la 8 
estdmos dd-lanta da lah 

zapateria 7 ' 8 . Entremos 9 " 11 
thapaterea. Etitra-mos 

I Quiere U.*~ 5 v un 6 par 7 de* 
Ke-era U. oon par da 

zapatos 9 ? 

No 1 , senor 2 ; quiero 31 * botas 5 . 
No, sainyor ; ke-cro iotas. 

I Que 1 genero 9 de 3 botas 4 
Kd hendro dd Lotas. 

see /or? fun kalbps- 

le agradece a U. 

Id agrahddthd aft U. mas f 

Ijaut 8 , son gro^em 

howt, fun grosem kalbpsfel, 

oc?er fun sdf-e-dn? Ish 

^aBe 13 einige 14 fe^r 15 fdbone 18 
halibd i-nizha sdre shoend 

dfftan 17 Stiefct 18 , tucl^c 19 {$* 
saf-e-an stee-fd, velchd ish 

tterlaufen 23 toitt 
verkowfen vitt. 

El piel becerillo 9 , de becerra 9 , 
Elpyel betherilyo, ddbetherali, 

d 13 de cordoban 11 ? Tengo 1 * 13 
o dd kordoban f Tengo 

botas 18 de 17 cordoban 17 mj u 
botas da kordoban micy 

fino 18 , que 19 vendr^ 80 -" d U. 
fe-no, kd vendrd ah U. 

inuy de barato 53 . 
mwy dd barato. 

Vdchd art kalbpsldder hahben 
see f 

\ahbd franlsvosiches, 

Ka hendro dd kicdro dd ternd- 
ro 4 tiene 5 U . 8 ? ro tydnd U. 

Tengo 1 cuero 9 de ternero 4 , 
Tengo kwdro dd terndrOj 


O'est vrai lia .aa Enfin,bb Quite 1 so 8 ; but 1 here 5 we 8 

S'd vrd. Any -fang, 

nous voila 3 " 4 au 5 - 8 magasin 8 are 4 , at 5 the 8 shoe 7 -store 8 . 
noo vwawlah o magazang 

& bottes 7 . Entrons 9 -". Let 9 us 10 enter* 1 . 

all lot. Angtrong. 

Vous 4 offrirai-je 1 " 5 une Shall 1 1 8 accommodate 8 you* 

voo-z - ojfre-rd-zh-iien 

paire 7 de 8 souliers 9 ? with 5 a 8 pair 7 of 8 shoes 9 ? 

par duh sool-i/er ? 

Non 1 , monsieur 9 , je 3 d&irerais 4 No 1 , sir"; I 3 want 4 boots 5 . 
Nong, musyoe, zhuh ddzererd 
des bottes 5 . dd Lot. 

Quelle 1 sorte 3 de 3 bottes 4 What 1 kind 2 of 3 boots 4 

Kd sort dd bot 

us 8 en veau 8 , do 5 you 8 prefer 7 calfskia", 
prdfdrd - voo ang vo } 

en vieux veau 9 , ou 10 kipskin 9 , or 10 

ang vi/eu. vo, oo 

en maroquin u ? j >lfl ai 13 de 14 morocco" ? I 13 have 18 
ang marokang f zh'd duh 

tres" belles 18 bottes 18 en maro- some 14 very 15 fine 18 morocco 1 ' 
trd Ld lot-s - ang mar-o- 

quin 17 , que 19 je 20 puis 21 offrir 28 boots 18 , >hat 19 I 30 will 81 
Itang, kuh zhuh pwe-z-of-reer 

b bon marche^ 8 . sell 23 cheap 83 . 

ah Long marshd. 

Quelle 1 espece 8 de 3 veau 4 avez 5 - What 1 kind 8 of 3 calfskin 4 have 1 
Kel cspds duh vo avy- you 6 ? 
vous 8 ? voo f 

J' 1 ai* des cuirs de veaux 4 de I 1 have 8 French 8 calfskin 4 , 
Zh'd dd kweer duh vo duh 



orbtndreS 7 frances 8 , de Filadelfia 5 , y 8 
Filaddfier, oond or dinar es franthes, da Filadelfeali, g 

r. (3c^5a'6e)etncnfe^r 8 de algunos ordinaries 7 . (Ade- 

kdlbsldder. (Ish hahbd) inen sdre da algunos ordenareos. 

fcfyimen 9 Slrttfel 10 toon" franjoff* mas) otros generos 10 de u 

shoenen drtlkel fun frantsoesi- mans) otros hendros da, 

<3ott 14 {dj 15 ternero 13 frances 13 , muy 8 boni- 
shcm kalbsldder. Sol ish terndro franthes mwy bone- 

gcigcn 16 ? tos 9 . ^Quiere U. verlos 14 - 

e - nen vetches tsi-zhen ? tos. Ke-era U. verlos ? 

SBenn 1 cS 3^nen a gefallig ip.i Con mucho gusto 1 " 3 . 
Vert dse e-nen ga-fettig ist. Kon moocho goosto. 

ftnb 3 fie 9 . 3(^ 4 benfe 3 ftc 8 Aqui 1 estan 8 - 8 . Creo 4 ' 5 que 
Heer sind see. Ish denied see Ah-ke estan. Krd-o kd 

3^nen 9 genau 10 ^affen 8 . le calzan muy bien.x 
verdfn e-nen gd-now pdssen. Id kalihan mwy byen. 

fe^en 9 fe^r 3 plump 4 nb 5 Me parecen 1 '^ muy 8 groceros 4 
See sd-en sdre ploomp oond Md pdrdthen mwy grotJieroa 
u^ 9 , gross ows. y* anchos 8 . e dncJws. 

mogcn 314 @ic 9 Quiza 1 le gustarian 8 " 4 mucho 

Fe-licht moezhen see Kethah Id goostdreahn moocho 

am Hebflen 8 @afjtan 5 *@HefcI. mas 8 z botas de maroqui*. 

ohm leebsten Safydn-ste-fel. mas, botas dd mdrd-ke. 

3^* h?itt 2 mir efnige 5 afflan 8 * Quiero 1>a ver 8 ^ algunas 5 de 

Ish vil meer i-nizha Safyan- Ke-er6 ver dlgunahs dd 

Stieftl fcefefjen 8 , luenn 7 tc 8 er* maroqui 8 , si 7 U. 8 le gusta 9 . 

ite-fel ba-sd-en, ven see er- maroke se U. la goostah. 

ifl a cin 3 fe^r 4 fdjones 5 ^)aar fl , Aqui 1 esta 9 un 8 par 8 muy 4 fino*, 
Heer ist ine sdre sftoenea pahr, Ah-keesta oonpahrmu-yfeno, 

tel^e 7 i^ 8 3^nen 11 untcr 12 tcm 13 que 7 puedo s - 8 vender 10 d U." 
velches ish 6-nen oonter dem ka pwd-dd vender ah U. 


France 3 , de Philadelphia 5 , et 8 Philadelphia*, and 8 
Franys, duh Flludelfyah, a 

meme d'ordinaires 7 - (J'ai) common. 7 A very 8 
mdme d'ordindr. (Zh'd) 

untr6s 8 -beau 9 choix 10 de 11 veaux 18 fine 9 article 10 of" French" 
ting trd - bo shwaw duh vo 

do France 13 . Vous 17 en 18 mon- calf 13 shall 14 I 15 
dull Frangs. Voo-z-ang mong- 

i^^-je 15 quelques-uns 18 ? show 18 you 17 some 1 * ? 
t.-erd - zhuh kelkd-z-ung f 

S'il vous plait 1 " 4 .** If 1 you 9 please.' 

S'il voo pld. 

Les s voici 1>3 . Elles 8 vous von t 7 * 8 Here 1 they 9 are 3 . I 4 think 5 
Ldvwawsy. Ell voo vong 

je 4 pense 5 , h merveille 10 . they 8 will 7 fit 8 you 9 exactly 10 . 

zhuh pangs ah mervalt/uh. 

Elles 1 ont 3 trop 3 ordinaires 4 et 5 They 1 look 9 very 3 coarse 4 and* 
El-z - ong trd ordinar a, large 6 , 

trop grandes 8 . tro grdng. 

Vous 2 enprefereriez 3v ,peut-etre 1 , Perhaps 1 you 9 would 3 like 4 
Voo-z-ang prdfd reryd, poe-t-dtr } 

en maroquin 5 . morocco 5 better 8 ' 

any marokang. 

Montrcz ru'en de dd maroquin 8 , I 1 will 9 look 3 at 4 some 5 
Mmytrd m'ang duh marokang, 

je vous prie, (s' 7 il vous 8 plait 9 .) morocco 8 , if 7 you 8 please 9 . 
zhuh voo pre, (s'il voo pld.) 

En voici 1 9 uno' fort 4 belle 5 Here 1 is 9 a 3 very 4 fine 5 pair*, 
Ang vwawsy ue/i for bel 

pairc 8 , que 7 je 8 puis 9 vous" that 7 I* can 9 sell 10 you" 
par, kd zh-Jipwe VTO 




erjlen" $ret 15 uerfaitfen 10 fann 9 , menos 12 de 13 su precio 15 corri- 
er-stcn prise verkoicfen Jean, menos da soo prdtheo korry- 

e^ 16 fmb 17 prat$tige 18 (5ttefeln 19 . ente^.Son^^botas^escelentes 18 . 
Ase sind pres/itizhd ste-feln. entd. Son botds jisthelentes. 

inb 1 e3 3 Befdjabtgt 3 ? 
Sind ase ba-zhedigt ? 

i Son 1 '* averiadas 3 ? 
Son averiadas ? 

D 1 , ncttt 9 , td^ 3 laufte 4 ftc 5 auf bcm 8 O 1 , no 9 , senor, las s he corapra- 
0, nine, isli kowfta see owf dem 0, no, saint/or, las a kompra- 

Sluftton 7 ; unt) 8 !ann 9 fte 13 
owk-tse-on; oond kan see 

Btttig 14 o^ne 15 93ertufl 18 
billizh 5-nd ferloost 

Derfaufen. 13 

ifl 9 ber 8 5)retg 4 ? 
Vahs ist der prise ? 

r 1 jtuanjig 2 ^ttttnge 3 . 
Noor tswantsig shillingd. 

1 ifl s gltei 3 unb 5 em 6 

do* 1 * & 6 la almoneda 7 ; y 8 
do ah lah almond-dah; e 

puedo 9 venderlas 12 - 13 muy de 
pwd-do venderlas micy do, 

barato" sin 15 perdida 18 . 
barahto sin perde-da. 

I A. cuanto las vende U. ? 
Ah quanta las vendd U. f 

Solameiite 1 veinte 3 chelines*. 
Soldmentd vd-intd chd-le-ne& 

Es decir 1 ' 9 , dos 3 pesos* y* 

Das ist tswi oond Ine halben Es ddtheer, dos pd-sos i 


Sa 1 , metn ^err 9 . 
Yah, mine her. 

medio 7 . madeo. 

Si 1 , senor 9 . 
Se sainyor. 

1 ifl 9 fe^r 8 fctUig 4 . 
Das ist sdre billvsh. 

^ier s ijl 8 bag 7 elb 8 . 
Heer ist das geld. 

utcn 1 aij', mein ^err 8 . 
Gooten tag mine her. 

Es 1 - 8 muy de barato* 
Es mwy da bardto. 

esta 6 su 7 dinero". 
Ah-ke estah soo denaro. 

Buen 1 dia a , senor 1 . 
Biccn deah, sainyor. 




veudre 10 h has prix.e 
vangdr ah bah pre. 

less 12 than 13 prime 14 cost". 

Ce l0 sont 17 d'excellentes 18 bottes. 19 They l8 are 17 excellent 18 boots 19 . 
Suh song d'ezeldngt hot. 

Sont 1 elles 9 avarices 8 ? 
Song-t~el -z- dvared f 

Are 1 they 9 damaged 3 ? 

Oh 1 , non 9 , je 3 les 5 ai achet&s 4 a 8 O 1 , no 3 ; I 3 bought* them 5 at f 
0, nong, zhuh Id-z-d ashtd ah 

un encan 7 ; et 8 je 9 puis 10 les 13 auction 7 ; and 8 can afford 10 
ung angkang; dzhuhpwe Id 

vendre 11 '" , bon march6 M , 
vangdr ah bor.g marsha, 

sans 15 y perdre 18 . 
sang-z-e perdr. 

Quel 1 en 5 - 8 est 9 le 3 prix 4 ? 
Kel ang d luh pree f 

Settlement 1 vingt 9 chelins 8 . 
Soolmang vang shelang. 

C'est 1 - 2 deux 3 piastres 4 et 5 
S'd doe pyastr d 
demi 7 . demy. 

Ova 1 , monsieur 3 . 

C'est 1 ' 2 a tres 3 bon march6 4 . 
S'a-t - ah trd long marshd. 

En voici 5 " 6 1' argent 7 ' 8 . 
Ang vwaivsy larzhang. 

Bonjour 1 3 monsieur 3 . 
Bong-zhoor, musi/os. 

to" sell 19 them 13 cheap 14 , 
without" loosing 18 . 

What 1 is 9 the 8 price 4 of 5 them 8 ? 
Only 1 twenty 2 shillings 8 . 

That 1 is 9 two 8 dollars 4 and 5 a e 
half 7 . 

Yes 1 , sir*. 

That 1 is 9 very* eheap 4 . 

Here 5 is 8 the 7 money 8 . 
Good 1 day 9 , sir 8 . 




3n etncm crourjtabcn. 

Con un Especiero. 

4>iu'cir >c>ic~ jvuuujjtw $u~ wcv= ^ jneue- u. 2 patatas 4 que 5 ven- 

Hahben see kartufi 1 .n tsoo fer- Te-dnd U. patatas kd ven* 
faufetl 6 ? koirfen. der 8 ? der ? 

(So Stcl @ie iuotlen, meitt Jptft 5 ? Cuantas quiere U.a ; senor 5 . 

So feel see vollen, mine her. Qudntds ke-erd U., sain^or. 

Vas fur dim see dah-faer f 

bag 5 23ufd)et 8 . 
F\iQnftsizk tsents das booshel. 

1 ifl 3 gu 3 irieK 
iis^ tsoo feel. 

tc 1 fomten 3 fte 4 in 5 irgcnt) 6 
>See koQnen see in eerkend 

cittern anbern 7 etuurjlabcn 8 
%-nem andern gd-vuertsladen 

nic^t 2 unter 9 75" dentg 13 faufen 3 . 
nisht oonter 75 tsents kowfen. 

ut 1 ,(Sie a Iotttten 3 mtr 8 tur(^ben s 
Goot, see koenen meer doorsh den 

^ttaBen B ettten 10 33uf^el 11 6rtttgcn 7 ' 9 
knahben i-nen booshel bringen 

faffen 4 , mentt 13 e3 3f)nen 13 :6eliefct 14 . 
Idssen, oen dse e-nen bd-leebt. 

SBie" t^euer 18 ifl 18 ber 

Yce to'ier ist der k&esd f 

Se^tt 1 Gents 9 . 
Tsdne tsents. 

Quanto ke-erd U. por ellas? 

Cincuenta 3 centavos 4 la 5 
Theen-thoo-entah thentavos lah 
fanega 6 . fandgah. 

Es 1 ' 2 demasiado M . 
Es ddmahseahdo. 

No 2 puede 2 U. 1 comprarlas M 
JVo pwd-dd U. komprarlds 

en 5 ninguna 6 ' 7 especeria 8 , 
en ningoonah espd-the-erea 

menos 8 de 10 75 11 centavos 18 . 
menus da 75 thentavos. 

Bien 1 . Puede 3 U. 2 enviarme* 1 * 
By en. Pwa-da U. envearme 

una 10 fanega 11 por su mozo* 
oona fandga por soo motho 

si u quiere 1 * 14 . bb 
se ke-erd. 

i Cuanto 15 vale 18 el queso 17 ? 
Quanto vahld el kdso f 

Diez 1 centavos 9 . 
De-aith thentah-vos. 

cben <Sie mir 1 "* fecf)5 4 ^funb 5 Dame 1 " 3 seis* libras 5 de" man- 

Gd-ben see mfsr sex pfoond Dah-md sd-is lebrds da man- 

^Butter 7 , glt>ei 8 Dtt&enb 9 Sier 19 ' 11 , teca 7 , dos 8 docenas 9 de 10 hue- 

bUtter tswl dooLslnd i-yer, tdkah, dos dothdnds da wl- 


Epicerie At a Grocery. 

Avez 1 -vous a des 8 ponimesdeterre* Have 1 you* any 3 potatoes* to* 
Avd - voo da pom duh tir sell 6 ? 
a 5 vendre 8 ? ah vangdr f 

Autant qu'il vous plaira, M. s Any 1 quantity 3 of 3 them*, s'u* 
0-tang k'il voo pld-rah, M. 

Combien les vendez-vous? What 1 do 8 you 3 ask* for 5 them* J 

Kombyang la vang-da-voo f 

Cinquante 3 sous 4 le 5 boisseau 8 . They 1 are 8 fifty 3 cents* per* 
Sangkang soo luh bwawso. bushel 8 . 

C' 1 est a tropw ThatMs 2 too 8 high* (too much). 

S'a tro. 

Vous 1 ne a sauriez 3 les 4 acheter 3 You 1 cannot 2 buy 3 them* 
Noo nuh so-ryd Id-z-ashtd 

d' 5 aucun 8 - 7 Spicier 8 at 5 any 8 other 7 grocery 8 

d'o-kung - ne-pisyd 

& moins 9 de 10 75 U sous 158 . less 9 than 10 75 11 cents". 
ah mwawng duh 75 soo. 

Eh bien 1 , envoyez 7 -m' 8 en, s'il 12 "Well 1 , you 3 can 3 let* the 5 
Eh byang, ang-voya-m' ang, s'il 

vous 13 plait 14 , un 20 boisseau 11 , boy 8 bring 7 me 8 up 9 a 10 
voo pld-t - ung bwawsd, 

par votre petit garon 8 .ff bushel 11 , if 19 you 13 please 14 . 

par votr pety gar song. 

Quel is est l8 leprix 18 dufromage ir ? What 15 is 18 cheese'* worth 1 *? 
Kd d luhpree due fromazh f 

Dix 1 sous 3 . Ten 1 cents". 

v Dee soo. 

Donnez-moi 1 " 8 six* livres 5 de 9 Let 1 me 8 .have 3 eix* pounds* of* 
Don-nd-mwaw see levr duh 

beurre 7 , deux 8 douzainog 3 butter 7 , two 8 dozen 9 of 10 eggs", 

fcoer, cfoe doozan 




fiinf 12 g>funt> ffl @<frttfen 14 , ctn 15 
fuenf pfoond shinken, ine 

18 <SaIj 18 , brei 19 Sei 
pfoond salts, drl libe 

9 , ttter 33 gjfunb 
ira?, /eer pfoond td, 

funf 87 3>funb tfaffe 29 , unb 30 
fnenf pfoond koffd, oond 

etne 31 Siiie 32 nut 33 ^feffer 34 . 
ia ftieto 7ii< pffffer. 

ifl 36 ^errtid>e3 37 
Heer ist herlishes shwind- 

fletf^ 39 . SQas 40 ifl* 1 
flishe. Vas ist 

rfer prise , ? 


1 fojiet 2 - 5 fctefer 3 33cfen 4 ? 
kostet deeser besen f 

unb jtuanjig 1 Gento 3 . 
F\iQnf oond tswantsig tsents. 

Hahben see epfel? 

SRetn 1 , metn ^)crr 8 , tcir 3 fatten 5 
Nine, mine her, veer hdlten 
nte* teldje 8 . e velchd. 

fiGotten 1 <ie 9 mir 4 etne 8 
Vollen see nieer ind 

mit 8 SWfettpfcffer 9 geben 3 ^? 
mil N'e.lkenpfeffer gd-ben * 

^tt 1 SSergnftgen 9 . 

vos^cinco 12 libras^de jamon 14 , 
vos, thlnJco lebrds dd hdnwn, 

y una 15 libra 16 de 17 sal 18 , tres 19 
e oonah llbrdh da sal, tres 

libras 80 de 21 pan 88 , cuarto 83 
IZbrds dd pan, kicarto 

libras 84 de 25 t6 26 , cinco 87 libraa 
lebras dd fa, thinko lebrca 

de 28 cafe"; y 30 un 31 poco 32 cc 
c?a kofd; e oon poko 

de 33 pimienta 34 . Aqui 33 esta 8 * 
dd pime-entah. Ah-ke estah 

escelente 28 puerco 39 . 
eselenta pwerko. 

I A como le vende U. ? 
venda U. f 

Ocho 1 centavos 9 . 
oko thentdvos. 

i Cuanto 1 vale 5 este 3 escoba 4 ? 
Quanto void estd eskobahf 

Veinte 1 y cinco 9 centavos 8 . 
Yyentd e thinko t/ientdvos, 

^Tiene 1 U. 2 algunas 3 manzanas 1 ? 
Tednd U. algoonas mdntluinasf 

No 1 , senor 2 , ningunas 4>8 tcngo 5 . 
No, sainyor, ningoonas 

Dame 3 " 5 TJ. a 
Dd-md U. 

algunos 8 " 8 clavos*. 
algoonos kldvos. 

Con 1 gusto". 
Kon goosto. 


ejam- five 12 pounds 18 hara 14 , one 15 
d' oef si:ng Uvr duh zham- 

bon",une 15 livre l6 dc 17 sel 18 ,trois 19 pound 10 of 17 salt 18 , three* 
ooi g, nen Uvr duh sel, trwaw 

livres 20 ds 91 pain 23 , quatre 28 loaves 20 of 21 bread 29 , four" 
Uvr duh pang, kdtr 

livres 94 de 25 the" 28 , cinq 27 livres pounds 24 of 25 tea 28 , five* 7 
Uvr duh id, sank Uvr 

dc 98 caf# B , et 30 un 31 peu sa of 88 coffee 29 ; and 30 a 31 paper 88 

duh kojfd, d ung poe 

de* 3 poivre 34 . Voici 3 * 38 of 33 pepper 34 . Here" is 86 

duh pwawvr. Vwawsy 

d' 37 excellent 38 cochon 39 (pore 39 ), some 87 excellent 38 pork 39 . 
d' exellang koshang (pork). 

Combien se vend-il ? SS What 40 is 41 the 43 price 48 of** 

Kombyang sd vang-d-ilf it 45 ? 

Huit 1 sous 9 . Eight 1 cents 9 . 

We soo. 

Que^esfleprix* de ce 3 balai 4 ? What 1 is 9 this 8 broom 4 worth 5 ? 
Kd d luh pree duh suh balld f 

Vingt 1 cinq 9 sous 8 . TwentyMive 9 cents 3 . 

Vang sank soo. 

Avez^vous 9 des 3 pommes 4 ? Have 1 you 9 any 8 apples 4 ? 
Avd - voo dd pom ? 

Non 1 , M. 9 , nous 3 n' 4 en 6 tenons 5 No 1 , sir 8 , we 8 never 4 keep 8 
Nong, M., noo n'ang tangnong them 8 . 
jamais 4 . zhdmd. 

Donnez w -moi 4 un 6 peu 7 de 8 Will 1 you 9 let 3 me 4 have 5 ' 
Donnd-mwaw ung poe iuh 

clous de girofles 9 . paper of 8 allspice 8 ? 

Idoo duh zheerofl. 

Avec 1 plaisir 9 With 1 pleasure". 




a $3 !e ieT, how much. 

b The oi in this, and all other words, where printed i a the 
Roman character, must be pronounced more like i than open oi. 
c U. f. tx>. (unb fo tsetter), and so forth. 
d Sonfl, else ; nocfy, more ; etoaS, some ; (some more else). 
SRidjt im ertngfien, not in the least. 
t Gntfpredjenb, being answered for; taken into account. 

6 efdjaft, occupation; affair. 

h Of great calf s hide, (the same exp. in Spanish and Fieneh). 


a Bayeta is the more comprehensive word; it signifies woollen 
fabric, in general. It is sanctioned by the Academy in pre- 
ference to flanela orfranela. 

t> It me would cost exceedingly; and would be also (tambien) 
exceedingly (demasiado) irksome. 

c Let it be as you like it. d Ahora, at present. 

e Not there is of what, or about what, (to be thankful). 

f Telas pintadas, printed cloths. 

g At how much sell you this ? 

h En razon de, in reason of. i Will it lose its colour ? 

k Cut me off (cut off for me). 1 Al punto, at Hie point. 

m Telas para camisas, cloths for shirts. 

n Acaba, finishes to. o Surprised. 

P Que viene bien a U., that goes well on you. 

9 It will g on me never. * If one has to judge of. 

Propongo, I propose v. irr. from propones, to propcte. 
t Yesterday for (at) the evening. 

u That is true, v Do you wish ? 

w Le agradasce, &c., it pleases you more. 

* Que le, &c., that they will go on very well (muy lien); 
calzar means to try on shoe!. 

7 They appear to me. * Mucho mas, much more. 

NOTES. 299 

aa As much as you wish, or as much as you can desire. Tho 
same exp. iu French and German. 

bb You can bring (send) me up a bushel by the boy, if 
you please. 

co Poco, little. 


Ho\v does this call itself? b En, of it. 

En, some of them ; I have some of them very fine. 
d Or, d' lah. e You have but to take it, &c. 

f Soit, let it be so. g Or, aujourd'hui. 
b. I shall have a care to pass this way again, after a little 
(sous pen). 

1 You will oblige me much. 

k There is not (nothing) of that (for which you may thank 
me). Exp. similar to Spanish. 

1 Plus makes the superlative, m Sont-ils ? are they f 

n The prices vary following the quality, o Net, no more. 

P I am going (vais) to send them immediately (de suit). 

q Or, une veille fille. r Or, je demand pardon. 

s Or, il est beaucoup trop gross, il a trop d'ampleur, it has 
too great breadth. 
. t Va, goes on. u It sits to a marvel. 

v It is a masterpiece, w Is it not ? 

* Come and see us. 7 I shall not fail to do so. 
z Je vais, / am going to. 

aa C'est vrai, that is true, bb At length. 
co If it pleases you. dd Show me some of. 
ee Or, au dessous le premier prix. 

ffYou can send up a bushel, if it pleases you, by your 
little boy. 

gg How does it sell itself? 


The pronunciation is purposely suppressed in the following pages ; for, aj 
the student is supposed to have given marked attention to the rules of pronunciation 
as laid down in the first part of this work, and to have acquired the ability to pronounce 

e I b. Dinero. 

ie 3 mir 4 jtoei 5 Sranfen 8 Quiere 1 U. 3 prestarme 3 - 4 dos 1 
? francos 6 ? 

Sftit 1 tern 3 gropten 3 33ergniigen 4 . Con 1 muchisimo 3 - 3 gusto*. 
3]! 1 biefeS 3 ein 3 Staler 4 ? Es 1 eso 9 un 3 peso 4 (thaler 4 ) ? 

3 . >iefe3 3 i{r 1 ein 5 Si 1 , senor*. Aquello 3 es 4 un 

pfennig 8 (>enn9 6 ). centavo 8 . 

ie 3 ein 3 )?aar 4 ^funte 5 - 8 ^Tiene 1 U. fl dos 4 

pesos esterlines 8 

loS jit luerben 12 " 15 , tnbem 18 @ic que 9 disponer 10 " 15 
mtr liwo fotc^e fcorgen 17 ? y 18 prestarme 17 - 20 ? 

^ J I^aBe 3 nidjt 3 einen 5 Better 8 . No s tengo 1 ' 8 unosolo 5 maravedi 9 . 

s 1 {{I s unangcne^m 8 . Eso 1 es 3 lastimoso 3 . 

Sfienncn 1 - 3 (Sie 3 fcicfeg 4 einen 5 ^ Llama 1 " 3 eso 4 una 5 dima" 
2)ime 8 ? (diez centavos) ? 

3d 1 , unb 3 fciefeS 3 ifl* ein 5 Sitter 8 . Si 1 , y s esto 3 es 4 una 5 aguila 8 

(diez pesos). 

Da3 1 i|1 2 ein 3 funpaterf$ein 5 ' 8 . Es 1 - 3 un 3 billete 8 de cinco 4 

pesos 5 . 

^onncn 1 (Sie 3 eine 4 ^rotn 5 ec^* Puede 1 U. a cambianne 3 un* 
fetn 3 ? crown 5 : 

3P 1 tag 9 ein 3 mextfanijcljen 4 ^ES 1 aquel 8 un 3 chcline 5 Meji 
filling 5 ? cano 4 ? 

1 ; eg 3 ij? engtifdjeS 4 etb 5 . No 1 ; es 3 ^ moneda 5 inglesa 4 . 

^ 1 ijl 9 ein 3 fpanif(^er 4 Dottar 5 . Eso 1 es 9 un s peso 5 espanol* 

tonnen 1 <5>te 9 mir 4 cine 7 uinie 8 ^I >ue ^ et U- 9cam ^i armeS ' 4un a 7 

C(^feIn 3t5 ? guinea 8 ? 

iein 1 , t^ 2 fann 4 e3 nic^t 3 elb 4 No 1 , no 3 lo puedo* 4 . La mone- 

ifl 5 bei 8 mir 9 gegcnwartig 10 - 11 du 4 esta s muj 8 escasa 7 ahora u 

gauj 8 rar 7 . con 8 migo 9 . 

;Jfl* biefeS 3 ein 3 guter Souifibor 5 ? ^Es 1 este 9 luis 5 bueno 4 ? 


11 words correctly, through the observance of these rules, and by means of ocatinual 
practice in the preceding pages where the figured pronunciation occurs, it is deemed 
unnecessary to continue it (the pronunciation) any farther.] 

Argent. Honey. 

Voulez t -vous a me* preter 3 deux 5 "Will 1 you 3 lend 3 me 4 two 1 
francs 8 ? francs 8 'I 

Avec 1 le* pins grand 3 plaisir 4 . With 1 the 3 greatest 3 pleasure* 
Es^-ce 1& 3 un 3 ecu 4 ? Is 1 this 2 a 3 thaler 4 ? 

Oui 1 , monsieur*. C' 3 est un 5 Yes 1 , sir 2 . This 3 is 4 a s penny 8 . 
sou . 

Avez^vous', sur 7 vous 8 quelques 4 Have 1 you 3 a 8 couple 4 of 

livres sterlings 6 , dont 9 vous 10 pounds 8 about 7 you 8 , that 

desireriez" vous defaire 18 "" you 10 want u to 13 get 13 rid 14 of is 

pour 18 m 'en faire un pret 17 " 30 ? by I6 loaning 1 "them 18 to 19 me ao ? 

Je 1 n'%i 3 pas 3 meme un 5 sou 8 . I 1 have 2 not 3 the 4 first* farthing". 

C^est 9 inalheureux 8 . That 1 is 3 bad 3 . 

Est-ce la dix sous? Do 1 you 3 call 3 this* a 5 dime ? 

Oui 1 ; et a ceci* est 4 une 5 aigle 8 Yes 1 ; and 3 this 8 is 4 an 5 eagle". 
(10 piastres). 

C^est 3 un 8 assignat 8 de cinq* That 1 is 8 a 3 five 4 dollar 5 bill" f 
piastres 5 . 

Pouvez^vous 9 changer 3 un 4 e*cu 5 ? Can 1 you 2 change 3 a 4 crown 5 ? 

Est 1 ce s un 3 chelin 5 m&cicain 4 ? Is 1 that 9 a 8 Mexican 4 shil- 
ling 5 ? 

Non 1 ; e'^stMel'argent 5 anglais 4 . No 1 ; it 3 is 3 English 4 money 5 . 
C^est' une 3 piastre 5 Espagnole 4 . This 1 is 3 a 8 Spanish 4 dollar 5 . 

PouvezMrous 2 me 4 changer 5 une 7 Can 1 you 9 give 8 me 4 change 

guine*e 8 ? for 8 a 7 guinea 8 ? 

Non, 1 je a ne 3 le puis 4 pas 3 . L'ar- No 1 , I 2 can 4 not 3 money* is 

gent 4 me" fait de bien rares 7 ^ ""^ with8 me 

V^ > r , just 10 now". 

visites, en ce moment 10 ' 11 .^ 

Est 1 ce 3 un 8 bon 4 louis d'or 5 ? Is 1 this 9 a 8 good 4 louisd'or* f 



fl-lf QiiP !-!$ dfF Parece;.* buen 3 No pucdo 
. decirseloaU. Corre s mucha 9 

aber nicfyt 8 ob er gut ifl, e3 7 ift 8 moneda" falsa 10 en" el co- 

jefct sriel 9 falfd)e3 10 eft 11 im ia mercio^.a Esta 14 parece 13 

Umlaufe 13 . X)iefer 14 fte^t 15 t)en= todavia 17 buena 16 . 
nocfy 17 gut 16 au$ 15 . 

olb> i^TaTr^t 8 in UeBer^ E1 orQl e f a2 m ^ ^^j 
* , - presentemente 8 . Me 15 ha lfl 

fluf 4 ' 5 fcefommcn 3 . SJiir 15 ifi ie dicho 17 que las 7 minas 9 

enafjlt irorten 1 ' 7 bte 7 ^inen 8 de California 10 produzcan" 

in 8 Saltfornien 10 liefern 11 eine u unaia cantidad" muy abun 
gro^e 13 ^^enge 1 *. 

SSiele 1 ftnb 2 geneigt 3 ju 4 gtaiiten 5 Muchos 1 son 8 dispuestos 3 ii 

e^ 6 fei eine 7 2luff^neiterei 8 . Creer5 5^7^ una 7 charla 

taneria 8 . 

S^ 1 ferft^erc 2 ie 3 t>a jjj 4 c^ 5 f einc 7 Aseguro 1 - 9 a U. 8 que 4 no 7 es^ 
2Iuffct)neit>eret 8 t|1 6 ; i$ 9 f>afce 10 charlataneria 8 . Tengo 9 - 1 '' 

pruebas 12 muy autenticas v 
para ls probar 14 my 15 asunto 18 

3^ 1 '6tn 3 auf bic SetDCt^fii^rung 8 No 3 quiero 1A4 argiiir 8 ; pero' 

ntd^t 3 begiertg 4 , aber 7 id) 8 bin soy 8 - 9 de 10 parecer" que u 

fcer^S^einung^tap^tie^ar* todos 21 los 13 buscadores 18 de 

toffetgraber 14 * 15 ioc^ am 18 ' 17 patatas 14 scran 19 * 80 final- 

Snte 18 aOe* 1 iro^I^abenter 22 - 33 mente l6 - 18 mas 2a ricos zs que fl 

fcin 20 crben 19 alS 3 * bie" los 25 buscadores 27 de oro 28 . 
graber 27 . 

SOZtt eincm SBttt^C. Con un Hostalero. 

jn 5 er= ^Tiene 1 U. a cuartos* de s al> 

mietfyen 8 ? quiler 6 ? 

*, mein ^crr 9 , i(^ 3 ^abc 4 mc^ Si 1 , senor 8 ; tengo 5 - 4 muchos s . 

rcre 5 . 2Ga3 8 fiir Dimmer 1 i Que 8 cuartos 7 quiere 10 U.? 

<Sie 9 ? SCoUen 15 ^Quiere 15 U. 14 un 18 apo- 

8 bn!l> sento^'con mucbles" d 

? . 

sin ellos 20 ? b 


n'semblc'bon'-je'nesaurais I* looks- gocxl'-I 4 don't' 

_ s know 8 there 7 is 8 much* 

vous 5 dire 8 . II 7 court 8 - ^"b bad 10 money" in 12 circula- 

beaucoup 9 de fausse 10 mon- tion 18 . That" looks 15 good 16 , 

naie 11 . Cette 14 piece parait 15 , however 17 . 
cependant 17 , fort bonne 10 . 

I/or 1 abonde*-* en ce momenf.' Gold 1 is- getting^ quite* plenty' 

, _ . _ , now 8 . JLhe 7 mines 8 in 

On m'a dit 15 " 17 que les 7 California 10 yield 11 an 1 ' 

mines 8 de 9 la Californie 10 en abundant 13 quantity 14 , I L 

fournissent 11 une 13 grande 13 am 16 told 17 , 
quantite 14 . 

fcien des personnes 1 pensent-* Man^ are- inclined" to* think 

que c'est" de la 7 charla- it 8 a 7 humbug 8 . 
tanerie 8 . 

Je 1 vous 3 assure 3 que 4 ce 5 n' 7 est 8 I 1 assure 9 you 3 that 4 it 5 is 6 

point 7 de la charlatanerie 8 . no 7 humbug 8 . I 9 bave 10 

J' 9 ai 10 des preuves 18 authen- authentic 11 proofs 13 to u 

tiques" qui appuient 1 ^ 4 backM m y" Assertion 18 . 
mon 15 assertion 18 . 

Je 1 n' s ai a point 3 envie 4 d'*argu- I 1 am 2 not 3 desirous 4 of 5 ar- 

menter 8 ; mais 7 je 8 suis 9 guing 8 ; but 7 I 8 am 9 of 10 

d' 10 opinion" que 13 tous les 13 opinion 11 that 13 the 13 pota- 


spront 19 ' 20 anrps 18 font 17 ' 18 ' 

BClUllt . UUICD IUUU " . i , , , , 1 

r . ' wealthy 83 than 84 the 25 gold 28 

bien 21 plus 83 k lour aise^d diggers 27 . 
que 24 les 25 mineurs 87 d'or 28 . 

Avee un Hdte. With a Landlord. 

Avez^vous 3 des 3 chambres* a 5 Have 1 you 3 any 8 rooms* to 1 

louer 8 ? let 8 ? 

Oui 1 , Mr. 3 , j' 8 en ai 4 plusieurs 5 . Yes 1 , sir 3 , I 3 have 4 several 5 

Quelles 8 chambres 7 vou- what 8 rooms 7 do 8 you 9 wish 11 

Iez 10 -vous* (owir 11 -") ? Vou- to 11 have 12 ? Do 13 you" wish 11 

lez^-vous 1 * une 18 chambrc 17 an 18 apartment 17 furnished* 1 




braucfye 2 mobltrte 3 3intmer*. Necesito 1 - 9 aposentos 4 alhaja* 

dos 3 . 

3$nen 4 bienen. 3 Pu edoservirle^. 

ie Jcrete- 3 u tre* 
ten-. 3$ 9 null 10 3*>nen 12 bte 13 
Simmer" grien". 

sefiare ^u d u los , 3 ar)0 . 
Sentogl4> A il5 estal8 f 7 

sala 18 - 1 ". 

r 1 i{l 9 ntc^t 3 fe^r* gro 5 ; ater 6 No 3 es 1 - 2 muy 4 ancha 5 , pero* 
er 7 papt 5 - 9 fur 10 tnicfy 11 . me" cuadra 7-fl bien.e 

fetyen 2 ta 3 ^ier* Med^ifl 5 , U. 1 Y# que 3 hay 4 - 5 todo 6 - 7 lo 

qe es necesario; y que 

ftnb 8 jei 3 2trmftuljle 4 ' 5 , 
fecl)3 6 Stii^Ie 7 , etn 8 newer 9 
Stepptc^ 10 , ein" f(J)oner 13 pte= 
gel 13 , lint) 14 fefyr" faubern 18 
S3 orange 17 . 2luc^ 18 ftnV 21 an 23 
beiben 24 etten 25 teg 26 ^ 7 j?a* 
c^ranfe 22 * 

* @te mtdj' bic 4 @Iafjht- 
5 fe^en 3 . 

rt", , wdtt m-^enn- es 

muebles^son^deanacardo 20 . 

Aqui 1 estan 3 dos 3 paltronas", 
seis 6 sillas 7 , un s nuevo 9 ta- 
piz 10 ,un 11 espejo 13 hermoso ia , 
y 14 colgaduras 17 muy 15 boni- 
tas 16 ; ademas 1 * 19 , estan 20 - 21 
alacenas 22 a 23 los ambos 84 
lados 25 de 26 la 27 chimenea 28 . 

ver 3 los 4 cuartosde 

dormir 5 . 

SPir a tuollen 1 fc^en 8 , ob 4 ba^ s 
S3ett 6 gut 8 ift 7 ; benn 9 ba<J 10 
ifi 11 bte 12 . ( paupt|"arf>e 13 ' 14 . SBenn 15 
ic^ 16 etn 18 gute3 19 33ett 20 t>abe 17 , 
fummere 23 ^ icf) 21 mt^ tuenig 22 
nm 94 bag ilbrtge* 5 -* 7 . 

fimnen ? fic^ 3 Ictn 9 beffered 8 

tie 9 Stube 3 auf 5 bie 8 
fc,tnau$ M ? 

Veamos 1 - 3 , si 4 la 5 cama 8 esta y 
buena 8 , porque 9 eso 10 es 11 
lo 13 principal 13 - 1 *. Si 15 ten- 
ga 16 - 17 una 18 buena 18 cama 90 , 
nada 25 " 26 mas 27 

No 9 puede 9 U. 1 tener^e una 

mejor 8 . 
^Abre li4 f el 9 cuarto 8 en 5 la 

calle 7 ? 


B 1 me fauf' des chambers* I 1 want 3 furnished 3 rooms.* 

Je 1 puis 3 vous* 'en donner> 

\ _ . _ , Please 5 to wa 7 m 8 

Ayez la bonte" 5 d'entrer 8 " 8 . will 10 show" you 13 the" 

Je 9 vais vous" montrer 10 -" rooms 1 *. Here" is 18 the* 

. les 13 chambres 14 . Voici 15 - 18 sitting-room 18 . 

le 17 salon 1 * 19 . 

ll l n' 3 est 2 pas 3 bien* grand 5 ; It 1 is a not 3 very 4 large 5 ; but? 

mais 8 il 7 fera 8 ' mon 11 affaire. it 7 will 8 do 9 for 10 me 11 . 

Vous 1 voyez 3 qu' s il y 4 a 5 tout 8 * 7 You 1 see 2 that 3 there 4 is 5 every 8 

ce qui est necessaire 8 ; et 9 thing 7 necessary 8 ; andthat 10 

quo" l' u ameublement n en the 11 furniture 13 is 13 very 14 

est 13 fort 14 beau 15 . Tous 18 les 17 neat 15 . All 19 the 17 furni- 

meubles 18 sont 19 d' acajou 20 . ture 18 is 19 mahogany 20 . 

Voici 1 - 3 deux 3 fauteuils", six 8 Here 1 are 8 two 8 arm 4 chairs 5 , 

chaises 7 , un 8 tapis 10 tout six 8 chairs 7 , a 8 new 9 carpet 10 , 

neuf 9 , une u belle 13 glace 13 , a 11 fine 12 glass 13 ; and 14 very 15 

et de 14 tres 15 jolis 16 rideaux 17 ; neat* 8 curtains 17 ; besides 19 

il y w a w , en 18 outre 19 , des that 19 , there 20 are 21 cup- 

armoires 23 de 23 chaque 24 cote^ 5 boards 22 on 23 both 24 sides 25 

de c8 la 27 chernine'e 28 . of 2 " the 97 chimney 28 . 

Montrez-moi 1 - les 4 clZmbr^si; Let ' me3 see3 the * Bedrooms 5 . 
coucher 5 . 

Thi Wa 8 ^ if * ou ' 

De ce cote-ci 1 - 3 , monsieur 3 , 75 W 8 a 

_ . _ , please 8 . 

vous plait 4 " 8 . 

Voyons 1 " 3 si 4 le 5 lit 8 est 7 bon 8 ; Let 1 us 9 see 3 whether 4 the 5 

car 9 c'est 10 - 11 la le 13 princi- bed 8 is 7 good 8 ; for 9 that 10 

pal 13 - 14 . Quand" j'ai 18 - 17 un 18 is" the 13 main 13 point 14 . 

bon 1 ' lit- je 21 'iis^eTd^ T^ 11 "^ ^ ^ ^ 

bed 20 , I 21 hardly 23 care 58 

eas 22 - 23 du 24 reste 25 - 27 . for 24 any_ 25 thing 26 else 37 . 

Vous 1 ne 9 sauriez 9 en de'sirer 3 - 4 You 1 cannot 2 wish" for* a 5 

un 3 meilleur 8 ' 7 . better 8 one 7 . 

La a chambre 3 lonne-t-elle 1 ' 4 esur 5 Does 1 the 3 room 3 look 4 into* 

ia e ru3? the 8 street 7 ? 




Sfein 1 , metn ^err 2 , jte 3 gefyF itadj 5 No 1 , senor 2 , abre 3 - 4 en* el 6 jar- 

bent arten 7 fyinau? 4 . din 7 . 

1 ' 9 bejfer 4 . 3d) 3 fcfytafe 9 Mucbo 9 mejor 4 . No 6 quiero* 7 

nidjf gerne" ' 3 dormirM enl uu " cuartol> 

tea 16 ' 17 SGagenge* que abre en la calle 13 , 

a" razon" del 16 - 17 ruido" 
de 19 los 20 cocbes 31 . 

(^ 1 S>crmut^e s ta^ 3 Sett* ijl s 
gut 8 . 3e^t 7 fommt e^ 10l1 

ttitr no^ 9 aitf 19 ten 13 ^ret3 14 
an.a SBaS 15 erlangen 18 @te 17 
fiir 18 bie 20 bret 21 Simmer 22 mit 23 

^ 1 t)aBe 2 ten 5 toaal 8 mit 7 einem 8 
ber* 10 3i mmer " immer 3 fiir 13 
ijierge^n 13 (^ittinge 14 sermie* 
tfyet 4 . ie" foflen" mir 18 fiir 23 

Oreo 1 - 9 que la 8 cama 4 esta 5 
buena 8 . Nada mas que del 

prccio. 7 ' 14 ^Que 15 quiere 16 - 18 
U. 17 por 19 los 20 tres" cuar- 
tos 22 y 83 la 24 cocina" ? 

He 1 ' 4 siempre 3 alquilado 4 la s 
sala 6 y 7 uno 8 de 9 los 10 cuar- 
tos" por 12 catorce 13 cheli- 
nes 14 . U. 15 me 18 dara 16 - 17 

SCo^e 23 gcben 1 ' 

ut- Urten- 

- 04 todo^ Es 80 -' so- 
s l t e chelines" 

ftnbe ic^ 1 - 3 ijiel 578 elb 8 .b 

A mi parecer 3 ,^ es 3 mucho* 8 
de dinero 1 *. 

este" cuartel' 
delo la u ciu . 


9 , 

toiler 19 ermtetf>et 17 merben 18 . S onmuycara S (costosas). 


utnee 7 geben 4 ; aber 8 tg 
broud)e 10 -" etnen" Jbetl 13 
pincn 18 



It n a nuf 6t:ca(|tcn' ju fcnnt it. 

' Bien esta . Le 

una e inea? 8 necesi . 

to"-" una oarte 13 de' 4 la" 




No a 1 , mor.sieur", elle 3 donne 4 No 1 , sir 8 ; it 3 looks 4 into 5 the 6 

sur 5 )e 6 jardin 7 . garden 7 . 

Tant ls mieux 3 - 4 ; je s n'aime 6 - 7 So 1 much 8 the 3 better 4 I 5 

point a 8 coi.ther 9 dans 10 don't 8 like 7 to" sleep in 10 

imp" rhamhrp 13 'sur l a rue ' a " fr0nt12 room ' 3 > on " ac ' 

uuc ouaiiiuit; &LU iti rue . . /,. , ., . ._ _ 

r count" of 10 the 17 noise 18 of 1 * 

& cause du 14 - 18 bruit 18 des 19 - 80 the 80 carriages 21 . 
voitures 21 . 

Desirez-vous 1 ~ 8 voir 4 * s les 6 autres 7 Do 1 you 8 wish 3 to 4 see 5 tho* 

chambres 8 ? other 7 rooms 8 ? 

Le s lit 4 me 1 semble 9 bon 6 . I 1 fancy 8 the 3 bed 4 is 3 good 8 . 

nrix 14 f Oup 15 de- 

, ^ What 15 dn> 8 von 17 aslc" for 1 " 


chambres^ et de la 84 cui- J e " three^ rooms- mth- 

gine2i? the" kitchen^ 5 ? 

J'ai 1>a toujours 3 lou^ 4 , h, 19 qua- I 1 have 8 always 3 let 4 the 5 par- 

torze 13 chelines 14 , le 5 salon 8 , lour 8 , with 7 one 8 of 9 the 10 

et 7 une 8 seule chambre 11 . rooms 11 , for 13 fourteen 13 shil- 

Vous 15 me 18 donnerez l(i ' 17 du 33 * 84 lings 14 . You 15 will 1 " give 17 

tout 25 une 19 guin^e 30 par 31 me 18 one 19 guinea 20 a 21 week 88 

eemaine 23 . Ce 28 n'^est 27 que 28 for 33 the 24 whole" it 28 is 87 

sept 29 chelins 30 pour 31 l >32 au- only 88 seven 29 shillings 30 

tre 33 chambre 34 et 35 la 38 cuis- for 31 the 32 other 33 room 34 

ine 37 . and 35 the 38 kitchen 37 . 

A vous dire vrai,g c' 3 est beau- I 1 think 3 it 3 a 4 great 5 sum 8 of 7 

coup 5 - 8 d' 7 argent 8 . money 8 . 

Considerez 1 que 2 c' 3 est 4 un 5 des 817 Consider 1 that 8 this 3 is 4 one* 

meilleurs 8 quartiers 9 de 10 la u of 6 the 7 best 8 quarters 9 of 10 

Tille 12 ; 'el^le 14 loyer 17 des f 

Eh bien 1 , je a vous 5 donnerai w "Well 1 , I a will 3 give 4 you 5 a* 

une 8 guine"e 7 ; mais bien en- guinea 7 ; but 8 I 9 must 1 * 

tendu queh j' 8 aurai 10iU une 13 have 11 a 18 part 13 in 14 the iS 

partie 13 de 14 la 15 cave 18 , et 17 cellar 18 , and 17 a 18 place 18 to* 

un^endroit^pour^ymettre 21 put 21 coals 88 and 33 wood* 1 

, - , in 25 
mon charbm dc terre 88 et 33 


J>a* crjte$l fffr* @ie* foITen 5 Se entiende asi'.i Tendra" 

eiuen 7 erfd>liefjbaren 9 ~" 13 3)Ia|j 7 U. 4 un 7 lugar 8 cerrado 

befommen^ SCann 16 benfen 19 con 9 Have 13 ,"* ^Cuando 18 

<te 18 son 2 ' 3f>r 24 Settling 25 quiere 17 - 19 U. 18 tomar 21 pos- 

ju 20 netymen 21 ? esion^de^sus^aposentos 35 ? 

ben!e* fciefen' 8enb 3"t Me roono^ de' 

@ie Siaes 10 - 13 bei 16 
guter 3eit 17 gure^t" . se a preparado^ en" 

buena. 17 

Venir6 ^ uando7 ^ 9 lo 

3nen 10 gefaUtg" tjU quiera 10 -". 

JBcgtfi^ungcn. Salutadonea. 

d) 1 tviinfdje 3 3^nen 3 eincn 4 gu^ Buenas 3 dias 8 tenga 11 U 8 . 
ten 5 

SStc 1 beftnbcn 2 ' 4 @ie s (i^ $eute 5 ? ^Como 1 esta 8 U 3 . hoy 5 ? 

anj 1 to^t 2 , ic^ banfc 3 3^ncn 4 . Muy 1 bien 8 , Gracias w . 
Jte 1 ifl a Sfyr 3 Seftnten 4 ? ^ Como 1 va a su 3 salud 4 ? 

, f 6 

csta* U ? 

idj 8 , metn ^crr 3 . A 1 mi ordinario 8 , Senoi*. 

1 @te mtr 9 , mtdj nad) 5 Permitame 1 * 9 de s preguntar 4 a* 
cfunt^eit 7 ju 3 erfun= U 6 .^como esta su salud 7 ?m 

, Senor 3 , No' 
muy ' 7 buen()8 ; 

betriitt 5 mid)* 3 En verdad*, lo siento 2 -* ma- 
chisimo 4 . 


Ccla 1 est j entendu 3 . Vous* au- That 1 is 9 understood 3 . You* 

rez* 8 un? endroif, qui J 

* __ , a 10 lock 11 and 13 key" to 1 

a la clef 1 "-". Quand 18 pen- it". When 18 do 17 you 18 

sez- J7 ' lfl vous 18 occuper 20 - 23 vo- mean 19 to 90 take 21 posses- 

tre 94 appartement 85 ? s i on ia of 83 your 9 * lodging 35 ? 


coucher 8 ce 8 soir 9 . Faites See 10 that 11 every 13 thing" 

en sorte que 10 - 1 * tout 1 *" soit" *" read ^" inlB season 17 - 
pret" a 18 temps 17 . 

Fort 1 bien a , Monsieur 3 . Vous* Very 1 well 3 , sir 3 . You 4 may 5 


pouvez* venir" quand 7 '" bon n 

* _ . _ , * please 11 . 

il vous plaint 10 *". 

Saluter. Salutations. 

Je 1 vous 3 souhaite a le 4 bon- I 1 wish 9 you 3 a 4 good 3 morn- 
jour* 8 ing 8 - 

Comment 1 vous 3 portez- 2 - 4 vous, How 1 do 9 you 3 do 4 to-day 5 ? 
aujourd'hui 5 ?^ 

Fort 1 bien a , je vous 4 remercie 3 . Quite 1 well 8 , thank 3 you 4 . 

Comment 1 est 3 votre 3 sant6 4 ? How 1 is 3 your 3 health 4 ? 

Tres 1 bonne 2 et 3 la votre 4 ? Exceeding 1 good 2 : and* 

yours 4 ? 

a 1'ordinaire 9 , Mr. 3 As 1 usual, 3 sir*. 

Vous me 9 permittez 1 de 3 m'in- Permit 1 me 9 to 3 inquire 4 after* 
former 4 de s votre 8 sante 7 . your 8 health 7 . 

Merci 1 - 9 , aonsieur 3 je*ne 8 n\3 Thank 1 you 9 , sir 3 ; I 4 am 5 not" 
porte 5 pas J tres 7 -bien s very 7 well 3 . 

J 9 'en suis s , vraiinent 1 , bien Indeed 1 ! I a am 3 quite 4 sorry 5 . 


SSctm 50Httaggcffcn. Comiendo. 

Die 1 locfe 2 lautet 3 jum* S|Jen 5 ; Toca' la 1 campanilla 8 por 4 la 
lafien- ie 


folgen 8 -". 

fcoflen 2 ie* neljmen 4 ? ,jDe que quiere U. quo lo 
sirva ? n 

9 , toenn ic^ bitten Unpoco'devaca^silegusta 3 -*. 
ie 3 einen 4 letter 5 up* i Quiere 1 - 3 U. a sopa? ? 

e iQuiere u un pedazo de 

puerco 5 ?o 

off 1 ic^ 9 S^nen* eteag 8 Don 7 -buiere U oue le sirva 1 -* 

.i r a rr i r o t on yWUlcIc U. UUc 1C Dirv<* 

btejen 8 Srbfen 9 tjorlegen 3 ? * guisantes"? 

n 1 e3 3^nen 3 gefallig 3 tfl, Con mucho gusto 1 - 3 , Senor 4 . 
mem ^err 4 

SBotlen 1 ie a tie* iite 5 ^aben 3 , ^Quiere 1 TJ. 9 hacerme 3 el 4 

mtr 8 ein 10 tu(f 11 on l2 btefem 13 favor 5 de" darme 7 * 8 ? un 10 

^albfleifc^ 14 ju geben 7 ? pedazo" de 18 ternero 14 ? 

Slit 1 SSergniigen 9 . Con 1 gusto 9 . 

ie 2 gett 4 ober 5 ^Quiere 1 - 3 U 3 . magro 4 , d* 

? gordo 6 ? 

<m 3 Seiben 4 , wenn 5 Unl 5 de , ambos< ^7^ 

- - - 
ta bien.q 

1 ! Sine 3 Sap 3 f)ee 5 . [Muchacho 1 ! una 3 taza 8 de 4 16* 

1 , ia 9 mein ^)err 3 . Si 21 , si 9 , Senor. 

t^Ste 9 fo 4 gut 5 fein' unb H !igarae u. el favor de' dar. 

mir"- 19 ba<3 9 S3rob 10 reit^cn 8 ? me 8 pan i: . 

SDoffen 1 ie eta 4 son* btefem 8 i Quiere 1 U. 9 tomar 8 un pooo* 

alat 7 ne^men 3 ? de s esta 6 ansalada ? 7 


Diner. At Dinner. 

La 1 clochette 3 sonne 3 pour 4 Hi- The 1 bell 9 rings 3 for 4 dinner* : 
ner 5 . Allons "" diner. 11 let 8 us 7 go 8 in 9 and 10 dine 11 . 

Que 1 souhaitez- 3 ' 4 vous 3 ? What 1 will 3 you 3 have 4 ? 

Du 1 breuf 3 s^il vous 4 plait 5 . Some 1 beef 3 , if 3 you 4 please*. 

Voulez-'vous 2 de la soupe 7 ? "Will 1 you 3 have 8 a 4 plate 5 of 8 

soup 7 ? 

D4sirez- 8 vous 9 un morceau du Do 1 you 3 wish 3 for 4 pork 5 ? 
cochon 5 ? 

Vous 4 offrirai-je 1 - 3 de 5 * ces 7 ' 8 Shall 1 1 3 help 3 you 4 to 5 some 6 
pois 8 ? of 7 these 8 peas 9 ? 

S^il vous 3 plait 3 , Monsieur 4 . If 1 you 8 please 3 , sir 4 . 

VoulezMrous 2 avoir 3 la 4 bonte" 5 Will 1 you 3 have 3 the 4 kindness 3 
de me 8 donner 7 un 10 mor- to 8 help 7 me 8 to 8 a 10 piece 11 
ceau u de 12 ce 13 veau- 14 15, ? of 13 that 13 veal 14 ? 

Avec 1 plaisir 3 . With 1 pleasure 9 . 

De*sirez- 3 vous a du gras 4 ou 5 du Do 1 you 3 wish 3 fat 4 or 5 lean 8 ? 
maigre 6 ? 

Un 1 peu 3 de Tun, et de Tautre* 4 , A 1 little 3 of 3 both 4 , if 5 you 9 

B 5 'il vous 8 plait 7 . please 7 . 

Garcon 1 ! une 3 tasse 3 de 4 the* 5 . Waiter I 1 A s cup 8 of* tea 5 . 

Oui 1 , oui a l Monsieur 3 . Ay 1 , ay 3 , sir 8 . 

Voudriez-^ous 3 bien me faire Wmy<m-bJ so 4 kind' ^to' 

, pass 8 the 9 bread 10 this 11 

passer 3 " 8 le 9 pain 10 ? way ? 13 

Prendrez 3 -vous a un peu 4 de s Will 1 you 9 take 3 some 4 of* this 9 

cette 8 salade ? 7 salad ? 7 

312 NOTES. 


a el)t auf, goes out. 

b Now comes it but yet on the price to, (Now it comes to 
the price). 

I find that much gold (money). 

d The proper import of the expression is, that the statement 
is not only understood ; but agreed to. 
Make every thing aright by good time. 


a The Market (Commerce), b Without them. 
c Cuadra bien, please well, d I require nothing more. 
e Have, f Opens. 
g Nothing more but the price. 
h It appears to me. i One understands it so. 
k Cerrado con Have, fastened with a key. 

1 Preguntar a U., to inquire of you. 
nx How is your health ? 

n What do you desire that I should help you to ? 

o Pedazo, piece, p Dar, give, q Would please me welL 


a Money makes rare visits to me in this moment. 

b Court, circulates, runs, (from the Latin curro, to run). 

Qui appuient, which help, d At their ease. 
e Gives it ? 

f It does not agitate itself. There is nothing more to be 
discussed at present, but the price. 
g To tell you the truth (vrai). 
h Bien entendu que, it being well understood that. 

1 En sort que, in such a manner that. 
k How do you carry yourself to-day ? 












Gin u 


Jnuit'crt unfc ctrtfif, 




















































diez y seis, 



diez y siete, 



diez y ocho, 



diez y nueve, 






viente y uno, 


























one hundred. 

ciento y uno, 

cent un, 

hundred and one. 

dos ciento, 

tieux cent, 

two hundred. 



one thousand. 







1. ToC Se 'itjcrov yev- 

1. Or Jesus etant 

1. Now when Je- 

VTjdtrros ev Bj]6\(ffj. 

ne a Bethlehem, 

sus was born in 

rrjs 'louS.u'ar, ev *lp- 

ville de Juda, au 

Bethlehem of Ju- 

pais 'H/jtoSov ToO fta- 

temps du roi He- 

dea, in the days 01* 

eriXe'cdf, tSoii, fidyot 

rode, voici arriver 

Herod the king, be- 

ajro uv3TO\u>v TTiipe- 

des sages d'Orient 

hold, there came 

yevovTo fls lepocroXv- 

a Jerusalem, 

wise men from the 

u.a, \eyovres ' 

east to Jerusalem, 

2. Uoi5 eo~Tiv o re- 

2. en disant : Ou 

2. Saying, Where 

X^fh ficuriXfvs TO>V 

est le roi des Juifs 

is he that is born 

lavOaiaiv ; elBop.fv yhp 

qui est ne ? car 

king of the Jews ? 

avTov TOV d&Tfpa ev 

nous avons vu son 

for we have seen 

Ti] dvaroXfi Kill q\6o- 

etoile en Orient, et 

his star in the east, 

p.V irpoo-Kwqa-at avTtp. 

nous sommes venus 

and are come to 


worship him. 

3. 'AKoixras Sc 'Hpw- 

3. Ce que le roi 

3. When Herod 

8r]s 6 /S.JcriXfiiy erapd- 

He rode ayant en- 

the king had heard 

X^l'i Kal Tracra 'itpo- 

tendu, il en fut trou- 

these things, he was 

aoXi'/ia ^CT' avTov* 

ble, et tout Jerusa- 

troubled, and all Je- 

lem avec lui. 

rusalem with him. 

4. Kat o-vvayny>v 

4. Et ayant assem- 

4. And when he 

iravras TOVS 'Apxifpfis 

ble tous les princi- 

had gathered all the 

nal r/)a^i/xaTeIf TOV 

paux sacrificateurs, 

chief priests and 

Xaov, frrwoaveTO Trap 

et les scribes du 

scribes of the peo- 

CLVT&V TTOV 6 XpiQ-ros 

peuple, il s'informa 

ple together, he de- 


d'eux ou le Christ 

manded of them 

devait naitre. 

where Christ should 

be born. 

5. Of 8e ftirov auT<a 

5. Etilsluidirent: 

5. And they said 

'Ev BrjOXeep TTJS 'lou- 

A Bethlehem, villc 

unto him, In Beth- 

daiaf ovTca yap ye- 

de Judee ; car il est 

lehem of Juclea : for 

ypoTrrat 5ia TOW TT/JO- 

ainsi ecrit par un 

thus it is written by 


prophete : 

the prophet, 

6. " Kat erii Br;5Xf- 

6. Et toi, Bethle- 

6. And thou Beth- 

ffi, 7:7 'lot'Sa, ovSaptas 

hem, terre de Juda, 

lehem, in the land 

eXd^t'crrr; c? V rotr 

tu n'es nullement la 

of Juda, art not the 

tjyffj.uo'iv Iov8a ' fK 

plus petite cntrc les 

least among the 

o~oi> yap ff\evo~(Tat 

gouverneurs de Ju- 

princes of Juda : for 

qyovufvos, oortr iroi- 

da ; car de toi sorti- 

out of thee shall. 

pivtl w \u6v nov rbv 

ra le Conducteur qui 

come a Governor, 






1. T>a ^cfm? flcborcn 

1. Y despues que 

1. At Jesu nato in 

war jn^etbh'fyan, im 

hubo nacido Jesus 

Bethlehem Judaeae, 

jiibifcben icwbe, jur 

en Bethlehem de 

in diebus Herodis 

3cit betf SvCniki!? Jjpc= 

Judea en los dias 

regis, ecce Magi ab 

robes, ftcf)c, ba huncn 

del Rey Herodes, 

Orientibus accesse- 

bie 353 e iff u t>om 50?or- 

he aqui unos Magos 

runt in Hierosoly- 

Aenlanbe flfn 3erufa-' 

vinieron del Orien- 

mam, dicentes : 

lem, nnb fprad)en : 

te a Jerusalem. 

2. 3BO |t bfV llCU; 

2. Diciendo < Don- 

2. Ubi est natus 

flf borne Sf&nio, ber 

de esta el que ha 

rex Judceorum ? vi- 

3tfoen? IDir baben 

nacido rey de los 

dimus enim ejus 

fctncn tern ciefehcn 

Judios ? Porque he- 

stellam in Oriente, 

im SOiorflenUnbe, nut 

mos visto su estrella 

et venimus adorare 

flub flefommctt, ib/n 

en el Oriente, y vi- 



nimos a adorarle. 

3. 2>a ba$ ber ^6- 

3. Y cuando el 

3. Audiens autem 

ni^ J^croltc^ h6rctc, 

Rey Herodes hubo 

Herodes rex, turba- 

cvfcbvacf cr, niift mit 

oido esto, turbose y 

tus est, et omnis 

ib,m tag ganje 3criu 

con el toda Jerusa- 

Hierosolyma cum 

fakm ; 



4. Unb fic^" fcerfam: 

4. Y convocados 

4. Et congregans 

mdn a(lcJP)ol)cpvic|lci- 

todos los principes 

omnes principes Sa- 

imp @dmft>K(ehrtcn 

de los Sacerdotes 

cerdotum et Scribas 

imtcr i>cm 35oll', uuc 

y los Escribas del 

populi, sciscitabatur 

erforfdjte toon i^nen/ 

pueblo preguntoles 

ab eis ubi Christus 

wo Gt)ri|hts follte gc= 

donde habia de na- 


boron Jt>crlcn. 

cer el Christo. 

5. Unb ffe fasten 

5. Y ellos le dije- 

5. At illi dixerunt 

if) in : 3" SBct()(fb,em, 

ron: En Bethlehem 

ei : In Bethlehem 

im jnbifdien ianpc. 

de Judea, porque 

Judaeae : sic enim 

S)fnn alfo |tehct 3?= 

asi esta escrito por 

scriptum est per 

febriebcu Dnrd) ben 

el profeta. 

Prophetam : 

6. Unb bn ft()ff= 

6. Y tu Bethle- 

6. Et tu Bethle- 

b/em, im jnbifdicnian-- 

hem tierra de Juda, 

hem terra Juda, ne- 

bc, bijt mit nidurit bic 

no eres la menor 

quaquam minima es 

Hciu|tcnntcr bcngur-- 

entrp los principes 

in ducibus Juda : ex 

flcn 2(iiba ; bcnn aue! 

de Juda, porque de 

te enim exibit dux, 

btr foil mir fommcu 

t.i saldra el caudillo 

qui regat populum 

ber J^crjog, bcr fiber 

que regira a Israel 

meum Israel. 







paitra mon peuple 

that shall rule ir.y 


people Israel. 

7. Tore 'H/xoSq? Xd- 

7. Alors Herode, 

7. Then Herod, 

0pa Ka\t(ras TOUS p.d- 

ayant appele en se- 

when he had privi- 

yOUf, TJKplftaKTf 7Tap' > 

cret les sages, s'in- 

ly called the wise 

avT&v TOV xpovov TOV 

forma d'eux soi- 

men, inquired of 

(paivofjitvov doTfpos. 

gneusement du 

them diligently 

temps que 1'etoile 

what time the star 

leur etait apparue. 


8. Kat TTf/r^a? av- 

8. Et les envoy ant 

8. And he sent 

Toi't ei? B>;0Xee/i, et- 

a Bethlehem, il leur 

them to Bethlehem, 

TT nopei/tfen-er, d/epi- 

dit : Allez, et vous 

and said, Go, and 

/Swy e^rrdtrare Trfpt 

informez soigneuse- 

search diligently for 

TOW jraifit'ou tirav Se 

ment touchant le 

the young child 

evprjre, drrayyeiXare 

petit enfant ; et 

and when ye have 

/io(, OTTO)? Kayo) f\dav 

quand vous 1'aurez 

found him, bring 

irpo<j-Kvvi]<r<M> avTta. 

trouve, faites-le-moi 

me word again, 

savoir, afin que j'y 

that I may come 

aille aussi, et que je 

and worship him 



9. Ol Se dcou(raiTff 

9. Eux done ayant 

9. When they had 

Toi5 pacrtXewr, fnopev- 

ou'i le roi, s'en al- 

heard the king, they 

0r)<rav ' Kal 18011, 6 

lerent ; et voici, 1'e- 

departed ; and lo, 

da-Trip, ov dSov tv TTJ 

toile qu'ils avaient 

the star, which they 

dvaToX^, iTporfytv av- 

vue en Orient allait 

saw in the east, 

TOlif, fCOS t\6<t)V fOTT] 

Invant eux, jusqu'a 

xvent before them, 

fTrdvo) oJ ^f TO naiSiov. 

e qu'elle vint et 

till it came and 

j'arrela sur le lieu 

stood over where 

ou etait le peiit en- 

the young child 



10. 'iSoiTfy Se rov 

10. Et quand ils 

10. When they 

d<rrpa, exaprjcrav ^a- 

virent 1'eioile, ils se 

saw the star, they 

pai* fityd^rjv a(p68pa. 

rejouirent d'une fort 

rejoiced with ex- 

grande joie. 

ceeding great joy. 

11. Knt cX^on-ej tij 

11. Et etant entres 

11. And when 


dans la maison, ils 

they were come in 

irai&iov fjifTa Maplas 

trouverent le petit 

to the house, they 

rf)s fjujTpos avTov mil 

enfant avec Marie, 

saw the young child 

irrotrrts Trpoa-tKvvT]- 

sa mere, lequel ils 

with Mary his moth- 

(rav avrw, /tat dvoifcuv- 

adorerent, . en se 

er, and fell down 

res TOVS dr/ravpati iv- 

prosteroant en terrc; 

and worshipped 






ttmn "33 off Sfvarf rin 

mi pueblo. 

eiT fa;. 

7. Sa bericf JPcro= 

7. Entonces He- 

7. Tune Herodea 

t>es Me TDBeifen fyeint; 

rodes llamados en 

clam vocans Magos. 

liob, unfc fvlffnctc mit 

sec re to los Magos 

perquisivit ab eis 


inquirio de ellos 

tempus apparen..s 

ler tcvn cvfdnencn 

cuidadosamente el 



tiempo en que apa- 

recio la estrella. 

8. Hub wits fie 

8. Y enviandoles 

8. Et mittens eos 

gen 35etb,lefye:n, tml> 

a Bethlehem les di- 

in Bethlehem, dixit : 

fyracl) : Biefyct bin 

jo : Id,y preguntad 

Euntes diligenter 

unD fovfcbft tffifiici 

con diligencia por 

explorate de puero : 

nad) l>em iitt>Uin ; 

el nino, y cuando 

cum autem invene- 

imt> rceun ifyr c$ ftn-- 

le hubieseis hallado 

ritis, Tenunciate mi- 

Drt, fo fa$et cS mir 

hacedmelo saber, 

ll i ut et ego veniena 

tt>iet>er, ta)j id) and) 

paraque vaya yo 

adorem eum. 

fommf, uuD (6 an= 

tambien y le adore. 


9. W$ ffe nun ten 

9. Y habiendo 

9. Illi autem audi- 

6 1113 ,qc()6rct fatten, 

ellos oido al Key 

entes regem, profec- 

JC.ACII fie bin. Ui^ 

marcharonse. Y he 

ti sunt, et ecce, stel- 

ftc^c, fcri- @tcvn, l>cn 

aqui la estrella que 

la quam viderant in 

fie im 50torc\fn(at^f 

habian visto en el 

Oriente, antecede- 

cicfei)fii fatten, t ain<) 

Oriente iba delante 

bat eos, usque dum 

tor ifynett fyin, bit? tafj 

de ellos hasta que 

veniens staret supra 

er fain, unD |taut>, 

llegando se paro 

ubi erat puer. 

obeii ubcr, ta ^^^g 

sobre donde estaba 

iut>[ein roar. 

el nino. 

10. a fie ten 

10. Y al ver la 

10. Videntes au- 

rent fafycit, n?urteu 

estrella se regocija- 

tem stellam, gavsi 

fte fyod) cvfveitct, 

ron con extremado 

sunt gaudium mag- 


num valde. 

11. Unb .qin.aen in 

11. Y entrando en 

11. Et venientes 

fcat? J^an^, nil? faubrn 

la casa hallaron al 

in domum, invene- 

IMS ^iuMcin mit 

niilo con su madre 

runt puerum cum 

SDTaria, feiner 90int= 

Maria, y postran- 

Maria matre ejus. 

tcr, nu& jieleu ltie^er, 

dose le adoraron, y 

Et prociaentes ado- 

imb beteten e^ an, 

abriendo sus tesoros 

raverunt eum, et 

unD tfyatm ibre @d)a- 

le ofrecieron dones 

aperientes thcsauros 







rav, Trpoc-TjttyKav av- 

et, apres avoir de- 

him : and when 

T<O &5pa, xi }v<r lf > * a ' 

ploye leurs tresors, 

they had opened 

Xt'/Sapo?, Kal <rp.vptav. 

ils lui offrirent des 

their treasures, they 

presens, savoir, de 

presented unto him 

1'or, de 1'encens, et 

gifts ; gold, and 

de la myrrhe. 

frankincense, and 


12. Kat xpr;/iaTio-0/j;- 

12. Puis etant di- 

12. And being 

Tf j /car' ovap p.f/ ava- 

vinement avertis 

warned of God in 

ndfj^ai irpos 'HpiSqi/, 

dans un songe de 

a dream that they 

St uX\ijs 68ov av(%a>- 

ne retourner point 

should not return to 

prjo-av ds TT\V yjtpav 

vers Herode, ils se 

Herod, they depart- 


retirerent en leur 

ed into their own 

pays par un autre 

country another 



13. 'Avaxcoprjo-avTav 

13. Or, apres qu'ils 

13. And when 

8f aiiTaiv, I8ov, ayyf- 

se furent retires, voi- 

they were depart- 

Xor Kvpiov (paiverai 

ci, 1'ange du Seign- 

ed, behold, the an- 

KOT ovap rw 'Ic0crfj(p, 

eur apparut dans un 

gel of the Lord ap- 

X/ya>i>, 'Eyfp$eir ?ra- 

songe a Joseph, et 

peareth to Joseph 

pd\a/3e TO jraibiov Kal 

lui dit : Leve-toi, et 

in a dream, saying, 

TTJV furjTepa aurou, icai 

prends le petit en- 

Arise, and take the 

(pevye ds AfyvTrroi/ 

fant et sa mere, et 

young child and his 

xat t(rd( fKft e'coj ac 

t'enfuis en Egypte, 

mother, and flee 

eiTTto (rot /ieXXet -yap 

et demeure la jus- 

into Egypt, and be 

'HpcbS^f t]T(lV TO TTCll- 

qu'a ce que je te le 

thou there until 1 

Si'oi/, TOU dffoXecrai ai- 

disc ; car Herode 

bring thee word : 


cherchera le petit 

for Herod will seek 

enfant pour le fuire 

the young child to 


destroy him. 

14. 'O 8e (yepdfls 

14. Joseph done 

14. When he 

irapfXa/3f TO TratSiov 

etant reveille, prit 

arose, he took tho 

Kal rrjv p.T)T(pi. airrov 

de nuit le petit en- 

young child and his 

w/KTof, " xai dvfx&pt)- 

fant et sa mere, et 

mother by night. 

trtv ds tkiyinrrov. 

se retira en Egypte. 

and departed into 

Egypt : 

15 Kal ^f (Kfl (us 

15. Et il demeura 

15. And was there 

njr TfAfi/T^f f H^d)8ow 

14 jusqu'a la mort 

until the Jeath of 

u>a n\ripa>6ji TO prfOtv 

(PHerudc, afin que 

Herod : that it 

imo rov Kvpio>> 8ta 

l'./' accomplice doiit 

might be fulfilled 


Gi:ir: i x. 



$e auf, nnb fcbcnften 

oro e incensio, y 

suos, obtulerunt ei 

itym <elb, ( 2J3eib_ = 


munera, aurum, et 

raiub nnb 93h;rrl?en. 

thus, et myrrham. 

12. Unb oft be* 

12. Y avisados en 

12. Et responsi 

fabl ib. nen im Sranm, 

suenos que no vol- 

secundum somni- 

bag fie firb nicbt foil* 

viesen a Herodes 

um, non reflectere 

ten rcicber ju erobeg 

regresaron a su ti- 

ad Herodem, per 

lenfeu. Unb fie jogen 

erra, por otro ca- 

aliam viam recesse- 

bnrcb eincn anbcrn 


runt in regionem 

2Deg rcieber in ifyr 


13. 2\i ffe aber bin; 

13. Ydespuesque 

13. Recessis au- 

rocg gfjOcun waren, 

liubieron ellos par- 

tem ipsis, ecce an- 

ficfye, ba erfcbien bcr 

tido he aqui el an- 

gelus Domini appa- 

6rnccl beg J^emt bem 

50! del Senor apa- 

ret per somnium 

3ofept) im 'Jrannt, 

rece en suenos a 

Joseph, dicens : Ex- 

unb fpracb : tctje 

Joseph diciendo : 

citatus accipe pu- 

auf, nnb nimm bat? 

Levantate y toma 

erum et matrem 

StinHein nnb feme 

al niiio, y a su ma- 

ejus, et fuge in 

SDTurtcr jn bir, nnb 

dre y huye a Egip- 

vEgyptum : et esto 

flictye ia Ggw tenfaii&i 

to, y estate alii 

ibi usque dum di- 

nnb bletbe allba, bis 

hasta que yo te 

cam tibi. Futurua 

icb bir fage ; bcnn eg 

avise porque ha de 

est enim Herodes 

i|t voit^anben, ba|j 

acontecer que He- 

qucerere puerum ad 

^erobe^ bi6 inb-- 

rodes busque al ni- 

perdendum eum. 

leui fucbe, bajfelbe 

iio para matarle. 


14. Unb er ftanb 

14. Y levantando- 

14. Is autem exci- 

anf, nnb na()m bag 

se el tomo de no- 

tatus accepit pue- 

M'inbletit nnb feine 

che al niao y a su 

rum et matrem ejua 

pTutrcr jit ftcb, bei; 

madre, y fuese a 

nocte, et secessit in 

5er SJIacbt, nnb ent; 


^Egyptum : 

trie!) in Sv(i)ptcnliiHb, 

15. Unb bliel allba 

15. Y permanecio 

15. Et erat ibi 

big nacb bcm 'Jot'e 

alii hasta la muerte 

usque ad obitum 

J^cvobcg, anf ba er= 

de Herodes para- 

Herodis : ut adim- 

fullet unit-be, bag ber 

que se cumpliese 

pleretur dictum a 






TOV TTjHX^ijroVj Atyov- 

le Seigneur avait 

which was spoken 

ror, " 'E Alyvirrov 

parle par un pro- 

of the Lord by the 

ejcdXecra roc vlov pov. 

phete, disant : J'ai 

prophet, saying, 

appele mon Fils 

Out of Egypt have 

hors d'Egypte. 

I called my son. 

16. Tore 'HpcoSi/y 

16. Alors Herode, 

16. Then Herod, 

idii)t> OTL fvciraixdrj into 

voyant que les sages 

when he saw that 

TU>V p-dycav, fdv/Jiu>dr] 

s'etaient moques de 

he was mocked o 

^icif, Kal aTTooreiXas 

lui, fut fort en co- 

the wise men, wa 

dveiXe tvavras TOVS 

lere, et il envoya 

exceeding wroth, 

iraiSas TOVS fv J$rjd- 

tuer tous les enfans 

and sent forth, and 

Xfe/i, AMI eV Trao-t rot? 

qui etaient dans 

slew all the chil- 

opiois avTrjs, UTTO Sie- 

Bethlehem, et dans 

dren that were in 

TOVS Kal KarcorepG), 

tout son territoire, 

Bethlehem, and in 

Kara TOV XP OVOV ov 

depuis Page de deux 

all the coasts there- 

TfKpifiaxrf irapa TWV 

ans et au-dessous, 

of, from two years 


selon le temps dont 

old and under, ac- 

il s'etait exactement 

cording to the time 

informe des sages. 

which he had dili- 

gently inquired of 

the wise men. 

17. Tore fir\rjpa>0ij 

17. Alors fut ac- 

17. Then was ful- 

TO pi)dev VTTO 'ifpepiov 

compli ce dont avait 

filled that which 

TOV Trpo<pr)Tov, \tyov~ 

parle Jeremie le pro- 

was spoken by Jer- 


phete, en disant : 

emy the prophet, 


18. " &<j}vf] ev 'Pafj.a 

18. On a oui a 

18. In Rama was 

tjKovffdrj^ Opjjvos Kal 

Rama un cri, une 

there a voice heard, 

K\av0fios Kal 68vpfj.os 

lamentation, des 

lamentation, and 

ird\vs, 'Pa^^X K\atov~ 

plaintes, et un grand 

weeping, and great 

era ra Tocva avTrjs ' 

gemissement ; Ra- 

mourning, Rachel 

teal OVK T)0t\f irapa- 

chel pleurant ses 

weeping for her 

K\TJ0f)l>ai, OTl OVK 

enfans, et n'ayant 

children, and would 


point voulu etre 

not be comforted, 

consolee de ce 

because they are 

qu'ils ne sont plus. 


19. TeXfin-qcrairof Se 

19. Mais apres 

19. But when, 

TOV>8ov t tdoi>, ay- 

qu' He rode fut mort, 

Herod was dead, 

yrXoj Kvpiov Kar 1 ovap 

voici, Pange du Sei- 

behold, an angel of 

fycilvfrai rw laxrr ^) eV 

gneur apparut dans 

the Lord appeareth 


un songe a Joseph, 

in a dream to Jo- 






err tared l>cn *pro= 

lo que hablo el Se- 

Domino per Pro- 

ptjeten gcfagt tjat, fcrr 

nor por el profeta 

phetam, dicentem : 

Da fpridjt: '21 u$ ( 

diciendo : De Egip- 

Ex Egypto vocav: 

ten tjabe icb mciueii 

to llame a mi hijo. 

filium meum. 

oljn grrufrn. 

16. 2>A$rro*c*nun 

16. EntoncesHe- 

16. Tune Herodea 

fal?, baft cr toon fcm 

rodes cuando se vio 

videns quoniam illu- 

< 2Bciftn bctrogen roar, 

burlado de los Ma- 

sus esset a Magis, 

n>art> fr fel)r jorntg, 

gos irritose sobre 

iratus est valde : et 

uun fcfcicfte aits, iwl> 

manera, y envio, e 

mittens occidit om- 

Iicft alle Kiitcrr ju 

hizo matar a todos 

nes pueros qui in 

SSctfylcijem tfiDteu, 

los niuos, que ha- 

Bethlehem, et om- 

unfe au tin-cu gaitjcn 

bia en Bethlehem, 

nibus finibus ejus, a 

(Srenjcn, Me Da jwer): 

y en toda su co- 

binatu et infra, 

jdtjrig un6 fcaruutcr 

marca de dos anos 

secundum tempus 

aarcn, uad) fcer $tit, 

abajo conforme al 

quod perquisivit a 

tie cr mtt glei Don 

tiempo que el ha- 


ten QBcifcu erleruet 

bia cuidadosamente 


inquirido de los Ma- 


17. 2)a i|t frfftlfct, 

17. Entonces se 

17. Tune adimple- 

fcae gtfagt i|t toou tern 

cumplio lo que ha- 

tum est dictum per 

sprev^ctcit 3cremia, 

bia hablado por el 

Jeremiam prophe- 

tec l>a fpric^t: 

profeta Jeremias di- 

tam, dicentem : 


18. 2tuf ban (Sebtr^ 

18. Voz fue oida 

18. Vox in Rama 

ge f)at man ein <&t-- 

en Rama lamentos, 

audita est, ploratus 

frfcra; gel;6rct, \>tcl 

y lloros y grandes 

et ululatus et ejula- 

XUdcn*, ^rincng 

gemidos : Raquel 

tus multus : Rachel 

un& J^culeng ; 5Kal}cI 

llorando sus hijos y 

plorans natos suos, 

bftrciuete i^re SCin-- 

no quiso ser conso- 

et noluit conjolari, 

tcr, uuD aollte fid) 

lada porque no ex- 

quia non sunt. 

nicftt tro|lcn (a|fcn ; 

isten ya. 

tcnn cfi a>ar aut mit 


19. 2)a a(>a Jpcro; 

19. Pero habien- 

19. Desineate an- 

I>c6 c\f|torbcn roar, fie; 

do muerto Herodes 

tern Herode, ecco 

(?e, Da cvfcbieu Dfr 

he aqui un angel 

angelus Domini se- 

u^cl DCS J^frni Dem 

del Sefior aparecio 

cunduri somnium 

3ofcft) iir ivanm in 

en sueuos a Joseph 

appare Joseph in 






en Egvpte, 

seph in Egypt, 

20. Aeywv, 'Eyep- 

20. " et lui dk : 

20. Saying, Arise, 

de\s TrapaXafif TO 

Leve-toi, et prends le 

and take the young 

TratStof , KOI rrjv fj.r)- 

petit enfant et sa mere, 

child and his mother, 

Tfpa avTov, Kal iro- 

et t'en va au pays 

and go into the land of 

pevov (Is yrjv 'lay>a- 

d'Israe'I ; car ceux qui 

Israel : for they are 

TI\ Tfdrf]Ka(n yap 

cherchaient a oter la 

dead which sought the 

ol (j]TOVVTfS TT)V 

vie au petit enfant sont 

young child's life. 

^fv^fjv TOV TrcuSiov. 



21. Joseph done s'e- 

21. And he arose, 

irape \afif TomuSi- 

tant reveille, prit le 

and took the young 


petit enfant et sa mere, 

child and his mother 

OVTOV, KOI ?i\6ev fls 

et s'en vint au pays 

and came into the land 

yrjv 'layjajjX. 


of Israel. 

22. 'A.Kov(rat 8e 

22. Mais quand il 

22. But when he 

OTI 'ApxeXaos |3a- 

eut appris qu'Arche- 

heard that Archelaus 

<n\ev( i e'jrt rrjs 'lou- 

laiis regnait en Ju- 

did reign in Judea in 

Satas avri 'HpwSou 

dee, a la place d'He- 

the room of his father 

rov Trarpbs avrov, 

rode, son pere, il crai- 

Herod, he was afraid 

f<poj3f]dr) eVcfiaTreA- 

gnit d'y aller ; et etant 

to go thither : notwith- 

6tiv xp^^Tio-dfls 

divinement averti dans 

standing, being warn- 

8ear' ^vap,avf^o>- 

un songe, il sfe retira 

ed of God in a dream, 

prjcrev els TO. p-tpj] 

en Galilee. 

he turned aside into 

Tqs FaAtXat'af 

the parts of Galilee : 

23. Kal eX(9a>i/ 

23. Et y etant arrive 

23. And he came and 

Karaxqarfv fls no- 

il habita dans la ville 

dwelt in a city called 

\iv Xeyo/xeV^v Na- 

appelee Nazareth, afin 

Nazareth : that it 

aptr, OTTO)? 7rX>7- 

que fut accompli ce 

might be fulfilled 

pcoOfi TO prjdsv 8ia 

qui avait ete dit par les 

which was spoken by 

TO>V 7TpO(pr)T(i>l>, OTI 

prophetes : II sera 

the prophets, He shall 

Naci>/3aiop K\rjdfj- 

appele Nazarien. 

be called a Nazarene 


*.. *Ev 8e TOIS 17- 

1. Or en ce temps- 

1- In those days 

fitji:ns (Kfivais ira- 

la vint Jean-Baptiste, 

came John the Baptist, 

payiverat 'ludwrjs prechant- flans le dc- 

preaching in the wil- 

6 /3.i7rrt(rr^. KT)- 

sert de la Judee, 

derness of Judca, 

)V<r<T(i>V (V Trj fpfj- 

uo> TTJS 'lovSaias, 

2. Kal \tfcov, 

2. et disant : Con- 

2. And saying, Re- 

MtTdvatiTt r}y- 

ver*issez-vous, car le 

pent ye : for the king- 







en Egipto. 


20. 11 UD fplMfb : @tf= 

20. Diciendo : Le- 

20. Dicens : Ex- 

tyt aiif, nut) uimm Dae: 

vantate y toma al ni- 

citatus accipe pu- 

ftiufclfiu itnD feme 

fio y a su madre, y 

erum, et matiem 

SOiitttcr JH t>ir,unt> jif; 

vete a tierra de Isra- 

ejus, et vatie in 

tyc bin in MS iant> 3f : 

el porque muertos 

terram Israel : 

racl ; fie fint> $f jhn-bcu, 

son los que atenta- 

mortui sunt enira 

tic t-cm Svin&c iuul) Dem 

ban a lavidadel niuo. 

qua?rentes ani- 

iibcu jtaitC'CU. 

mam pueri. 

21. lUiD cr jlanbauf, 

21. Entonces le- 

21. llle autera 

itiiMurm fas kiuMcin 

vantandose el tomo 

excitatus accepit 

ttufc feme COiuttcr ju 

al niuo, y a su ma- 

puerum et ma- 

fub, itut> fain in fra 

dre, y vinose a tierra 

trem ejus, et venit 

ianD 3frvicl. 

de Israel. 

in terram Israel. 

22. S)a cr abcr {jorctc, 

22. Mas habiendo 

22. Audiens au- 

fcafe" Krdirliuts im |ul>u 

oido que Archelao 

tem quod Arche- 

fdKn ianl>c S\6uifl roar, 

reynaba en Judea en 

laus regnaret in 


lugar de su padre He- 

Judsea pro Hero- 

J5flo^eet / furrbtcte cr 

rodes temio ir alia y 

de patre suo, ti- 

fid) cabin ju fcmimu. 

avisado en suefios se 

muit illo ire. Re 

Hub im iraum cmp|iu.4 

retiro a tierra de Ga- 

sponsus autem se 

cr J3ffcl}{ von Q5otr, 


cundum somni- 

unD jcj in l>ie Ocrtcr 

um, secessit in 

tt$ galilaifcbcn iauc-ci?, 

partes Galilsese. 

23. UnD fain, unto 

23. Y vino y habito 

23. Et veniena 

root)iifte in I>cr ta^t, 

en una ciudad llama- 

commigravit in 

l>ie Da fycife't 9Iajarctl? ; 

da Nazareth paraque 

civitatem dictam 

ouf baft cifullet roHr^c, 

se cumpliese lo que 

Nazaret : ut im- 

tag ta flcfagt i|t t>ou 

habian dicho los pro- 

pleretur dictum 

Dem spropljcten : Sr 

fetas : Sera llamado 

per Prophetas, 

foil SJlajarcuue (jcigeu. 


Quod Nazoracus 


1. B fc 3fit f^tn 

1. Y en aquellos di- 

1. In autem die- 

3oijaiwc$, tcr ^aufcr, 

as vino Juan el Bau- 

bus illis accedit 

iniD yrcbi.qte in tfr 

tista predicando en 

Joannes Baptista, 

^JBiijU Dei? jubifdjcn 

el desierto de Judea. 

praedicans in de- 


serto Judaea, 

2. Unbfpracf): ^f}it: 

2. Y diciendo : Ar- 

2. Et dicens: 

S5uf,baijJ5 mmdrcid) 

repentios porque el 

Pcenitemini, ap- 






fiKf yap f) /3a<ri- 

rovaume des cieux est 

dom of heaven is it 

\tia T<OV ovpavcav. 



3. Ovror yap eomv 

3. Car c'est ici celui 

3. For this is he that 

6 prfQils VTTO 'Hcrai- 

dont il a ete parle par 

was spoken of by the 


Esa'ie le prophete, en 

prophet Esaias, sav- 

At'-yci/roy, " &(ovr] 

disant : La voix de 

ing, The voice of one 

8OQ)VTOS e'l> TTj fpfj- 

celui qui-crie dans le 

crying in the wilder- 

pa, 'Erot^iao-are 

desert est : Preparez 

ness, Prepare ye the 

Tt/v 686v Kupi'ou, 

le chemin du Seigneur, 

way of the Lord, make 

evdeias Troieire raj 

aplanissez ses sen- 

his paths straight. 

Tpi^ovs avTov. 


4. AVTOS be 'ico- 

4. Or Jean avait son 

4. And the same John 

dwrjs fix* TO ev8v- 

vetement de poil de 

had his raiment of 

fia avTov aV6 rpt- 

chameau, et une cein- 

camel's hair, and a 

Xu>t> Kap.i'f\ov, Kal 

ture de cuir autour de 

leathern girdle about 

tavi)i> SfpfjMTivijv 

ses reins ; et son man- 

his loins ; and his meat 

irepl Trjv 6<r(j)vv av- 

ger etait des saute- 

was locusts and wild 

ToO TJ 8e Tpo(pf] 

relles et du miel sau- 


ai'Tov TJV aKpiSfs 


Kal /j.(\i aypiGV. 

5. Tore egtiro- 

5. A'.ors les habitans 

5. Then went out to 

pevfTo Trpbs OVTOV 

de Jerusalem, et de 

him Jerusalem, and 

lepoaoXv/za, Kal 

toute 'la Judee, et de 

all Judca, and all the 

7rao~a rj 'lovbaia, 

tout le pays des envi- 

region round about 

Kal Tracra r/ nfpl)(<i>- 

rons du Jourdain vin- 


pos TOV 'lop&dvov, 

rent a lui. 

6fr \ i^k 
. Kai epcmri- 

6. Et ils etaient bap- 

6. And were baptized 

OVTO en r<u 'lopSa- 

tises par lui au Jour- 

of him in Jordan, con- 

VT) V7T OVTOV, 'o- 

po\oyov/ji(vot, Tas 

dain, confessant leurs 

fessing their sins. 

Apaprias avr>v. 

7. 'I8a>j/ 8e TroX- 

7. Mais voyant plu- 

7. But when he saw 

Xoi't riav <&api<rai- 

sieurs des pharisiens 

many of the Pharisees 

coi' Kai Saoooi'/cGt * 

et des sadduceens ve- 

and Sadducees come 

6)1' fDYOIXCfOUf C7TI 

nir a son bapteme, il 

to his baptism, he said 

ro jJaTTTicrfi.-.! av- 

leur dit : Race de vi- 

unto them, O genera- 

TOV, (ITTfV aVTolf, 

peres, qui vous a aver- 

tion of vipers, who 

rwi;/ir:ra e^di;wi>, 

tis de fuir la colere a 

hath warned you to 

n'y vTreS(iev \m'iv 

venir ? 

flee from the wrath to 






i|t na.^c Ijcrbep gefom= 

reyno de los cielos 

propinquavit e 


esta cerca. 

nim regnum cze- 


3. ltnl> er i|t lcr, Don 

3. Porque este es 

3. Hie enim est 

fcnn fcr spropfyet %(-. 

aquel de quien hablo 

pronunciatus ab 

faia ficfagt hat, unl $(-- 

el profeta Isaias dici- 

Esaia Propheta, 

fvred)cn : <t \\l cine 

endo : Voz del que 

dicente : Vox cla- 

timinc cincs spreDU 

clama en el desierto : 

mantis in deserto: 

gci-i? in Dcr ^OBulle, be- 

Aparejad el camino 

Expedite viam 

rcitct t'cm J^evvn fen 

del Sefior, haced de- 

Domini, rectas fa- 

^OBccj, uitl> mad)et rid); 

rechas sus sendas. 

cite semitas ejus. 

tifl fcinc tcigc. 

4. Sr abcr, 3 0(7 aits 

4. Y el mismo Juan 

4. Tpse autem 

fttl, fyatte eiu ${cifc Don 

llevaba un vestido de 

Joannes habebat 

CamceUfyaaven, nnfc cU 

pelos de camello, y 

indumentum su- 

tie it IcDcvncn nttcl 

un cinto de cuero al 

um e pilis cameli, 

tun fcinc icnDcn ; fcinc 

rededor de sus lomos, 

et zonam pellice- 

peife abcr roar -fpcn-- 

y su comida eran lan- 

am circa lumbum 

fd/rcrfcn uul> irilDcr 

gostas y miel silves- 

suum : esca au- 



tem ejus erat lo- 

custse et mel sil- 


5. 2)a flinA jn ihm 

5. Entonces snlio 

5. Tune exibat 

Ijinang Die tatt 3e= 

a el Jerusalem, y to- 

ad eum Hieroso- 

rnfalcm, imD Dae: ganje 

da la Judea x y toda la 

lyma, et omnis 

jni'ifcbc ianfc, tuiD allc 

tierra de la comarca 

Judaea, et omnis 

idiitxr an fccm 3orDan, 

del Jordan. 

circum vicinia 


6. UnD lichen fid) tan- 

6. Y eran bautiza- 

6. Et baptiza- 

fen Don itjm tracer can, 

dos por el en el Jor- 

bantur in Jordane 

tniD bcr'annten il)tc 

dan confesando sus 

ab eo, consitentes 



peccata sua. 

7. 7(115 er turn Dide 

7. Mas viendo que 

7. Videns aulem 

^Dharifdcr unD@aDMi: 

muchos de los Pha- 

multos Pharisxo- 

cacr fal^ jnfcincr 'Jaufc 

riseos y Saduceos ve- 

rum et Sadducce- 

hmmcn, fpvad) cr jn 

nian a su bautismo 

orum venientes 

i()ncn : 3l)r Ottcvngc; 

les dijo ; oh genera- ad baptismum su- 

jnduc, it>cr l)at tnw 

cion de viboras ! qui- 

um,dixiteis : Ge- 

end) gewicfen, Dajj ihc 

en os ha enseiiado a 

nimina vipera- 

frcm jntiuiftigcn ^'H'n 

huir de la ira venl 

rum, quis demon- 







(pvyelv OTTO Ttjs 

come ? 

p.(\^ov<rrjs opyrjs ; 

8, Hoif)(TaT ovv 

8. Faites done des 

8. Bring forth there- 

KapTTov dfciov TTJS 

fruits convenables a la 

fore fruits meet for re- 



pentanco : 

9. Kat p.f) 86rjTe 

9. Et ne presumez 

9. And think not to 

\tydv (v favrolf, 

point de dire en vous- 

say within yourselves, 

Ilarepa f^op,fv TOV 

memes : Nous avons 

We have Abraham to 

Aftpadp. Xeya> 

Abraham pour pere ; 

our father: for I say 

yap vfuv, OTI 8vva- 

car je vous dis que 

unto you, that God is 

Tat 6 Qfbs fK r>v 

Dieu peut faire naitre 

able of these stones to 

\td<av TovTOiv eyel- 

de ces pierres meme 

raise up children unto 

pai reKva ra> *A- 

des enfans a Abra- 

A braham. 



10. *H8>7 8e *cat 

10. Or la cognee est 

10. And now also 

17 dl^ivr) Trpbs T^V 

deja mise a la racine 

the axe is laid unto 

oiav T<e>v 8tv8p(ov 

des arbres ; c'est pour- 

the root of the trees : 

Kfirai irav ovv 

quoi tout arbre, qui ne 

therefore every tree 

8ii>8pov firj TTOIOVV 

fait point de bon fruit, 

which bringeth not 

Kapnbv AcaXov, e'/c- 

va etre coupe et jete 

forth good fruit is hewn 

KOTSTfTal, KO.I fls 

au feu. 

down, and cast into 

TTvp /SdXXtrat. 

the fire. 

1 1 . 'Eya> 

11. Pour moi, je 

11. I indeed baptize 


vous baptise d'eau en 

you with water unto 

fSan els p.frdvoi- 

signe de repentance ; 

repentance : but he 

av ' 6 8e oTTiVa) /iou 

mais celui qui vient 

that cometh after me 

epxop.evos, la-^po- 

apres moi est plus pu- 

is mightier than I, 

Tfpos (J.QV ecniv, ov 

issant que moi, et je 

whose shoes I am not 

OVK fifii iKavos ra 

ne suis pas digne de 

worthy to bear : he 

V7ro&i]/iara ^3aara- 

porter ses souliers ; 

shall baptize you with 

<rat, avrbs V/JMS 

celui-la vous baptisera 

the Holy Ghost, and 

QaTrricrfi tv irvfv- 

du Saint-Esprit et de 

with fire : 

fj.uTi dyicf Hal nvpi 



12. 11 a son van en 

12. Whose fan is in 

(V Trj X/H avrov, 

sa main, et il nettoiera 

his hand, and he will 

/cat 8iaKa0apifi 7-170 | entitlement son aire, thoroughly purge his 
oXo>j/a alrrov, Kal \ et il assemblera son floor, and gather his 
a-vvdt-d TOV crlrov [ froment au grenier ; wheat into the garnei ; 
O.VTOV (Is TTJV a?ro- maisil bruleralapaillc i but he will burn up 
-, TO 6e a%v- au feu qui ne s'eteint j the chaff with un 






rutrimifii iwtct ? 

dera ? 

stravit vobis fu 

gere a futura ira? 

8. cfjct ju, tt)ut 

8. Producid pues 

8. Facile ergo 

rcdjtfdwtfcue gritdjtc 

frutos dignos de ar- 

fructus dignos 

tcr 25u|$f. 



9. Scnf'et itur nid)t, 

9. Y no penseis en 

9. Et ne arbitre- 

tat) it)r bcq end) roollt 

decir interiormente : 

mini dicere in vo- 

fagtn : SBir fyabni 2t- 

A Abraham tenemos 

bis ipsis : Patrem 

bratjam jum 

por padre ; porque yo 

habemus Abra- 

3d) fagf ciub : (ott 

os digo : que podero- 

ham ; dico enim 

vcvmaa. tern 2( brat) am 

so es Bids para le- 

vobis.quoniam po- 

ant* tiffcn teincn 

vantar hijos a Abra- 

test Deus de lapi- 

Winter ju erroccfen. 

ham aun de estas pi- 

dibus istis suscita- 


re natos Abrahae. 

10. Q$ i|l fdjon tic 

10. Y ahora tambi- 

10. Jam vero et 

2(vt ten *23d umcu an Die 

en ya esta puesta la 

securis ad radi- 

^nvjcl .aclcgt. $u= 

segur a la raiz de los 

cem arborum ad- 

mm, n>cld)cr 25anm 

arboles. Y todo ar- 

jacet. Omnis er- 

nidjt gutc gvurftt brim 

bol que no produce 

go arbor non fa- 

t qct, roirD abgel^ancn 

buen fruto cortado 

ciens fructum bo- 

HUD ins? gcucr gcivor-- 

sera, y echado al fu- 

num, exciditur, et 



in ignem jacitur. 

11. 3ff) tanfccud) tnit 

11. Yo en verdad 

11. Ego qui- 

^OBajrcr gur i8u|5'c; tcr 

os bautizo en agua 

dem baptizo vos 

abcr nacl) mir fommt, 

para arrepentimien- 

in aqua in preni- 

i|l jUvt'cr, tcnn id), to, mas el que viene 

tentiam, qui au- 

tern irb aud) nidit gc- 

en pos de mi, mas 

tem post me veni- 

nngfam bin, (cine cbiu 

poderoso es que yo, 

ens, fortior me 

^c 311 tva.Adi ; tor unrl> cuyos zapatos no soy 

est : cujus on 

cncb mit tern J^filigcn digno de llevar. El 

sum idoneus cal- 

@ci|t lint mit gcucr 

os bautizara en el 

ceamenta portarc, 


Espiritu Santo, y en 

ipse vos baptiza- 



to et igni. 

12. tint cr ()at fcinc 

12. Su bieldo esta 

12. Cujus venti- 

QCBorffcbaufci in fcincr 

en su mano, y lim- 

labrum in manu 

43a'nt; cr tuirt fcinc piara bien la era, y- sua,et perm -nda- 

$cnnc fcgcn, unt ten recogera su trigo en bit arum siam, 

1i5cijcn in fcinc d)cu= la trox mas la paja; etcongrcgabit t r '.- 

nc f.uumcln ; abcr tie la quemara en un fu- ticum suum in 

V^ fu roirt cr fccr'^rcn- ego inextinguible. 

horreurn : at pa- 





pov KaraKavo~fi m- 


quenchable fire. 

pl dcr^e'oTw. 

13. Tore irapayi- 

13. Alors Jesus vint 

13. Then cometh Je- 

VfTai 6 *lrj(roi'S and 

de Galilee au Jourdain 

sus from Galilee to 

Trjs FaXiXaiay enl 

vers Jean pour etre 

Jordan unto John, to 

TOV 'lopSdvrjv irpbs 

baptise par lui. 

be baptized of him. 

TOV 'I(adviT]i> t TOV 

^aTmadfjvai vtr' 


14. 'O Se 'Ia>dv- 

14. Mais Jean 1'en 

14. But John forbade 

vrjs Si(Ka>\vev aii- 

empechait fort, en lui 

him, saying, I have 

TOV, Xe'ycoi/, 'Eya> 

disant : J'ai besoin 

need to be baptized of 

Xpdav e^co vrrb (rov 

d'etre baptise par toi, 

thee, and comest thou 

fiaTma-dfjvai, Kai 

et tu viens vers moi ! 

to me ? 

ffv fpxjl irpos p.f ; 

15. 'AiroKpidfls 

15. Et Jesus repon- 

15. And Jesus an- 

fie 6 'irjo-ovs fine 

dant, lui dit : Laisse- 

swering said unto him, 

trpos avTov "Affaes 

moi faire pour le pre- 

Suffer it to be so now : 

apft ovTca yap 

sent ; car il nous est 

for thus it becometh us 

irpenov fo~rlv 

ainsi convenable d'ac- 

to fulfil all righteous- 

ir\j)pu>o~ai iracrav 

complir toute justice. 

ness. Then he suf- 

8lKaiO(TVVt]V ' TOTt 

Et alors il le laissa 

fered him. 

affair/ cr iv avrov. 


16. Kai jSaTTTftr- 

16. Et quand Jesus 

16. And Jesus, when 

6ds 6 'irjo-ovs dvt- 

eut ete baptise, il sor- 

he was baptized, went 

firj fi/dus dno TOV 

tit incontinent hors de 

up straightway out of 

vSaros, Kai ISov, 

1'eau ; et voila, les 

the water : and lo, the 

dvftaxdrjo-av avT$ 

cieux lui furent ou- 

heavens were opened 

oi ovpavol, Kai fide 

verts, et Jean vit 1'Es- 

unto him, and he saw 

TO irvfvfta TOV Qeov 

prit de Dieu descen- 

the Spirit of God de- 

KaTofiulvov icrei 

dant comme une co- 

scending like a dove, 

irtpio~Ttpav, Kai tp- 

lombe, et venant sur 

and lighting upon him : 



nir * 'ft * -L 
. i^ai toof, u)i>- 

17. Et voila une voix 

17. And lo, a voice 

VT] f< TU>V ovpavOiv, 

du ciel, disant : Celui- 

from heaven, saying. 

\tyovo~a, OVTOS ftr- 

ci est mon Fils bien- 

This is my beloved 

TIV 6 VIO? fiOV 6 

aime, en qui j'ai pris 

Son, in whom I am 

\ > T 

aj'aTHjrof, (v to ev- 

mon bon plaisir. 

well pleased. 







nni mit eroigcm gcuer. 

learn comburet ig- 

ni inextinguibili. 

13. 3" fccr 3fit fam 

13. Entoncep Jesus 

13. Tune acce- 

3cfue! aits (Salilda an 

vino de Galiha al 

dit Jesus a Gali- 

m 3nrDcn ju 3ol)aii= 

Jordan a encontrar a 

laea ad Jordanem 

rte, fcaj5 rr fid) toon ifym 

Juan para ser bauti- 

ad Joannem, bap- 

uiufeu iielje. 

zado de el. 

tizari ab eo. 

14. 2iber Sofyauiies 

14. Mas Juan se lo 

14. At Joannes 

ttefyrete ifym, mifc 

estorbaba diciendo : 

prohibebat eum, 

fprad) : 3d) befcarf 

t Yo he menester ser 

dicens: Egousum 

n>of)(, l>aj} id) \>ou Mr 

bautizado de ti, y tu 

habeo a te bapti- 

flctauft incite ; wit> Mi 

vienes a mi ? 

zari, et tu venis 

fommjl ju mir ? 

ad-m,e ? 

15. 3efu$ aber aiit-- 

15. Y respondiendo 

15. Respondens 

ttortetc, HUD fprad) $u 

Jesus le dijo : De- 

autem Jesus dixit 

ttjm: Jajj jf^talfofe^n; 

ja esto ahora porque 

ad eum, Sine in- 

olfo 9cbul)vft e6 iin^, 

asi nos conviene 

terim : sic enim 

alfe (md)ti t qFeit }u 

cumplir toda justicia. 

decens est no- 

eifudcn. 2)v iicl5 cr f > 

Entonces condescen- 

bis implere om- 

il;m 311. 


nem justificatio- 

nem. Tune di- 

mittit eum. 

16. Ituft ta 2icfii6 etc: 

16. Y despues que 

16. Et baptiza- 

{an ft rrarjticci eu bait 

Jesus fue bautizado, 

tus Jesus, ascen- 

Ijcrauf au6 fccm ( !S3af: 

subio luego del agua, 


for ; unl fictx, ^* tl}'U 

y he aqui se le abri- 

Et ecce aperti 

fid) tcr $immr( auf 

eron los cielos, y vio 

suntei cseli, evidit 

fiber it)m, UuD 3ol)an= 

al Espiritu de Dios 

Spiritum Dei de- 

ucg fat) feu (Sf ijt ot-- 

descendiendo como 

scendentum sicut 

te^, .qlcid) a(6 eine 'Jaiu 

paloma y viniendo 

columbam, et ve- 

be ^erab fa I) rot, lint) 

sobre el. 

nientem super 

fiber it)n fommen. 


17. Uu6 fielje, einr 

17. Y he aqui una 

17. Et ecce vox 

timme toom J^immel 

voz del'cielo que de- 

de caelis, dicens : 

fyevab fprad) : 3)ie^ i|t 

cia : Este es mi hijo 

Hie est filius me- 

meiu hcber ol)ii, an 

muy querido, en qui- 

us dilectus, in quo 

reeldjem irl) xlCo^ge-- 

en tengo toda mi 


fiUleu l)a(>r 








1. To re 6 'Irj- 

1. Alors Jesus fut 

1. Then was Jesus 

ITGVS dvr)x6r) els TTJV 

emmene par 1'Esprit 

led up of the Spirit 


au desert, pour y etre 

into the -wilderness, to 

JtVeVfJiaTOS, TTflpCHT- 

tente par ie diable. 

be tempted of the 

6ffvai I'TTO TOV dia- 



2. Kat VTjcrTfvcras 

2. Et quand il eut 

2. And when he had 

Tjp.fp.T.S T6<r(rapd- 

jeune quarante jours et 

fasted forty days and 

Kovra Kal VVKTUS 

quarante nuits, finale- 

forty nights, he was 

T{<TO~apdKoi>ra i v(T- 

ment il eut faim. 

afterward an hungred. 

Ttpov eTTfivcMrf. 

3. Kat 7r/jo<rfX- 

3. Et le tentateur 

3. And when the 

6u>v avrw 6 ireipd- 

s'approchant, lui dit : 

tempter carne to him, 

a>i>, fiirev El vibs 

Si tu es le Fils de Dieu, 

he said, If thou be the 

t TOU Qeov, fiire 

dis que ces pierres de- 

Son of God, command 

tva ol Xi'$ot ovroi 

viennent des pains. 

that these stones be 

apTOi yev&vrai. 

made bread. 

4. 'O 8e dnoKpi- 

4. Mais Jesus repon- 

4. But he answered 

6f\s fiire Yfypan- 

dit, et dit : 11 est ecrit : 

and said, It is written, 

Tai OVK eV apTia 

L'homme ne vivra 

.Man shall not live by 

/xofo> r]cr(Tai av- 

point de pain seule- 

bread alone, but by 

Opairos, aXX' tVi 

ment, mais de toute 

every word that pro- 

jraiTt pr/fiari eKTro- 

parole qui sort de la 

ceedeth out of th& 

pevo/jieva 8ia crrd- 

bouche de Dieu. 

mouth of God. 

uaroj 0ffoO. 

5. Tore irapaXafj.- 

5. Alors le diable le 

5. Then the devil 

fiavfi ainov 6 Std- 

transporta dans la 

taketh him up into the 

/3oXor ety r^i< ayiav 

sainte villc, et le mit 

holy city, and setteth 

TroXti', cai IOTTJCTW 

sur les creneaux du 

him on a pinnacle of 

avroi' eTTt TO Trrtpv- 

temple ; 

the temple, 

yiov TOV lepov. 

6. Kal \tyti av- 

6. et il lui dit : Si tu 

6. And saith unto 

rw Et vlos ft roil 

es le Fils de Dien, jette- 

him, If thou be the 

Ofou, /3aXe <reau- 

toi en bas ; car il est 

Son of God cast thy- 

roi' Kara) ytypair- 

ecrit : 11 ordonnera a 

self down: for it is 

Taiydp, ""OTITOIS 

ses anges de te porter 

written, He shall give 

ayyeXots avToO ev- 

en leurs mains, de peur 

his angels charge con- 

reXe?Tai Trepl croO, 

que tu ne heurtes ton 

cerning thee : and in 

leal 7rt \(ipa>v d- 

pied centre quelque 

their hands they shall 

potcri erf, fifjiroTt 


bear thee up, lest at 

npoyKtygs npos 

any time thou dash 






1. >a roavb 3cfuu 

1. Entonces Jesus 

1. Tune Jesus 

bom <ci|l in Die 2Bfu- 

fue llevado por el 

actus est in deser- 

ftc gcfufyrct, auf bah" cr 

Espiritu al desierto 

tum a Spiritu, 

toon t>cm icufcl vcrfiuljt 

para ser tentado del 

tentari a diabolo. 



2. Hub ba ft toicrjici 

2. Y habiendo ayu- 

2. Et jejunans 

'Jage nnb inerjig 9Ucfc 

nado quarenta dias y 

dies quadraginta, 

te gefaflct Ijattc, fynn< 

quarenta noches de- 

et noctes quadra- 

gem ityn. 

spues tuvo hambre. 

ginta, postremum 


3. Uut> bet SBerfurfw 

3. Y llegandose a 

3. Et accidens 

trat ju itym, imb fpvacl): 

el el tentador le dijo : 

ei tentator, dixit : 

23i|t bu ottf* ofyii, 

Si eres Hijo de Dios, 

Si filius es Dei, 

fo fprid), bajj bicfe 

di que estas piedras 

dic'ut lapides isti 

teine 23vob roerben. 

se hagan panes. 

panes fiant. 

4. lint) cr antnwtfte, 

4. Mas el respondi- 

4. Ille autem re- 

liub fprad) : (Sg |tc-- 

endo le dijo : Escri- 

spondens, dixit : 

Ijct gcfcbricbcu : 2)cv 

to esta : no de solo 

Scriptum est,Non 

SOicnfcl) icbct nidit fcom 

pan vivira el hombre, 

in pane solo vivet 

23vo& ftilcin, fonDcni 

mas de toda palabra 

homo, sed in om- 

Don rincm jc.Alubcn 

que sale de la boca 

ni verbo exeunte 

2Bort, Da6 turd) &?u 

de Dios. 

per os Dei. 

S07uitD ottcs gc^ct. 

5. 5) a ful)vte tl)n fci- 

5. Entonces le to- 

5. Tune assu- 

5:fitfcl mit fid) in t)ie 

mo el diablo, le llevo 

mit eum diabolus 

Ijciligc tafcf, unb |lcl= 

a la Santa Ciudad, y 

in sanctam civi- 

(cte iljit auf Me 3i^ 

le puso sobre las al- 

tatem, et statuit 

bc5 ^cmpcli?/ 

menas del templo. 

eum super pinna- 

culum templi. 

6. Itnbfpradj jui^m: 

6. Y le dijo : Si 

6. Et dicit ei ; 

St|l DU ottce @ol)H, 

eres Hijo de Dios 

Si filius es Dei, 

fo li\fj bici) fyinab ; benii 

echate de aqui abajo, 

dejice teipsum de- 

eg liefer gcffbrtcbcn : 

porque escrito esta 

orsura. Scriptum 

c ivitD feiiten Sngrdi 

que te encomendara 

est enim, Quia 

iibcv Mi- 55cfel}l tljun, 

a sus angeles, y te 

angelis suis man- 

uut> fie ircrben bid) itnf 

tomaran en sus ma- 

dabit de te, et in 

ben ipdtit'cn trageii^ auf 

nos paraque tu pie no 

manibus tollent 


tropieze con piedra 

te, ne forte im- 

an final @tnn jujc|t. 


pingas ad lapidem 






\l6nv TOV TroSa 

thy foot against a 



7. *E0T/ ai3ra> 6 

7. Jesus lui dit : 11 

7. Jesus said unto 

'lijo-ous 1 Iid\ivye- 

est aussi ecrit : Tu ne 

him, It is written again, 

ypairrai, " OVK e<- 

tenteras point le Seign- 

Thou shalt not tempt 

irfipdcreis Kvptov 

eur ton Dieu. 

the Lord thy God. 

TOV Qeov o-ou." 

8. HaXtv Trapa- 

8. Le diable le trans- 

8. Again, the devil 

Xa/i./3di/6i avrov 6 

porta encore sur une 

taketh him up into an 

8id$o\os els opos 

fort haute montagne, 

exceeding high moun- 

v^rjXov \lav, Kal 

et lui montra tous les 

tain, and sheweth him 

bf'iKvvo~i.v avTto Trd- 

royaumes du monde 

all the kingdoms of 

aaj TO.S I3acri\eias 

et leur gloire ; 

the world, and the glo- 


ry of them, 

Oot~av avTcov. 

9. Kai Xeyet av- 

9. et il lui dit : Je te 

9. And saith unto 

ra Taura trdvra 

donnerai toutes ces 

him, All these things 

trot Saxra), fdv Tre- 

choses, si, en te pros- 

will I give thee, if thou 

tra>i> irpoo-Kvvf)o~Tjs 

ternant en terre, tu 

wilt fall down and wor- 



ship me. 

10. Tore Xe'yei 

10. Mais Jesus lui 

10. Then said Jesus 

avra 6 'iqaovs, "Y- 

dit : Va, Satan ; car il 

unto him, Get thee 

iraye, 6irio-a> fiov 

est ecrit : Tu adoreras 

hence, Satan : for it is 

{raruvd. Ytypair- 

le Seigneur ton Dieu,. 

written, Thou shalt 

Tat yap, " Kvptov 

et tu le serviras lui 

worship the Lord thy 

TOV Qeov crou trpocr- 


God, and him only 

Kvvrjcreis, Kal avr^ 

shalt thou serve. 

uovtt) XaTpeucreip. 

1 1 . Tore d<pir)o~iv 

11. Alorsle diable le 

11. Then the devil 

avTov 6 8td/3oXos 

laissa, et voila, les an- 

leaveth him, and be- 

Kai iSou, ayyeXoi 

ges s'approcherent, et 

hold, angels came and 

irpoo-Tj\dov, Kal 81- 

le servirent. 

ministered unto him. 

ijKovovv avr. 

12. 'AKOutraf 8e 

12. Or Jesus ayant 

12. Now when Jesus 

6 *lr)o-i>vs OTI 'ico- 

ou'j dire que Jean avait 

had heard that John 

awrjs irapfbodrj, d- 

ete mis en prison, se 

was cast into prison, 

vf^u^prfcrfv fis TrjV 

retira en Galilee. 

he departed into Gali- 


lee ; 

13. Kai xaraXi- 

13. Et ayant quitte 

13. And leaving Naz- 

ira>v TTJV Nafaper, Nazareth, il alia de- j areth, hcs came and 

X0a>j> KaT<a<rjo-fv meurcr a Capernaiun, dwelt in Capernaum, 





pedem tuum. 

7. 3)a fprad) 3cfn$ 

7. Y Jesus le dijo : 

7. Ait illi Jesv > : 

ju i(?m : 'viBiefterntn \it- 

tambien esta escrito : 

Rursum scriptum 

l)ct and) .aefdmebcn : 

No tentaras al Sefior 

est : Non tentabia 

>n foll|l (gott, Dcium 

tu Dios. 

Dominum Deum 

5ervn, nict>t \>erfud)cn. 


8. xZBifDerum fnfyrcre 

8. De nuevo el dia- 

8. Iterum assu- 

jfyn Der 'Jeufcl mit fidy 

blo le subio a un 

mit eum diabolus 

ftttf einen fctjr fyotyen 

monte muy encum- 

in montem excel- 

93crc, nn& jeia,ete ifym 

brado, y le mostro 

sum valde, et os- 

alle SKfid^e Dcr 'SBelt 

todos los reynos del 

tendit ei omnia 

unD iljre mlirf)?ett; 

mundo, y la gloria de 

regna mundi, el 


gloriam eorum : 

9. UnD fprarf) jit ifym: 

9. Y le dijo : te dare 

9. Et dicit ei : 

'.Cieg allei? rcill id) ^u 

todas estas cosas si 

Ha3C omnia tibi 

^cbcn, fo fcn nietct-- 

postrado me ado- 

dabo, si cadens 

fdll|t, tint mid) ante; 


adoraveris me. 


10. 35a fprad) 3cfiie 

10. Entonccs Jesus 

10. Tune dicit 

jit iljm : J^etc Did) rcg 

le respondio : Apar- 

ei Jesus : Abi Sa- 

Von mir, (Satan ! fcenn 

tate Satanas ; porque 

tana ; scriptum 

eef jtcl^t^cfcbncbfii: 2)n 

escrito esta : Adora- 

est enim, Domi- 

foll|tanbctcnCgott, Dci= 

ras al Sefior tu Dios, 

num Deum tv\um 

lien J^errn, nnt> ihm 

y a el solo serviras. 

adorabis, et illi 

allein Diencn. 

soli servies. 

11. S)a t>ftlif il;n 

11. Entoncesle de- 

11. Tuncdimil- 

ter 5:cnffl ; mifc ftel^e, 

jo el diablo, y he 

tit eum diabolus : 

fca tratcn Die na,cl jn 

aqui los angeles lle- 

et ecce angeli ac- 

ibm, unD Dicntrn inn. 

garon, y le Servian. 

cesserunt, et mi- 

nistrabant ei. 

12. 2>a nun 3ffn5 

12. Mas cuando Je- 

12. Audiens au- 

l)6vctc, Da^" 3ol)annftJ 

sus oyo que Juan es- 

tem Jesus quod 

nteranttoortct war, jccj 

taba en prision volvi- 

Joannes traditus 

er in Dag galildifdje 

ose a Galilea. 

esset, secessit in 

ianb ; 

Galilaeam : 

13. Hub terlieg tie 

13. Y d?jando a 

13. Et relin- 

tafct Slajaiett^, f'am 

Nazareth, vm6, y 

quens Nazarct 

uwD rcofynte jn Capcv; 

moro en Japharna- 

veniens commi 






(Is KaTrepraov/t TT)V 

ville maritime, sur les 

which is upon the sea- 

Kapa6a\<i(r<rlav, tv 

confins de Zabulon et 

coast in the borders of 

opiois ZajSouXtov Kai 

de Nephthali ; 

Zabulon and Neph- 


thalim ; 

14. "iva ir\Tjp<08j} 

14. afin que fut ac- 

14. That it might be 

TO prjBev 8ia 'Hcraiov 

compli ce dont il 

fulfilled which was 

TOV irpo(pf)Tov, X- 

avait ete parle par 

spoken by Esaias the 


Esai'e le prophete, 

prophet, saying, 

disant : 

15. " T^ Zaou- 

15. Le pays de Za- 

15. The land of 

X&>i KOI yrj Nec^a- 

bulon, et le pays de 

Zabulon, and the land 

Xct/z, 6831' 6a\d<r<TT)s, 

Nephthali, vers le 

of Nephthalim, by the 

irtpav TOV 'lopSdvov, 

chemin de la mer, au- 

way of the sea, be- 

FaXtXaia TWV fdvaiv, 

dela du Jourdain, la 

yond Jordan, Galilee 

Galilee des Gentils ; 

of the Gentiles : 

16. 'O Xaor 6 *ca- 

16. ce peuple, qui 

16. The people 

6j/ifi>os eV erKoret, et- 

etait assis dans les 

which sat in dark- 

Se (^ajf fJ-fya, *cal roly 

tenebres, a vu une 

ness saw great light ; 

Kadrj/jLtvois tv ^o>pa 

grande lumiere ; et a 

and to them which 

cat OTcta tfai'drou, <&Js 

ceux qui etaient assis 

sat in the region and 

avtTti\tv avrols." 

dans la region et dans 

shadow of death, light 

1'ombre de la mort la 

is sprung up. 

lumiere s'est levee. 

17. 'ATTO Tore m)- 

17. Des-lors Jesus 

17. From that tin* 

^aro 6 'lijcroCy Krjpvar- 

comment a a precher, 

Jesus began to preach 

at iv, Kai \tytiv, Me- 

et a dire : Convertis- 

and to say, Repent . 

Tai^elrf rjyytKt yap 

sez-vous, car le roy- 

for the kingdom of 

t) j3acrt\eia rotv ovpa- 

aume des cieux est 

heaven is at hand. 



18. UtplTTZTUV 8( 

18. Et comme Je- 

18. And Jesus, walk- 

irapa Ttjv OdXacrcrav 

sus marchait le long 

ing by the sea of Gal- 

rrjs FaXtXajar, fide 

de la mer de Galilee, 

ilee, saw two breth- 

ftvo d8(\(povs , 2i^ta>- 

il vit deux freres, sa- 

ren, Simon called Pe- 

ra TOI' \(y6p.(ov Ile- 

voir Simon, qui fut 

ter, aid Andrew lua 

Tpov, Kai 'A.v8ptav 

appele Pierre, et An- 

brother, casing a net 

T&V dSeX^oi' avroi), 

dre, son frere, qui je- 

into the sea ; for they 

/SaXXojT-ay a/x^i'/SXq- 

taient leurs filets dans 

were fishers. 

arpov (is rfjv ^aXacr- 

la mer, car Us etaient 

aav ^o iv yno dXt- 







itaum, bic fca ficcu am 

um ciudad maritime 

gra\it in Caper- 

SDIccr, an t>cn (Srcujcu 

en los confines tie 

naum mariti- 

3'U'itlou mi> 2Rq)ljri)a= 

Zabulon, y Nephta- 

mam : in finibus 



Zabulon et Neph- 


14. Ituf t>a|3 erfftHft 

14. Paraque se 

14. Ut adimple- 

ttnirfce, Dag Da a,cfaa,t i|t 

cumpliese lo que fue 

retur pronuncia- 

laurel) fceit spropfyctcn 

dicho por el profeta 

tum per Isaiam 

3cfaia, Dec Da fpvieijt : 

Isaias que dijo. 

Prophetam, di- 

centem : 

15. Sag ianD 3atu= 

15. La tierra de Za- 

15. Terra Zabu- 

(on, imD Dag ianD 

bulon, y la tierra de 

lon, et terra Neph- 

Sttq?tKl)alim, am IDc.Ac 

Nephtalim, camino 

thali, viam maris 

teg 9CKeci-g, jenffit Dei? 

del mar al otro lado 

ultra Jordanem, 

3orDang, uiiD Die i)ciD= 

del Jordan, Galilea 

Galila;a gentium : 

ifct)C (Salilda, 

de los Gentiles. 

16. SagSBofMagin 

16. Pueblo sentado 

16. Populus se- 

giitllcniig fag, l}at ciu 

en tinieblas vio gran 

dens in tenebris, 

grojjcs iicf)t flcfc^fM, 

luz y a los que mo- 

videns lucem 

ttuD Me l>a fallen am 

raban en la region y 

magnam, et se- 

Ortc wife cbattcn tci? 

sombra de la muerte, 

dentibus in regi- 

$oDcg, fcncu i|l ctu 

luz les amanecio. 

one et umbra mor- 

iul;t aufgcgangrit. 

tis, lux orta esi 


17. 58ou Dcr 3?it an 

17. Desde aquel 

17. Ex tune COR- 

finai 3cfug an jit prclt-- 

punto comenzo Jesus 

pit Jesus praedica- 

.ani, tint) }tt faAdi : 

a predicar y a decir : 

re, etdicere : Poe- 

$(}nt 25nc, Dag J^im-- 

Arrepentios porque 

nitemini : appro- 

tnclreict) ijt uatye ^evfcci; 

el reyno de los cielos 

pinquavit enim 


esta cerca. 

regnum coelorum. 

18. 2(Ig mill 3efue 

18. Y Jesus yendo 

18. Circumam- 

an fccm galUdifcbcn 

por la costa del mar 

bulans autem Je- 

SOTccre fting, fat) cr 

de Galilea vio a dos 

sus" juxta mare 

jirccn 2>vul>cr, @imou, 

hermanos Simon, lla- 

Galilrese, vidit du- 

Dei- ta l)c:)5t ^Pftvug, 

mado Pedro, y An- 

os fratres, Simo- 

unb 2IiiM-cai?, feincii 

dres su hermano que 

nem dictum Pe- 

95rui>cr ; Die roarfcn 

echaban la red en el 

trurn, et Andream 

it^ie 9Ic^e ing 5DTccr, 

mar, pues eran pes- 

fra :em ejus, mit- 

fcenu fie iiren gifrtxr. 


ten es veriiculum 

in mare ; (eranl 

enii i pisci ores.) 






19. Kal \tyei av- 

19. Et il leur dit : 

19. And he saith un 

TOLS, ^fvre uTTtcra) Venez apres moi, et 

to them, Follow me 

uou, Kal TToiTj<ra> ti/*as je vous ferai pecheurs 

and I will make you 

aXids dvdpa>TTo>v. 


fishers of men. 

20. Ol Se fv6e<os 

20. Et ayant aussi- 

20. And they 

Iffievres TO 8iKrva, 

tot quitte leurs filets, 

straightway left their 

;KO\ov6r)crav avrtf. 

ils le suivirent. 

nets, and followed 


2 1 . Kct -rrpojSas 

21. Et de la etant 

21. And going on 

- *eldfv, flSev oAXovs 

alle plus avant, il vit 

from thence, he saw 

**o d8(\(povs, 'law- deux autres freres, 

other two brethren, 

fJov TOV TOV Zfj3f8ai- Jacques, fir.s de Ze- 

James the son of Zeb- 

ov, Kal 'i&dwrjv TOV j bedee, et Jean, son 

edee, and John his 

o8e\<pov auroC, ev 

frere, dans une na- 

brother, in a ship with 

TW 77X0/6) ftfTa Ze,3f- 

celle, avec Zebedee, 

Zebedee their father, 

daiov TOV TraTpbs av- ] leur pere, qui rac- 

mending their nets 

TV, KaTapTigovras 

commodaient leurs fi- 

and he called them. 

Ta BiKTva avT&v Kal. 

lets, et il les appela. 

(KaXtcrfv avTovS) 

<'. Ol 8e evdfcos 

22. Et ayant aussi- 

22. And they im- 

d<pevres TO TfXolov 

tot quitte leur nacelle 

mediately left the 

Kai TOV Trarepa av- 

et leur pere, ils le 

ship, and their father, 

tl t"* **" ' 


93 F.t Toona ollnit 

and followed him. 

951 A nrl Tociio T\rort 

o\7jv Tfjv TaXiXaiav 
6 'Iijo-oCr, 8i8da-Kwv 
tv TOLS (rvvayuyals 
OVTMV, K.U KTjpvaaatv 
ri evayyeXiov TTJS 
(ia(ri\, Kal $e/>a- 
irevcov irna-av v6&ov 
ral -nay-civ /iaAuKuu/ 
tv TK> Xaw. ; 

24. Kal dnri\6ev 
i) aKur) avTov ds CXr;v 

r)Vfyn.av UVTW TTUK 
rat TOVS taws t\ov- 
ray, iroudXais vocrois 

par toute la Galilee, 
enseignant dans leurs 
synagogues, prechant 
Tevangile du roy- 
aume, et guerissant 
toutes sortes de mala- 
dies, et toutes sortes 
de langueurs parmi le 

24. Et sa renom- 
ttiee se repandit par 
toute la Syrie ; et on 
lui presentait tOUS 
ceux qui se portaient 
mal, tourmentes de 

about all Galilee, 
teaching in their syn- 
agogues, and preach- 
ing the gospel of the 
kingdom, and healing 
all manner of sick- 
ness, and all manner 
of disease among the 

24. And his fame 
went throughout all 
Syria : and they 
brought unto him all 
sick people that were 
taken with divers dis 






19. Uub er fprad) jn 

19. Y les dijo : Se- 

19. E ait illis: 

ifyncn : gol^et inn- 

guidme, y yo hare 

Venite post me, 

luub ; icfi will curb 311 

que seais pescadores 

et fuciam vos pis- 

3D?cnfcben=8 ifcfccr n ma-- 

de hombres. 

catores hominum. 


20. 95af t fcerlttfr n jit 

20. Y ellos dejadas 

20. Illi autem 

ibre Krc, nub fol^tcn 

al instante las redes, 

continue dimit- 

il;m uad). 

le siguieron. 

tentes retia, secu- 

ti sunt. eum. 

21, Unt> ba er toon 

21. Y pasando de 

21. Et proce- 

tanncn rocitcr giug, fab. 

alii adelante vio a 

dens inde, vidit 

er jroten anbett SBrft* 

otros dos hermanos 

alios duos fratres, 

bcr, -3afobum, ten 

Jacobo hijo de Zebe- 

Jacobum Zebe- 

ob.n 3f&f&fti/ nb 

deo, y su hermano 

doei, et Joannem 

3ob,aiuicin ; fcinen25riu 

Juan que estaban en 

fratrem ejus in 

tcr, im (Scbijf, mit 

un barco con su pa- 

navi cum Zebe- 

il)vem 35ater 3r&cbdo, 

dre Zebedeo remen- 

doeo patre eorum, 

tag fte ib,ve 3Rce flicf; 

dando las redes, y 

resarciente retia 

ten ; imb er riff fie. 

les llamo. 

sua : et vocavit 


22. 95afb toerftefjen fie 

22. Y ellos imme- 

22. Illi autem 

tuv? cbijf unb 

diatamente dejaron 

statim dimittentes 

9Jater, tmb folgten ib,m 

el barco, y su padre, 

nuviculam et pa- 


y le siguieron. 

trsm suum, secu- 

ti sunt eum. 

23. Unb 3cfutf ging 

23. Y recorrio Je- 

23. Etcircuibat 

umber im ganjen galu 

sus toda la Galilea 

totum Galilaeam 

laifi'bcn Janbe, (eb,vetc 

enseuando en las Si- 

Jesus, docens in 

in ben cbuien, unb 

nagogas de ellos, y 

synagogis eorum, 

^rebigte bas Svangeli: 

predicando el Evan- 

et pi-ccdicans eu- 

inn von bcm SHcicft, 

gelio del reyno, y 

angelium regni, 

unb fytihtt aKcr(ct) 

curando toda e'nfer- 

et sanans omnem 

eurbe unb SCranfl;cit 

medad, y toda dolen- 

morbum, et om- 

im SBoIf. 

cia en el pueblo. 

nem infirmitatem 

in populo. 

24. Unb fein CBcrftcftt 

24. Y corrio su fa- 

24. Et abiit au- 

crfrtioll in bau gan^r 

ma por toda la Syria 

ditio ejus in totam 

r/ricutanb. Unb jle 

y le traian todos los 

Syriam, et obtu- 

bracbten jni()tnaller[cp 

enfermos atacados de 

lerunt ei omnes 


diversos males y tor- ' male habentes, 

eucljen unb O.nal be= 

mentos, y los posei- 1 variis norbis, et 




Kai fta&dvois crvvf)(o- 
fievovs, Kai Sai/iow- 
(opfvovs, Kai crf\i)iri- 
aofjvovs, /cat irapa- 
\VTIKOVS Kai fQepd- 
ittvatv avrovs. 

25. Kai f)KO\ov0T)- 
<fav avra> o^Xoi jroX- 
Xoi a?ro TTJS FaXtXa/- 
as Kiii AfKOTroXfoos 
Kai Ifpocro\vftcav Kai 
lovSaiay. /cat rrtpav 

1. "iSwr Sc roiis 
o\\ovs "vf$ri els TO 
opos KOI Kadi&av- 
TOS avTov, irpoa-TJ\- 
Gov avruf ol fjia6r)Tal 

2. Kai aw)iar TO 


<TKtv avrovs, Xeywi', 
3. MaKapioiotTTTO)' 

X<>l TO) TTlfVfJLaTl, OTl 

avr<ov fcrru> rj /3atrt- 
Xfia ra>v 


5. MaKaptoi ol npa- 
tf, on avTol K\r)po- 
T^V yiji>. 

6. Maicdpioi o! TTf t- 

diverses maladies, les 
demoniaques, les lu- 
natiques, les paraly- 
tiqjes, et il les gue- 

25. Et de grandes 
troupes de peuple le 
suivirent de Galilee, 
et de Decapolis, et de 
Jerusalem, et de Ju- 
dee, et de dela le 

1. Or Jesus voyant 
tout ce peuple, mon- 
ta sur une montagne ; 
puis s'etant assis, ses 
disciples s'approche- 
rent de lui ; 

2. et ayant com- 
mence a parler, il les 
enseignait de la sorte : 

3. Bienheureux sont 
les pauvres en esprit ; 
car le royaume des 
cieux est a eux. 

4. Bienheureux sont 
ceux qui pleurent ; 
car ils seront conso- 

5. Bienheureux sont 
les debonnaires ; car 
ils heriteront la terre. 

eases and torments 
and those which were 
possessed with devils, 
and those which were 
lunatic, and those that 
had the palsy ; and he 
healed them. 

25. And there fol- 
lowed him great mul- 
titudes of people from 
Galilee, and from De- 
capolis, and from Je 
rusalem, and from 
Judea, and from be- 
yond Jordan. 

1. And seeing the 
multitudes, he went 
up into a mountain : 
and when he was set, 
his disciples came un- 
to him. 

2. And he opened 
his mouth, and taught 
them, saying, 

3. Blessed are the 
poor in spirit : for 
theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven. 

4. Blessed are they 
that mourn : for they 
shall be comforted. 

5. Blessed are the 
meek : for they 
inherit the earth. 

6. Bienheureux sont 6. Blessed are they 
ceux qui sont affa- which do hunger and 
mes et alteres de la thirst after righteous- 
justicc ; car ils seront ness r tT they shall 






fyafret, Me S3cfc|j'citcu, 

dos del dcmonio y 

torminibus com- 

Me D?ohtfii(1)tigen uut> 

los lunaticos y lc;s 

prehensos, et dee- 

Me CSicbtbrucbigcn ; 

paraliticos ; y los cu- 


unb cr macbte fie alle 


ticos, et parulyti- 


cos : et curavil 


25. lint" e$ fHate ifym 

25. Y le seguian 

25. Et secutce 

tiacb v>icl 55olfi? aits? 

grandes multitudes 

sunt eum turbse 

atilda, autf ten jefyu 

de pueblo de Galilea, 

multsfe de Galilaea, 

tdfctcu l>ou 3evnfa: 

y de Decapolis y de 

et Decapoli, et 

Urn, aits fcem juMfcbru 

Jerusalem y de Ju- 

Hierosolymis, et 

ianfce, unl> \>ou jenfeit 

dea, y de la otra ban- 

Judsea, et trans 

fcct? 3orfeau$. 

da del Jordan. 


1. X>a cv a(>cr fca$ 

1. Y viendo Jesus 

1. Videns autem 

SBoIl: fat}, a,iua, er. auf 

las gentes subio a un 

turbas, ascendit 

eineu 23cra., mil* fc^te 

monte y habiendose 

in montem : et se- 

flft), uub fciue SuHger 

sentado llegaron a el 

dente eo, advene- 

tvateu ju iljm. 

sus discipulos. 

runt ei discipuli 


2. Unb er tfyat fcincu 

2. Y abriendo su 

2. Et aperiens 

SOTiniD auf, leljrcte fie, 

boca les ensenaba di- 

os suum, docebat 

un& fpracl) : 


ens, dicens :* 

3. dig flni, tie t>a 

3. Bienaventurados 

3. Beati paupe- 

geifHtcb avmfiuD; leuu 

los pobres de espiri- 

res spiritu, quo- 


tu, porque de ellos es 

niam ipsorum est 

el reyno de los cielos. 

regnum ccelorum. 

4. elig f(nt>, Me iia 

4. Bienaventurados 

4. Beati lugen- 

leib trcigen ; fcenu f(e 

los afligidos, porque 

tes, quia ipsi con- 

follcii geti6|let irerten. 

ellos serin consola- 



5. @ffi.c< fdib Me 

5. Bienaventurados 

5. Beati mites 

auftmut^ijKii ; ^clln 

los mansos, porque 

quoniam ipsi ha;- 

f(c rrei^cu fcaj? SrDreifb 

ellos recibiran en he- 



rencia la tierra. 

6. cfig flnt>, Me ta 

6. Bienaventurados 

6. Beati esuri 

(juu^crt iniD fcfujlct 

los que tienen ham- 

entes et sitientes 

uarb ter (Scvccbticjt-'eit ; 

bre y sed de justicia, 

justitiam, quoni- 

teiiu ffc folleu fatt wets 

porque ellos seran 

am ipsi sauira* 








be filled. 

7. MaKapioi ol eXe- 

7. Bienheureux sont 

7. Blessed are the 

fjfjLOves, on avrol f\f- 

les misericordieux ; 

merciful : for they 


car misericorde leur 

shall obtain mercy. 

sera faite. 

8. MaKapioi ol Ka- 

8. Bienheureux sont 

8. Blessed are the 

6apo\ TTJ Kap8ia, ori 

ceux qui sont nets de 

pure in heart : for 

avro\ TOV Geor o^ov- 

coeur ; car ils verront 

they shall see God. 



9. MaKapioi ol (I- 

9. Bienheureux sont 

9. Blessed are tho 

prjvoTroioi, on airot 

ceux qui procurent la 

peace-makers : for 

viol 0eoC K\T)6f](rov- 

paix ; car ils seront 

they shall be called 


appeles enfans de 

the children of God. 


10. MaKapioi ol8f- 

10. Bienheureux sont 

10. Blessed are they 

di<ayfjiffoi tvfKfv 81- 

ceux qui sont perse- 

which are persecut- 

Kaiocrvvrjs, OTI avrfav 

cutes pour la justice ; 

ed for righteousness' 

i<mv f] fiacriKfia TU>V 

car le royaume des 

sake : for theirs is the 


cieux est a eux. 

kingdom of heaven. 

11. MaKapioi (<TT( 

11. Vous serez bien- 

11. Blessed are ye 

orav 6v(i8to~a>o~iv 

heureux quand on 

when men shall re- Kal 8ia>a>cri, 

vous aura injuries et 

vile you, and perse- 

Kal eiTraxri irav TTO- 

persecutes, et quand, 

cute you, and shall 

vrjpbv prjpci Ka&* 

a cause de moi, on 

say all manner of evi) 

vp.S>v, ^evSo/iej/oi, 

aura dit faussement 

against you falsely. 

tvtKfv e/xoO, 

contre vous toute 

for my sake. 

sorte de mal. 

12. Xai'pere KU\ 

12. Rejouissez-vous, 

12. Rejoice, and be 

ayaAAiacr$e, on 6 

et tressaillez de joie, 

exceeding glad : for 

fUff66s VfJiSiV TToXlT 

parce que votre re- 

great is your reward 

tv rols ovpavols ' ov- 

compense est grande 

in heaven : for so 

ra> yap tdia>av TOVS 

dans les cieux ; car 

persecuted they the 

trpo(f}r ras TOVS rrpo 

on a ainsi persecute 

prophets which were 


les prophetes qui ont 

before you. 

ete avant vous. 

13. 'Y/mj COT* ro 

13. Vous etes le sel 

13. Ye are the salt 

5Xas T>}? -y^y. 'Eai/ 

de la terre ; mais si 

of the earth : but if 

de TO a\as nwpavdfj, 

le sel perd sa saveur, 

the salt have lost his 

w rivi a\io-df)<T(rai ; 

avec quoi le salera-t- 

savor, wherewith shall 






saciados % 


7. dig fm& Me 

7. Bienaventurados 

7. Beati miseri- 

tunul\v}Ufu ; beuti 

los misericordiosos, 

cordes, quoniam 

^c iwtMi i^armljtijigr 

porque ellos alcanza- 

ipsi misericordia 

if it erUngCH. 

ran misericordia. 


8. dig fuib, Me reU 

8. Bienaventurados 

8. Beati mundi 

,c6 J^cvjcits fiub; benu 

los limpios de cora- 

corde, quoniam 

ie roerbeu ott fdjau: 

zon, porque ellos ve- 

ipsi Deum vide- 


ran a Dios. 


9. e(ig flub Me 

9. Bienaventurados 

9. Beati pacifi- 

$riebferrigen ; bfini fie 

los pacificos, porque 

ci, quoniam ipsi 

iwtu'ii ottcs? Sfinber 

ellos seran llamados 

filii Dei vocabun- 


hijos de Dios. 


10. dig flub, Me um 

10. Bienaventura- 

10. Beati per- 

eredmgr'ftt iDiHen 

dos los que padecen 

secutione affecti 

fcetfolget irerfeu ; bcnn 

persecucion por cau- 

propter justitiam, 

fae mimelvcid) i\l i^r. 

sa de la justicia, por- 

quoniam ipsorum 

que de ellos es el 

est regnum cselo- 

reyno de los cielos. 


11. ^e(ig feijb if^r, 

11. Bienaventura- 

11. Beati estis 

enu end) Mc?Dtcnfd>fit 

dos sois cuando os 

quum maledixe- 

um ineuKttndenfdjmA-- 

maldijeren, y os per- 

rint vos, et perse- 

l;fu ituD toetfolgen, uuD 

siguieren, y dijeren 

quuti fuerint, et 

reteu allfrlen liebfltf 

todo mal de vosotros 


ltti^fr cud), fo fie fca-- 

con falsedad por mi 

lum verbum ad- 

vau liigeu. 


versum vos, n/en- 

tientes, propter 


12. ei)D fv&fyfidi 

12. Gozaos y ale- 

12. Gaudete et 

unb gctroji, eg iirb 

graos porque es gran- 

exultate, quoniam 

end) im J^immel nol}l 

de vuestro galardon 

merces vestra 

beloljiiftirftDfii. 2)enn 

en los cielos, porque 


alfo Ijabeu fie Derfolget 

asi persiguieron a los 

enim persequuti 

tie spi-ppt)acn, bie \>ci - 

profetas que fueron 

sunt Prophetas 

end 1 , gerocffu fiub. 

antes de vosotros. 

qui ante vos. 

13. 3l>c ferb IMS? 

13. Vosotros sois 

13. Yos estis sal 

alj t7v rfe'. ^o 

la sal de la tierra, 

terrse ; si autem 

mm t>a6 ;(} Mnnin 

y si la sal perdiere 

sal infatuatum sit, 

vcirb/ tvomu will man su sabor < con que se 

in quo salietur t 






tls oiSfv lo~xvfi fTi, 

on ? 11 ne vaut plus 

it be salted ? it is 

fl fir/ $\Tjdf)vat eo>, 

rien qu'a 6tre jete 

thenceforth good for 

Kai KaTo.iraT(io~OM 

dehors, et foule des 

nothing, but to be cast 

V1TO TU>V dvQjto)TT(j)V, 


out, and to be trodden 

under foot of men. 

14. 'Y/ielf f'crre TO 

14. Vous e"tes la lu- 

14. Ye are the light 

d)(5j TOO KOffflOV. Ov 

miere du monde. 

of the world. A city 

dvvaTai iro\is Kpvftrj- 

Une ville situee sur 

that is set on an hill 

vai eirdva) opovs Kfi- 

une montagne ne peut 

cannot be hid. 


point etre cachee. 

15. Ov8e Katovo-t 

15. Et on n'allume 

15. Neither do men 

\i/xvov, Kal Ti6e'ao-iv 

point la lampe pour 

light a candle, and 


la mettre sous un 

put it under a bushel, 

ov, dXX' tirl TT/V 

boisseau,' mais sur un 

but on a candlestick : 

Xv^viav, Kal \dfjurfi 

chandelier, et elle 

and it giveth light un- 

nao-i TO'IS ev TJ; oixig. 

eclaire to us ceux qui 

to all that are in the 

sont dans la maison. 


16. OVTO> Xa/n/fa- 

16. Ainsi, que votre 

16. Let your light 

rto TO <p<as vfivtv e/z- 

lumiere luise devant 

so shine before men, 

TTpOO~vV TCOV Civ(/p(ii)~ 

les hommes, afin 

that they may sec 

ircov, OTTO); 'ido)crii> 

qu'ils voient vos 

your good works, and 

Vfj.u>v TO. icaXa 6/Jyn, 

bonnes O3uvres, et 

glorify your Father 

Kal 8o|ao-coo-t TOV 

qu'ils glorifient votre 

which is in heaven. 


Pere qui est aux cieux. 

Tols ovpavols. 

1 ** *,. \ / 

17. Ne croyez pas 

17. Think not that 

ort ?)\8ov /caToXvcrat 

que je sois venu ane- 

I am come to destroy 


antir la loi ou les pro- 

the law, or the proph- 

TTpocpfjTas OVK ^X- 

phetes ; je ne suis 

ets : I am not come 

Qov <aTaXGo~at, aXXa 

pas venu les anean- 

to destroy, but to fiu- 


tir, mais les accom- 


18. 'Aunj/ vao Xe- 

18. Car ie vous dis. 

18. For verilv I sav 

ya>, fais av tra- 
ot\6r) 6 ovpavbs Kal 
/ yrj, i<oTa (V ff /zia 
Htpoia ov p.T) napt\- 
(>TJ i\no TOV vopav, ias 
Iv Ttdvra ytvijTai 

en verite, que jus- unto you, Till heaven 
qu'a ce que le ciel et and earth pass, one 
la terre soient passes, jot or one tittle shall 
un seul iota, ou un in no wise pass from 
seul trait de lettre, : the law, till all be fuk 
passera point, qae ' filled, 
toutcs ccs choses ne ' 






fafjfii? <S .< i|l }u iitcfcte 

harasalada? No vale 

ad nihilum valet 

tymfort nnc, Demi I'afc" 

ya para nada sino 

ultra, si non ejici 

man eg ^inaugfcb&ttr, 

para ser echada fue- 

foras, et concul- 

uuD laiJ'e eg Die iatrc 

ra y pisada de los 

cari ab homini- 




14. 3l)rffg& batfiicftt 

14. Vosotros sois la 

14. Vsestislux 

bcr SBclr. g mag 

uz del mundo. Una 

mundi : non po- 

tie ta&t, tic auf cu 

ciudad situada sobre 

test civitas ab- 

iicm 25crge liegt, uicfct 

un monte no puede 

scondi supra mon- 

Vm-borgen fci;n. 


tern posita. 

15. SOIau jftiiDct and) 

15. Ni se enciende 

15. Neque ac 

imbt cm iiibt an, nut 

una vela para poner- 

cendunt lucer- 

fcgt c^ untcv linen 

la bajo un celemin 

nam, et ponunt 

ebcffel, fonfccni auf 

sino en el candelero, 

earn sub modio, 

ciucn ieudw, fo Icuit- 

y asi alumbra a todos 

sed super cande- 

tct eg i-cncn alien, Die 

los de la casa. 

labrum, et lucet 

im aufe finD. 

omnibus in domo. 

16. 'Ztlfo (aifet eucr 

16. Brille asi vu- 

16. Sic luccat 

iirljt (cud? ten \>or ten 

estra luz delante de 

lux vestra coram 

icutcn, Kajj ftc cure gn= 

los hombres paraque 

hominibus, ut vi- 

ten SBcvfe fel)en, HUD 

vean vuestras'buenas 

deant vestra pul- 

ciifcn 33atec im im= 

obras y glorifiquen a 

chra opera, et glo- 

mc( prcifcn. 

vuestro Padre que 

rificent Patrcm 

esta en los cielos. 

vestrum qui in 


17. 3f?r fofft ttictjt 

17. No creais que 

17. Ne putetis 

tt>at}ncn, &a|5 id) gefom-- 

yo he venido a abro- 

quod veni dissol- 

men Inn, Cag (Scfc 

gar la Ley 6 los pro- 

vere legem, aut 

oier Die spropl^etcn 

fetas : no he venido 

Prophetas ; non 

aufju(6fen. 3d) Inn 

a abrogarlos sino a 

veni dissolveie, 

nicbt gctommen auf^iu 

hacerlos cumplidos. 

sed adimplere. 

(6fen/ fciiDem ju etfnl; 


18. 2Vnn id) fage end) 

18, Porque en ver- 

18. Amen quip- 

n>al)rlicb : S5i6 Dafi' 

dad os digo que an- 

pe dico vobis, do- 

^uumel unD rDe je'r- 

tes pasaran el cielo 

nee prsetereat cae- 

gelje, reirt) nirtjt jergr-- 

y la tierra, que deje 

lum et terra, jota 

ben fccr t(cin|k U)nd)= 

de pasar una jota 6 

unuin, aut unus 

t^abe, nod) tin litcl 

una tilde de la Ley 

apex non pneter- 

bom efc, big Dafe es 

sin que todas las co- 

ibit a lege, donee 

<Ucg s<l ( tet)e. 

sas sean cumplidas. 

omnia fiant. 




19 Op eav ovv . 
"h-vcrr, /Jiiav TOIV evTo- 
Xwj/ TOI TCOV Ttov eXa- 

KM. dl8dr) 

6ijj-fTai ev Ty /3a<rt- j 
Afta Tuiv ovpavav 
os 8' a.v Trot^cri; nal 
8i8ar], OVTOS peyxs 

K\Tjdf]fffTai fV TT) ' 

/SacriXe/a ratv ovpa- 

20. Ae'yco yap>, on eav fjirf ire- 
pi(r<rfvcrT) rj 

v Acat <J>a- 

ptcraicov, ov ^ tl~ 
<Tf\6r}Te fls TTJV jSacri.- 
Xeiav rtaj* ovpavatv. 

21. 'HKovcrare OTI 
fppedr) rots dpxaiois, 
Ov (povevo-fis ' os 8' 

OV (pOVf 

carat TTJ 

22. 'Eya> Se, OTI iras 6 opyi- 

6j.evos rw dSeX<a5 

J Kpia-fi os 
8' av fiTT^; TO) dSeX- 
^)&) avroi pa.Ka tvo- 
\os terra. TO> CTUJ/C- 

us r^i ytetvav rov 

soient faites. 

19. Celui done qui 
aura viole 1'un de ces; 
petits commande- 
mens, et qui aura 
enseigne ainsi les 
hommes, sera tenu le 
plus petit au royaume 
des cieux ; mais celui 
qui les aura faits et 
enseignes, sera tenu 
grand au royaume 
des cieux. 

20. Car je vous dis 
que si votre justice ne 
surpasse celle des 
scribes et des phari- 
siens, vous n'entrerez 
point dans le roy- 
aume des cieux. 

21. Vous avez en- 
tendu qu'il a ete dit 
aux anciens : Tu ne 
tueras point ; et qui 
tuera sera punissable 
par lejugement. 

22. Mais moi, je 
vous dis que qui- 
conque se met en co- 
le re sans cause con- 
tre son frere, sera pu- 
nissable par le juge- 
ment ; et celui qui 
dira a sou frere, Ra- 
cha, sera punissable 
par le conseil ; et ce- 
lui qui lui dira, Fou, 

19. Whosoevei there 
fore shall break one 
of these least com- 
mandments, and shal! 
teach men so, he shall 
be called the least in 
the kingdom of heav- 
en : but whosoever 
shall do and teach 
them, the same shal. 
be called great in the 
kingdom of heaven. 

20. For I say unto 
you, That except your 
righteousness shal 1 
exceed the righteous- 
ness of the scribes 
and Pharisees, ye 
shall in no case enter 
into the kingdom of 

21. Ye have heard 
that it was said by 
them of old time. 
Thou shalt not kill : 
and whosoever shall 
kill, shall be in dan- 
ger of the judgment : 

22. But I say unto 
you, That whosoever 
is angry with his 
brother without a 
cause, shall be in 
danger of the judg- 
ment : and whosoev- 
er shall say to his 
brother, Raca, shall 
be in danger of the 
council : but whoso- 






19. ^cr nun Qrint? 

19. De modo que 

19. Quiergosol- 

t>0u t>u-fen Fleui|ten <&(= 

el que quebrantase 

verit unum man- 

toten an|i6|"i't, unD lel)= 

uno de estos miriimos 

datorum istorum 

ret t>ie icute alfo, t>cr 

inandamientos, y en- 

minimorum, et 

unit- c-cr i\ lctu|U tyeijjen 

seHase asi a los hom- 

docuerit sic ho- 

im Omunelietd) ; ir-ci 

bres, sera, llamado 

mines, minimus 

cs? iUnT tl)itt nnfc lebvet, 

muy pequeuo en el 

vocabitur in reg- 

I'd- unrD cn'ofe" Ijpljcii 

reyno de los cielos. 

no cselorum : qui 

uu Jpimmciuicl). 

Mas el que los guar- 

autem fecerit et 

dare y ensefiare, este 

docuerit, hie mag- 

sera llamado grande 

nus vocabitur in 

en el reyno de los 

regno cselorum. 


20. 2>cmt irf) fagc 

20. Porque yo os 

20. Dico enim 

eud) : C fei) fccnn cure 

digo que si vuestra 

vobis, quod si non 

G3eved)tigtcit bc|fer, 

justicia no fuere ma-, 

abundaverit jus- 

frenn fccc cbriftgc; 

yor que la de los 

titia vestra plus 

Ictjvtcn unt> spljavifacr, 

Escribas y Pharisees 


fo TOcrDft iljr uicbt in 

no entrareis en el 

risseorum, non in- 

tag Jpimmclrcid) t'om= 

reyno de los cielos. 

trabitis in regnum 



21. SlMabtflcltfrft, 

21. Oisteis que fue 

21. Audistisquia 

fca|; 511 Den '211 ten flcfa.qt 

dicho a los antiguos : 

pronunciatum est 

i|l : )it|'ollttnicl)tt6&-' 

no mataras, y cual- 

antiquis : Non oc- 

ten ; roeu aber t6t)tet, 

quiera que matare, 

cides : qui autem 

tev foil ^e^J CSeviebtei 

quedara obligado a 

occiderit, obnox- 

fetjulDig fei;n. 


ius eritjudicio. 


22. Mas yo os digo 

22. Ego autem 

^a- mit feincm ^nt= 

que cualquiera que 

dico vobis, quia 

lev ^uniet, ter i|l Des: 

se enojare con su 

omnis irascens 

(5?enclHs? fdnilDivi; n>cr 

hermano, quedara 

fratri suo imme 

aba- ju feincm 25rul>cc 

sujeto a juicio, y cu- 

rito, obnoxius erit 

f.i^t : 9iadM, ^cl i|t 

alquicra que Ilamare 

judiciu : qui au- 

l>ee! 9tati)fi! fdjnlfiA ; 

Raca a. su hermano, 

tem dixerit fratri 

n>er aba- f,iv\t : 2>u 

queda*-i sujeto al Sy- 

suo Raca obnox- 

Si iw, ier ift teg 1)61-- 

n< (Iric Mas el que 

ius erit concessui: ^fueig fd)nlt)ig. 

lo Ilamare insensato 

qui autem dixerit 

quedara. sujeto al fu- 

fatue, obnoxiua 







sera punissable par 

ever shall say, Thou 

la ge lenne du feu. 

fool, shall be in dan- 

ger of hell-fire. 

OO >T-I \ 

^o. tav ovi> irpoar- 

23. Si done tu ap- 

23. Therefore, it 

(pcpfjy TO oc&pov o~ov 

portes ton offrande a 

thou bring thy gift to 

enl TO dv&iacrTfipiov, 

1'autel, et que la il te 

the altar, 1 and there 

1 Ka.Kel ^u/Tja-^f, on 6 

souvienne que ton 

remomberest that thy 

ddf\(pos o~ov fx fl r ' 

frere a quelque chose 

brother hath aught 

xuTa crov, 

centre toi ; 

against thee, 

24. *A<pej fue'i TO 

24. laisse U ton of- 

24. Leave there thy 

ocapov crov, tp.irpoo'- 

frande devant 1'autel, 

gift before the altar, 

6ev TOV dvo~iao~TT]pi- 

et va te reconcilicr 

and go thy way ; first 

ou, Kai unaye, Trpw- 

premisrement avec 

be reconciled to thy 

TGV 3iaXXdy?7$i TO) 

ton frere ; puis viens, 

brother, and then 

a8f\(pcp (rov, Koi To- 

et offre ton offrande. 

come and offer thy 

re e\6a>v np6o~<pepf 


TO ftiapOV (TOV, 

25. *Io-(9t fvvo&v 

25. Sois bientot 

25. Agree with thine 

TW atT(S(Va) (rov Ta- 

d'accord avec ta par- 

adversary quickly, 

j^v, fo>f OTOU ti eV 

tie adverse, tandis quo 

while thou art in the 

T^ 68a) fl6T aUTOV, 

tu es en chemin avec 

way with him ; lest 

[irjTroTe o~f TrapafitD 

elle ; de peur que ta 

at any time the ad- 

6 arrtftuco? roi Kpirf/, 

partie adverse ne te 

versary deliver thee 

Hal 6 KpiTTjs ere ?ra- 

livre au juge, et que 

to the judge, and the 

paSai TO) virTjpfTT], 

le juge ne te livre au 

judge deliver thee to- 

nal *ls <pv\uKi)i> 

sergent, et que tu ne 

the officer, and thou 


sois mis en prison. 

be cast into prison. 

26. 'Afi^v X/ya) 

26. En verite, je te 

26. Verily, I say 

CTOJ, ov /iiy fe\drjs 

dis que tu ne sortiras 

unto thee, Thou shalt 

tKtWtv fa>s av dno- 

point de la, jusqu'a 

by no means come 

6o>r TOV tvxaTov KO- 

ce que tu aies paye 

out thence, till thou 


le dernier quadrain. 

hast paid the utter- 

most farthing. 

27. 'H<owo-aTe OTJ 

27. Vou? avez en- 

27. Ye have heard 

tpp(dr) TO'IS dpxaioit 

tendu qu'il a ete dit 

that it was said by 

Oil noixtvo-(is 

aux ancienr : Tu ne 

them of old time, 

commettras point Thou shall not com- 

adultere. mit adultery : 






ego del infierno. 

erit in gehennam 


23. 2>arum, twin Du 

23. For tanto si tu 

23. Si ergo of- 

Deiuc (Sabe auf fern 

llevares tu ofrenda 

fers munus tuum 

2(1 tar opfcr|t, uuD nm|t 

al altar y alii te a- 

ad altare, et ibi 

all fa niuu'frnit, Dag 

cordares que tu her- 

recordatus fueris, 

Dew SSruDcr ctroafi n>i= 

mano tiene algo con- 

quia frater Urns 

Dcr Did) Kibe, 

tra ti, 

habet aliquid ad- 

versum te, 

24. o lag allDa iw 

24. Deja tu ofren- 

24. Relinqueibi 

ftcra 21 1 tar fccine (Sabe, 

da ante el altar y ve- 

munus tuum ante 

UUD Acbe ju\>ur t)iu, 

te : reconciliate pri- 

altare, et vade, 

uuD tocv|"6t)iie Did) mit 

mero con tu herma- 

prius reconciliare 

Dcincm UJruDer ; uu& 

no, y despues ven y 

fratri tuo, et tune 

algDauu t'omm, uuD op-- 

presenta tu ofrenda. 

veniens offer mu- 

fere Deine abe. 

nus tuum. 

25. ct> n>illfM)riA 

25. Acomodatecon 

25. Esto bene- 

Detncm -HMDcvfacbcr 

tu adversario pron- 

sentiens adversa- 

balr>, Dicrccil Du uocb 

tamente mientras es- 

rio tuo cito, dum 

bep iljm auf Dem ICeAc 

tas con ^1 todavia en 

es in via cum eo : 

bi|t, auf Dag Dtcb Drr 

el camino, no sea 

ne forte te tradat 

SDBiDerfadier nicbt Dcr- 

que el adversario te 

adversarius judi- 

malriu|l ubfvautiroiTc 

entregue al Juez, y 

ci,et judex te tra- 

Dctn SHirbter, unD Drr 

el Juez te entregue 

dat ministro, et in 

SRidjter uberautroorte 

al ministro, y si-as 

custodiam conji- 

Did) Dem Dirner, UUD 

echado en la carcel. 


irerDe|t in Den Sterfft 


26. 3d) faflc Dir: 

26. En verdad te 

26. Amen dico 

( 2Da^rlicb, Du roir|t 

digo que no saldrus 

tibi, non exios hi- 

nicbt vou Dauncn tx-- 

de alii hasta que pa- 

de, donee reddas 

raui? fomnicn, bis Du 

gues al ultimo mara- 

novissimum qua- 

aucb DCU Iciucu Jpcllcr 

h. c i i h f r l^ 



1 1 |fctly li |i . 

27. 3br babt Ael)6ret, 

27. Oisteis que fue 

27. Audistisquia 

Dag )it Dcu 'illtcu Acfa.^t 

dicho a los antiguos : 

pronunciatum est 

i}\ : 2>u foll|l v.idjt ct)c- 

No cometeras adul- 

antiquis : Non 









28. 'Eyo 8e Xey 

28. Mais moi, je 

28. But I say unto 

VfUV, OTl TTilS 6 /3X- 

vous dis que qui- 

you, That whosoever 

TT(av yvvaiKa Trpbs TO 

conque regard o une 

looketh on a wirnan 

(7ndup.TJ(nii avTf}v, 

femme pour la con- 

to lust after hei, hath 

ff8r] ffiaixtvcrfV av- 

voiter, il a deja corn- 

committed adultery 

Tt)v fv TT) Kap8ia 

mis dans son coeur 

\vith her already in 


un adultere avec elle. 

his heart. 

29. El8eoo(pda\- 

29. Que si ton ceil 

29. And if thy right 

ftos crov 6 8ftos 

droit te fait broncher, 

eye offend (hee, plurk 

<TKav8a\ifi erf, ee- 

arrache-le, et jette-le 

it out, and cast it from 

Xe avTov, Kal /3oXe 

loin de toi ; car il 

thee : for it is prof- 

dno crov <rvp.<pepfi 

vaut mieux qu'un de 

itable for thee that 

yap croi, Iva 0770X77- 

tes membres perisse, 

one of thy members 

TOt tV TO)V p.t\S>V 

que si tout ton corps 

should perish, and not 


etait jete dans la ge- 

that thy whole body 

cr>fj.d crou ^.r/drj els 


should be cast into 



30. Kal et r) Se^ta 

30. Et si ta main 

30. And if thy right 

crou X f 'P ovcai'SaXi'- 

droite te fait bron- 

hand offend thee, cut 

fet ere, CKKO^OV av- 

cher, coupe-la, et 

it off, and cast it from 

TTJV, Kal /3aXe OTTO 

jette-la loin de toi ; 

thee : for it is prof- 

<roC (Tvp-fpepti yap 

car il vaut mieux 

itable for thee that 

<rot, Iva aTroXrjTai tv 

qu'un de tes mem- 

one of thy members 

TO>V fj.f\a>v crov, Kal 

bres perisse, que si 

should perish, and not 

p,fj oXoi/ TO a/id 

tout ton corps etait 

that thy whole body 

trou /3X^^ tig yeev- 

jele dans la gehenne. 

should be cast into 



31. 'Eppsdr) 8e OTI 

31. II a ete dit en- 

31. It hath been said, 

os ai> a-JToKvcrr] TTJV 

core : Si quelqu'un 

Whosoever shall put 

yvv.uKa avrov, Sorco 

repudie sa femme, 

away his wife, let him 

airrij dTTocmicriov 

qu'il lui donne la let- 

give her a writing of 

tre de divorce. 

divorcement : 

32. 'Eyo> 8f Xe'ya) 

32. Mais moi, je 

32. But I say unto, OTl OS O.V O.TTO- 

vous dis que qui- 

you, That whosoever 

\vcry Trjv * 'veuMq au- 

conque aura repudie 

shall put away his 





28. 3<t abrr fa^e curb: 

28. Yo os digo pu- 

28. Ego autem 

xZPcr cm < 2Bab anftcs 

es que todo aquel 

dico volis, quia 

bet ihri-r ;u bitten, 

que pusiere los ojos 

omnis conspici- 

Kr bvit fdbtfn nut tt)r 

en una muger para 

ens mulierem ad 

lie She gebrocljcu in 

codiciarla ya come- 


feu ;m 9cr$cu. 

tio con ella adulterio 

earn, jam moacha- 

en su corazon. 

tus est earn in cor- 

de suo. 

29. fletAert Mrfc abcr 

29. Y si tu ojo de- 

29. Si autem 

fcent reduce Singe, fo 

recho te fuere oca- 

oculustuus dexter 

reifc e aus, mi& wirf 

sion de caer, sacalo 

sdandalizat te, 

cs von fir. 6 iff fcir 

y arrojalo fuera de 

erue eum, et pro- 

heifer, fafe eineS fcfiner 

ti, porque mas te va- 

jice abs te ; con- 

(JMicDcr vcttcrbe, un& 

le que perezca uno 

fert enim tibi 

nicbt fccr cunje icib in 

de tus miembros que 

ut pereat unum 

tic J^6Ut gemorfcn wcr-- 

no, que todo tu cuer- 

membrorum tuo- 


po sea arrojado al in- 

rum, et non totum 


corpus tuum con- 

jiciatur in gehen- 


30. TTcr.acrt ticfc ^eine 

30. Y si tu mano 

30. Et si dex- 

rccfctr Jjpaiib, fo tyaue fie 

derecha te fuere* oca- 

tera tua manus 

ab,u:iDirirf fteDou Mr. 

sion de caer cortala, 

scandalizat te, a'o- 

e^' i|l tir bc|fcr, Da); 

y lanzala de ti pues 

scinde earn, et 

cinc^ ^ciuet ^lie^et 

mejor te es el que 

projice abs te : 

vcr^erbe, uuD niri)t fer 

perezca uno de tus 

confert enim tibi 

gaujf ieib in tie 6Ue 

miembros que no el 

ut pereat unum 

gcwovfcn mcrlie. 

que todo tu cuerpo 

membrorum tuo- 

sea arrojado al infi- 

rum,et non totum 


corpus tuum con- 

jiciatur in gehen- 



31. Hase dicho : 

31. Pronuncia- 

^ODrr fufo V>PU fcinnn 

Cualquiera que repu- 

tum est autem, 

^U?eibcf:beitct, ^rfoll 

diare a su muger de- 

quod quicumque 

iljr j\cbcn cnicn @d)cU 

la carta de divorcio. 

absolvent uxorem 



suam, del ei re- 



32. Mas yo os digo 

32. Ego autem 

H?cv ftfli \?ou feinem 

que cualquiera que 

dico vobis, quia 

QBctbc fclincct, (ce'fci; 

repudiare a su mu- 

quicunque absol- 







ro, rrapfHTos Xoyou 

sa femme, si ce n'est 

wife, saving for the 

nopveias, Troiel av- 

pour cause d'adul- 

cause of fornication, 

TIJV fi<Hxao~dai Kal 

tere, il la fait devenir 

causeth her to com- 

OS Qlt Q7TO\6AU/Z6i'ni' 

adultere ; et qui- 

mit adultery : and 

yafirjo-rj, jioi^arai. 

conquc se mariera a 

whosoever shall mar- 

la femme repudiee, 

ry her that is divorced, 

commet un adultere. 

committeth adultery. 

33. IldXii/ rjKovcra- 

33. Vous avez aussi 

33. Again, ye have 

Tf OTl fppfdlj Tols 

appris qu'il a etc dit 

heard that it hath been 

dpxaiois OVK eVt- 

aux anciens : Tu ne 

said by them of old 

op/cijo-fty, aTToSwo-ft? 

parjureras point; mais 

time, Thou shalt not 

8e T< Kvpi<p TOVS 

tu rendras au Seign- 

forswear thyself, but 

opKovs o-ov 

eur ce que tu auras 

shalt perform unto the 

promis par jurement. 

Lord thine oaths : 

34. 'Eyco 8e Xe'yco 

34. Mais moi, je 

34. But 1 say untc, fiff o/xocrai 

vous dis : Ne jui-ez 

you, Swear not at all 

oXcds ' l*T)Te fi> r<5 

en aucune maniere ; 

neither by heaven ; 

ovpuixa, on tipovos 

ni par le ciel, car 

for it is God's throne : 

eoTi TOV Qeov 

c'est le trone deDieu ; 

35. MfjTf fv TTJ yfj, 

35. ni par la terre, 

35. Nor by the 


car c'est le marche- 

earth; for it is his 

T>V TroScoi/ avTov 

pied de ses pieds ; ni 

footstool : neithe r by 

fnijTf tis If/jofroXv/ia, 

par Jerusalem, parce 

Jerusalem ; for it is 

ort TrdXiy eoTi roO 

que c'est la ville du 

the city of the great 

/icydXoi; Pao-i\tus 

grand roi. 


36. Mijre eV rfi 

36. Tu ne jureras 

36. Neither shalt 

Kf(f>a\i) (TOV opoo-ris, 

point non plus par to 

thou swear by thy 

OTI ov SvvacTM fiiiav 

tete ; car tu ne peux 

head, because thou 

Tpixa \fvni]v i) fie- 

faire un cheveu blanc 

canst not make one 

Xaivav TtoiTjcrui. 

ou noir. 

hair white or black. 

37. EOTO) 8e 6 Xo- 

37. Mais que votre 

37. But let j'our 

yoy v/j.aH', Niit, i/.u 

parole soit : Oui, Oui, 

communication be, 

OO, OV TO 8e 7T(- 

Non, Non ; car ce 

Yea, yea ; Nay, ray : 

Olff<TOl> TOVTOiV, (K 

qui est de plus est 

for whatsoever is 

TOV irovrjpov fo-Tiv. 


more than these ccin- 

eth of evil. 

38. 'H/coiJa-are ort 

38. Vous avez ap- 

38. Ye have heard 

tpptdr], Oti&tXuoj' 

pris qu'il a ete dit: 

that it hath been said, 





trim inn (Sbebntrf),) 

ger a no ser por cau- 

verit uxorem su- 

tcv macbet, iMfj fie Me 

sa de fornicacion. 

am, excepta rati- 

;ic bmbt ; iml> n>rr 

hace que ella sea 

one foinicationis, 

ciuc 2U\4ct"rtnccene frei;; 

adiiltera, y cualqui- 

facit earn moe- 

et, ber bridjt Me ije. 

era que se case con 

chari : et qui ab- 

la divorciada comete 

solutam duxerit, 



33. 3(jr Oafrt wetter 

33. Tambien oiste- 

33. Iterum au- 

gettfret, bafe jit ben 2U= 

is que fue dicho a los 

distis quia pro- 

c:i cjcfagt t|h 2m|"elljt 

antiguos. No te per- 

nunciatum est an- 

teinen falfcbeu tb 

juraras, mas cumplU 

tiquis : Non per- 

tb/nn, iniD foll|l ott 

ras lo que hubieres 

jurabis : reddes 

tciitcii Sit) ijaltjn. 

jurado al Senor. 

autem Domino 

juramenta tua. 

34. 3rf)ab"erfagceiid): 

34. Mas yo os digo : 

34. Ego autem 

fcafe" itjr adcrbinge nidjt 

No jureis de ninguna 

dico vobis, non 

frt)icren follt, n>cc-cr 

manera ni por el cie- 

jurare omnino, 

bet) bem J5immcf, rcnn 

lo porque es el trono 

neque in caelo, 

er \\\ ottes tutjl; 

de Dios. 

quia thronus est 


35. Sttoch bet? bcc 6:r= 

35. Ni por la tierra 

35. Neque in 

^e, l>eiw fte i|l fciuer 

porque es la peana 

terra, quia scabel- 

gujje cbcmct ; nod) 

de sus pies ni por 

lum est pedum 

bft? 3frufalctn, l>enu fie 

Jerusalem porque es 

ejus: neque in Hi- 

il cilice 3vof5cuK6jug^ 

la ciudad del gran 

erosolyma, quia 



civitas est magni 

regis : 

36. Tfucfc foiril Mt 

36. Ni juraras por 

36. Neque in 

nirt!t bet? beinctn fyoKp 

tu cabeza porque no 

capite tuo jurave- 

te fd>tt>6rcu ; fceun Mi 

puedes hacer un ca- 

ris, quia non po- 

VcrmaAtt utrljt ein-eini-- 

bello bianco 6 negro. 

tes unum capil- 

$t$ J^av\r >rci(5 oiier 

lum album auini- 

fd'irav> ]u mad; en. 

grum faccre. 

37. Cure 9 f ^c^e aber 

37. Mas vuestro 

37. Sit autem 

fen: 3a, ja; nein,nein. 

hablar sea si, si; no, 

sermo vester, Eti- 

^as farfibcr I)!, cas? 

no ; porque lo que am, etiam, Non, 

tjt lu-m iUbct. 

excede de esto, de 

non : quod autem 

mal precede. 

abundans his, a 

malo est. 

38. 3br tjabt fle^rct, 

38. HabeisoHoque 

38. And istis quia 

ba6 ta gcfagt tjt : 2lu= 

fue dicho ojo porojo, 

pronunciatum est: 




BUT} 6<pda\fj.ov, /cat CEil pour oeil, et dent 
06 jvra dvrl oSoV: > pour dent. 

39. 'Ey 5e Xf;o) 39. Mais moi, je 

vp1v, p.rj dvTio-rrivai vous dis : Ne resistez 

roi irovrjpn aXX' point au mal ; mais 

OO-TIS o-f pairio-fi firl si quelqu'un te frappe 

rfjv deidv o-ov o~ia- a ta joue droite, pre- 

yoVa, (TTptyov O.VTO> sente-lui aussi 1'autre. 
/ecu TTJV a\\T)v 

40. Kai 
TI eroi 
TOV %i 
fifiv, a 
TO 1/j.aTiov. 

40. Et si quelqu'un 
KOI veut plaider contre 
o-ov Xa- toi, et t'oter ta robe, 
Kal laisse-lui encore le 

41. Kai OOTIS <re 

An eye for an eye 
and a tooth for a 

39. But I say unto 
you, That ye resist 
not evil : but whoso- 
ever shall smite thee 
on thy right cheek, 
turn to him the other 

40. And if any man 
will sue thee at the 
law, and take away 
thy coat, let him have 
thy cloak also. 

41. And whosoevei 
shall compel thee to 
go a mile, go with 
him twain. 

42. Give to him that 
asketh thee, and from 
him that would bor- 
row of thee, turn not 
thou away. 

43. Ye have heard 
that it hath been said, 
Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor, and hate 
thine enemy : 

44. But I say unto 
you, Love your ene- 

v, tv\o- , ennemis, et benissez mies, bless them that 

rovs KnTapco- ceux qui vous mau- j curse you, do good 

vfids, Ka\S>s dissent ; faites du bien to them that hate you, 

n-oiflre TOVS pio-ovv a ceux qui vous ha- ! anr 1 pray for them 

ras v/i5r, x;il irpoff- Tssent, et priez pour which despitefully use 

tvx f ~0 e VK'P v ceu x qui vous cou- you and persecute 

rent sus et vous per- 1 you 

vjraye fj-fT avTov 

4'2. T< alrovvTi o~t 
Si'Sou KOI TOV 6f\ov- 
ra OTTO crov Savd- 
crao~0ai P.TI drrocrrpa- 

43. 'H(coucrarf ori 
fpptdrj, 'AyaTTijo-ftf 
rov TT\T)criov crov, Kal 

fJLLO-fjO-flS TOV 


41. Et si quelqu'un 
te veut contraindre 
d'aller avec lui une 
lieue, vas-en deux. 

42. Donne a celui 
qui te demande, et ne 
te detourne point de 
celui qui veut em- 

! prunter de toi. 

i 43. Vous avez ap- 
pris qu'il a ete dit : 
Tu aimeras ton pro- 
chain, et tu hairas 
ton ennemi. 

44. 'Ey<i> de Xe'yw 44. Mais moi, je 
vfj.1v, dyanaTf TOVS vous dis : Aimez vos 





flf urn 2ln.qc, 3>^ n 

y diente par diente. 

Oculum pro ocu- 


lo, et dentem pro 


39. 3cf)abcrfa.<Kcncf): 

39. Mas yo os digo : 

39. Ego autem 

t>a|5 il)r uietor roilrrttrci 

No opongais resis- 

dico vobis, non 

ben feHt fccm Itrbrl ; 

tcncia a la injuria, 

obsislere malo : 

fpufcni fp Mr jemant> 

antes si alguno te hi- 

sed quicumque te 

cuini trcict) gtcbt auf 

riese en la mexilla 

percusserit in 

fcciucu reel} ecu USarfcu, 

derecha, presentale 

dexteram tuam 

l>cm biete I>eu anfceru 

la otra. 

maxillam, verte 

ami) l>ar. 

illi et aliam. 

40. llitofo jcmanl>mit 

40. Y si alguien 

40. Et volenti 

fcir reebrcn will, unD 

quisiere ponerte pley- 

tibi judicium pa- 

beiiteu iHpcf ncfymcn, 

to y quitarte la tuni- 

rari, et tunicam 

fcem 1 a (5 an el) ben Diau= 

ca, alargale tambien 

tuam tollere, di- 


tu capa. 

mitte ei et palli- 


41. Itnft fo Mef) jc-- 

41. Y si alguno te 

41. Et quicun- 

invtnD 6tt)iget cine 

compeliere a una le- 

que te angariave- 

237,'tle, fo geljc mit ifym 

gua ve con el dos. 

rit milliare unum, 


vadecum illoduo. 

42. ieb tent, fccr 

42. Al que te pidi- 

42. Petenti te, 

Meb bittct ; HUD rcenfre 

ere, dale ; y al que 

da : et volentem 

bid) nietjt von tcm, t>er 

te quisiese pedir pres- 

a te mutuare, ne 

fciv abborgcu will. 

tado, no le vuelvas 


las espaldas. 

43. 3f?r tjabt flfljort, 

43. Habeisoidoque 

43. Audistisquia 

fciif grfa.attjl: SufoHji 

fue dicho : Amaras a 

pronunciatum est, 

fcciiifu SRdcbfleu licbcn, 

tu proximo, y abor- 

Diliges proximum 

\\nt> Deincu gcinD Ijap 

receras a tu enemi- 

tuum, et odk ha- 



bebis inimicura 


44. 3cf)aber facie eurt): 

44. Mas yo os digo : 

44. Ego autem 

iictct cure gcmfc; fcg= 

Amad a vuestros ene- 

dico vobis, Diligi 

net, Me end) (lurfjm ; 

migos bendecid -i los 

te inimicos ves- 

ti)nt trol^l tcnen, Me 

que os maldicen : 'sa- 

tros, benedicite 

curt) tjalfeu ; btttet fin 

ced bien a los que os 

maledicentes vos: 

tic, fp cueb bdctDigcu 

odian, y orad por los 

benefacite odien- 

un& vevfol.aen ; 

que os calumnian y 

tibus vos, et orate 


pro infestantibus 

vos et insectanti- 








secutent ; 

45. "OTTcoy yivrjydrj 

45. afin que vous 

45. That ye may be 

viaii TCIV Trarpoj \>p.u>v 

soyez les enfans de 

the children of your 

TOV f ovpavois, on 

votre Pere qui est aux 

Father which is in 

TOV ijXioi/ avTov dva- 

cieux ; car il fait le- 

heaven : for he mak- 

.-e'XXet eVt Troi'rjpovs 

ver son soleil sur les 

eth his sun to rise on 

Kai dyadovs, teal /3pe- 

mechans et sur les 

the evil and on the 

%l CTTl dlKUlOVS Kai 

gens de bien, et il en- 

good, and sendeth 


voie sa pluie sur les 

rain on the just and 

justes et sur les in- 

on the unjust. 


46. 'Eav yap dya- 

46. Car si vous ai- 

46. For if ye love 

nrjcnjTe TOVS dyair&v- 

mez seulement ceux 

them which love you, 

ras i[JMs , riva p.icr6bv 

qui vous aiment, 

what reward have ye ? 

fX (Te > ovjfi /ca * ' 

quelle recompense en 

do not even the pub- 

TeXa>j>at TO UVTO TTOI- 

aurez-vous ? Les pe- 

licans the same ? 

ov<ri ; 

agers me me n'en 

font-ils pas tout au- 

tant ? 

4T. Kai (av a(T7ra- 

47. Et si vous faites 

47. And if ye salute 

vrja-Be TOVS aSeX- 

accueil seulement a 

your brethren only, 

^>ovy t//itt)i' IJ.QVOV, r't 

vos freres, que faites- 

what do ye more than 

TTtpurcrbv jroieiTf ; 

vous plus que les 

others ? do not even 

flftl Kill ol reXcoj/at 

autres ? Les peagers 

the publicans so ? 

niTu) Ttoiovcriv ; 

me me ne le font-ils 

pas aussi ? 

48. *E(rfa6e ovi> 

48. Soyez done par- 

48. Be ye therefore 

v/ity reXfiot, SxTTrep 

faits, comme votre 

perfect, even as your 

o TvaTrjp vp.a>i> o tv 

Pere qui est aux cieux 

Father which is in 

Toir ovpavois re'Xctos 

est parfait. 

heaven is perfect. 


1. HpOO-X(Tf TTJV 

1. Prenez garde de 

1. Take heed that 

f\(rjfj.oo-vvr)v vfj.S)t> fir 

ne pas faire votre 

ye do not your alms 

TTOttlV (fJ.TTpOO~8tV TWf 

aumone devant les 

before men, to be seen 

dvdpamuv, irpbs T j 

hommes pour en etre 

of them : otherwise 

6(a6^vai avrois ' e. 

regardes ; autrement 

ye have no reward of 

8f Wye, fuadbv OVK 

vous n'en recevrez 

your Father which is 

fX fTf ira P * T ? iraTpl 

point la recompense 

in heaven. 

VfJiUJV TO) IV Tols OV- 

de votre Pere qui est 


u 'x cieux 






bus vos. 

45. Tluf Mg iftr in= 

45. Paraque seals 

45. Ut sitis filii 

Dei fenD cures SBatevS 

hijos de vuestro Pa- 

Patris vestri qui 

tin -Pummel. SDeim er 

dre que esta en los 

in cselis, quia so- 

lagr fcire @oiwe anf* 

cielos el cual hace 

lem suum produ- 

cietyeu fiber Die 256feu 

salir el sol sobre ma- 

cit super inalos et 

HUD uber Me men, 

los y buenos, y llue- 

bonos, et pluit su- 

HUD lafe't reajicn fccr 

ve sobre justos, e in- 

per justos et in- 

(Serecl)tc unD tinge* 




46. SDenn fo iljtr Hf- 

46. Porque si ama- 

46. Si enim di- 

bet, Dieencb lieben,n>ag 

is a los que os aman, 

lexeritis diligen- 

roerDct if;r fur iofyu J)a= 

,; que recompensa ha- 

tes vos, quam 

ten ? $f)im uirfot Daf= 

beis de tener ? ,; No 

mercedem habe- 

felbe audj Die SftUnrc ? 

hacen lo mismo aun 

tis? nonneetpub- 

los publicanos ? 

licani idem faci- 


47. ltn& fo if)r curl) 

47. Y si saludais 

47. Et si salu- 

nur ju euren SSvufceru 

solamente a vuestros 

taveritis fratres 

freuiiDltcb tl^ut, WAS 

hermanos ^ que mas 

vestros tantum, 

ttiut ifyr fonDcriiitee ? 

hace is que los otros ? 

quid abundans fa- 

5l)uu uicbr Die B^lner 

t No hacen tambien 

citis ? nonne et 

olfo ? 

lo mismo los publi- 

publican! sic faci- 

canos ? 


48. Sarum foflt if)t 

48. Sed pues voso- 

48. Estote ergo 


tros perfectos asi 

vos perfecti, sicut 

uic euer SBater im J^im-- 

como vuestro Padre 

Pater vester qui 

mel Bollfommcu ijl. 

que esta en los cie- 

in caelis, perfec 

los es perfecto. 

tus est. 

1. J^A^tTtettamfemre 

1. Mirad que no 

1. Attend he mi 

Ttdncfen, Dag it)r Die 

hagais vuestra li- 

sericordiam ves- 

ittcbt <<ebct Dor Den ieiu 

mosna delante de los 

tram non facers 

ten, Dag i()r Don il}nen 

homhres con el fin 

ante homines, aa 

flefeljcn werDct ; ihr 

de ser vistos de ellos 

spectari eis : si 


de otra manera no 

autem non, mer- 

bew cuvem 35atev ici 

tendreis galardon de 

cedem non habe- 


vuestro Padre que 

tis apud Patrem 

a I a en los cielos. 

vestrum qui in 





2. "Oraf oui 1 troif)$ 

2. Lors done que tu 

tXfrip.oo-vvT]v, M 

feras ton aumone, ne 

0-0X71-10-779 e/irrf 30-&V 

fais point sonner la 


trompette devant toi, 

Kptrat TTOtouerii' eV 

comme les hypocrites 

rats o-uwiyeuyatf Kai 

font dans les syna- 


gogues et dans les 

OO^JO'u&O'lV V7TO TftiV 

rues, pour en etre ho- 

avdpvKvv. 'Anqv 

nores des hommes. 

N ' f - * t 

AVCO VUll'j Q7TYOU0"l 

En verite, je vous dis 


qu'ils re<;oivent leur 


3. SOU 5c 7TOIO7JJ/- 

3. Mais quand tu 

TOf tXfrjfj.ocrvi'rjv^ fifj 

fais ton aumone, que 

yj/cora) 17 aptcrrfpa 

ta main gauche ne 

trow TI Troiei ^ Se^ta 

sache point ce que 


fait ta droite. 

4. "OTrcoy i; trou ^ 

4. Afin que ton au- 

fXf7]noo~vvr] ev ra) 

mone soit dans le se- 

KpvnTm KOI 6 Trarijp 

cret ; et ton Pere qui 

trou o ftXtTratv ev TO> 

voit ce qui f.e fait en 


secret t'en recom- 

fiojcrft aot ef TW (pa- 

pensera publique- 



5. Kai oral' Trpoo-- 

5. Et quand tu prie- 

fvxfli OVK fo~ij >a"irfp 

ras, ne sols point 

ol UTTOxpiTat, ort ^>t- 

comme les hypo- 

Xoucru' (v Tals cruca- 

crites ; car ils aiment 

ycay us Kai fi> TUIS 

a prier en se tenant 

ywi.ns r<av nXaTfi- 

debout dans les syna- 


gogues et aux coins 

^ftr^at, ojra)f av <pu- 

des rues, afin d'etre 

VUXTI TOIS dvdputnois 

vus des hommes. En 

Afirjv Xtyu vpiv, OTI 

verite, je vous dis 

UirtYOVO~l TOV LLlQ~6oV 

qu'ils rc^oivent leur 



6. 2i> S oral' jrpocr- 

6. Mais toi, quand 

tv XHi (io'eX0 fls TO 

tu pries, entre dans 

Tfljuieioj! crov, Kai 

ton cabinet ; et 3yant 

rXe/crur Ti7i d pav 

forme ta porte prie 

2. Therefore, when 
thou doest thine alms, 
do not sound a trum- 
pet before thee, as the 
hypocrites do, in the 
synagogues, and in 
the streets, that they 
may have glory of 
men. Verily, I say 
unto you, They have 
their reward. 

3. But when thou 
doest alms, let not thy 
left hand know what 
thy right hand doetli : 

4. That thine alms 
may be in secret : 
and thy Father, which 
seeth in secret, him- 
self shall reward thee 

5. And when thou 
prayest, thou shah not 
be as the hypocrites 
are : for they love to 
pray standing in the 
synagogues, and in 
the corners of the 
streets, that they may 
be seen of men. Ver- 
ily, I say unto you, 
They have their re- 

6." But thou, when 
thou prayest, enter 
into thy closet, and 
when thou hast shut 







2. 35run Mt nun Til-. 

2. Asi que cuando 

2. Cum ergo fa- 

niofen jucbjt, foll|l Mi 

haces limosna no ha- , ciseleemosyin m, 

niebt la|fen vor Mr ro= 

gas que se toque la ne tuba clanxcris 

fannen, rcie Me end)s 

trompeta delante de ; ante te, sicut hy- 

ler t!)itn in ten dm= 

ti, como hacen los 

pocritse faciunt in 

ten, uno anf ten (Sap 

hipocritas en las si- 

synagogis et in 

fen, anf fcafj fie von ten 

nagogas, y en las cal- 

vicis, ut glorifi. 

ienten aepriefeit vow* 

les para atraerse hon- 

centur ab homini- 

M-n. ODabrlicb, id) 

ra de los hombres. 

bus : amen dim 

fajK end) : @ie tyaben 

En verdad os digo 

vobis, excipiunt 

itjren iofyii tatyin. 

que ya recibieron su 

mercedem suam. 


3. SBfim Mt aber HI-- 

3. Mas cuando des 

3. Te autem fa-- 

tnofen a.ifbft, fo lajj 

limosna haz que. tu 

ciente -eletmosy- 

Mine iinfe jipano nicbt 

mano izquierda, no 

nam, nesciat si- 

n?i(fen, was Me redjte 

sepa lo que hace tu 

nistra tua quid fa- 



ciat dextera tua. 

4. 2(iif t>af$ Mill 2U= 

4. Paraque tu li- 

4. Utsittuaelee- 

niofen verbora.en fev> ; 

mosna quede secreta, 

mosyna in secre- 

niio tein SBater, Mr in 

y tu Padre que ve en 

to : et Pater tuus 

featf 23crbor,qfne fiel;et, 

lo secreto, te premi- 

videns in secreto, 

n>irt Mrs vergcltcn 6f= 

ara. en publico. 

ipse reddet tibi in 



5. UnMrennMtbetclt, 

5. Y cuando ores 

5. Etquumores, 

fo(l|t tn ntdjt fri}ii nne 

no seas como los 

non eris siout hy- 

tie J^f ndjfcr, tie ta ger^ 

hipocritas : Porque 

pocritaB : quia a- 

ne |lel)en nnt beten in 

ellos aman el orar en 

mant in synago- 

ten dwlen, unD an 

pie en las sinagogas 

gis, et in angulis 

M-n cfen anf M-n (Saf- 

y en las esquinas de 

platearum stantes 

fcn, anf tajj fie von Mn 

las calles para ser 

orare, ut appare- 

jcntcn gffr^en irertcn. 

vistos de los hombres. 

ant hominibus. 

^IBaljrlid), icbf&gf cttef): 

En verdad os digo 

Amen dico vobis, 

tc Ijaben iijven iotjn 

que ya recibien su 

quod excipiunt 



mercedem suam. 

6. \ZDenn Mi aber be-- 

6. Mas tu cuando 

6. Tu autem 

tt\t, fo ^el^e in tein 

orares entra en tu 

cum ores, mtra in 

^ammer(eui,nnl fd)(ie-- 

aposento, y cerrada 

cubiculum Aium 

t ^ie 'Jbfir ju, nut 1 

la puerta ora u tu Pa- j et claudens osti- 





_ 1 
(you, 7TpO(TC fai 1 6) 

ton Pere qui te voit 

thy door, pray to thy 

trarpi orou TO) et- TO> 

dans ce lieu secret ; 

Father which is in 

icpinrrca ' (cat 6 tfarrjp 

et ton Pere qui te voit 

secret ; and thy Fa- 

<rov 6 ^JXtVajj' ei/ TO) 

dans ce iieu secret, 

ther, which seeth in 


te recompensera pub- 

secret, shall reward 

CTOl J/ TO) WdVCpfdt 


thee openly. 

7. npoo-fvxoV'fi/oi 

7. Or, quand vous 

7. But when ye pray, 

fie /i^ jSaTToXoyijaT;- 

priez, n'usez point de 

use not vain repeti- 

Tf , SxTTTfp Ol fflviKOl 

vaines redites, comme 

tions, as the heathen 

Sonovcri yap on 

font les pa'iens ; car 

do : for they think 

177 jroXuXoy('a (WT<av 

Us s'imaginent d'etre 

that they shall be 


exauces en parlant 

heard for their much 



8. M^ OVl> OfJLOKC- 

8. Ne leur ressem- 

8. Be not ye there- 

Gyre avTols ' o?8f ya-) 

blez done point ; car 

fore like unto them : 

ira.TT]p v/iali/ wi/ 

votre Pere salt dequoi 

for your Father 

\pfiav e^eT6,7r/)6 TOU 

vous avez besoin, 

knoweth what things 

Vfias airi)o~ai avTov. 

avant que vous le lui 

ye have need of be- 


fore ye ask him. 

9. Ourat GUI' 

9. Vous done priez 

9. After this manner 

npovevxtvBf Vfiels ' 

ainsi : Notre Pere qui 

therefore pray ye : 

Udrep f)fj.ov 6 fv TOIS 

es aux cieux, ton nom 

Our Father which art 

ovpwois, dyiaffdrjTb) 

soit sanctifie. 

in heaven, Hallowed 

TO ovofid <rov 

be thy name. 

10. 'EX^erw rj )3a- 

10. Ton regne vi- 

10. Thy kingdom 

triXft'a crou ytvqdf]- 

enne. Ta volonte 

come. Thy will be 

Ta> TO deXrjfjid (row, 

soit faite sur la terre 

done in earth as it is 

ei>r 1 oOpai/oi, ical 

comme au ciel. 

in heaven. 

<7Tt T1JS y*]S* 

1 1 . Tov tipTov f)- 

11. Donne-nous au- 

11. Give us this day 

H&v TOV tiriovcriov 

jourd'hui notre pain 

our daily bread. 

bos ijp-'t-v <TT)p.(pov. 


12. Kal 5(^e r ^tv 

12. Et nous quitte 

12 And forgive us 

Ta Ofp(l\l)LLClTll IJ/KOIT, 

nos dettes, comme 

our debts, as we for- 

f *c:it r^fty utpie/jifv 

nous quittons aussi les 

give our debtors. 

Oir tyciXeYait $,!. 

dettes a nos debiteurs. 

13 Kat fir) fio- - 

13. Et ne nous in- 

13. And lead us not 

vtyKjjs TJHUS as TTCI 

duis point en tenta- 

into temptation, but 

%xm*uov, flXXc' ufcrd 

ti in ; mais d 'ivre- 

Jeliver us from evil. 






frctc $ Dctucm 53atcr 

dre en secreto, y tu 

um tuum, orj. Pa 

im "JBiTborflcuen ; nut 

Padre que ve en lo 

trem tuum qivi in 

leiu 33arer, fccr in l>as 

secreto, te recompen- 

secreto : et Paler 

Stoborgriif fitter, wirft 

sara en publico. 

tuns conspicien* 

fciri iHTgdtcu 6|fi*t- 

in secreto, reddet 


tibi in apparenti. 

7. llnl> rocim il)r 6e- 

7. Y al orar no ha- 

7. Orantes au- 

tct, follt ifyr uirtjt toicl 

bleis mucho como 

tem ne inania lo- 

plappcni, wie bie Jfpci-- 

los Gentiles creyen- 

quamini, sicut 

fceu ; beuu fie IIUTUCU, 

do que ban de ser 

ethnici, arbitran- 

fie werfccn crl)6ret, 

oidos por su mucho 

tur enim quod in 

wcini fie wde QBorte 


multiloquio suo 



8. SDarum follt ifyr 

8. No os asemejeis 

8. Ne igitur as- 

cud) iljneu nic&t glcirtv 

a ellos : porque vu- 

similemini eis : 

eii: Sitcr 35atcr mcife", 

estro Padre sabe de 

novit enim Pater 

wag ibr bcDftrfet, efye 

lo que teneis necesi- 

vester quorum u- 

fccitn t(;u i(;n btttct. 

dad antes que voso- 

sum habetis, ante 

tros le pidais. 

vos petere eum. 

9. 2)antm fclft if)r 

9. Vosotros pues ha- 

9. Sic ergo ora- 

alfc bctcu : 11 ufcr SBa= 

beis de orar asi : Pa- 

te vos : Pater no- 

ter iu tent Jpimmcl ! 

dre nuestro que estas 

ster qui in cselis, 

3)ciu Slame iccv&e gc= 

en los cielos santifi- 

sanctificetur no- 


cado sea tu nombre. 

men tuum. 

10. SDciu SReicf) fom= 

10. Vengael tu rey- 

10. Adveniat 

me. 2)ciu 'SBille ge-- 

no : hagase tu volun- 

regnum tuum. 

fcbel^e auf (Si-Den, unc 

tad en la tierra asi 

Fiat voluntas tua, 

im JJimmrC. 

como en el cielo. 

sicut in caeloetin 


11. Unfer t&aficfae* 

11. Danos hoy nu- 

11. Panem no- 

25roD gicb uus ^eute. 

estro pan cotidiano. 

strum super sub- 

stantialem da no- 

bis hodie. 

12. lint \)crflif6 1111^ 

12. Y perdonanos 

"12. Et dimitte 

uufcrc ttntlfen, wie 

nuestras deudas aii 

nobis debita no- 

ir uufcru@cl)iilj;igcrn 

como nosotros perdo- 

stra, sicut et nos 


narnos a nuestroE 

dimittimus debi- 


toribus ncstris. 

13. Uut fiif?re me 

13. Y no nfcs dejes 

13. Et ne infe- 

wicbt in 'Sevfudjun.a, 

caer en tentacion mas 

ras nos in tenta- 

fouccvu evlofe uns vou 

libranos de mal por- 

tionem. sed libera 






r/fias airb TOV iro"^- 

nous du mal. Car a 

For thine is the king- 

pov OTI crov ttriiv 

toi est le regne, et la 

dom, and the power, 

fj f3acrt\fia, Kal fj 

puissance, et la gloire 

and the glory, for ev- 

dwM/u?, Kal f, ooa, 

a jamais. Amen. 

er. Amen. 

fls TOVS alcavas 

14. 'Eai> yap dcprj- 

14. Car si vous par- 

14. For if ye for- 

Tf Tols dvdptairois ra 

donnez aux hommes 

give men their tres- 

7rapa7TT<i/iara avrcSi/, 

leurs offenses, votre 

passes, your heavenly 

dcpfjcrfi Kal 6 

Pere celeste vous par- 

Father will also for- 

TTUTtjp vp.a>v o ovpa- 

donnera aussi les vo- 

give you : 



15. 'Eav 8e p.r] 

15. Mais si vous ne 

15. But if ye for-- 

dcprJTf Tols dvdpwnois 

pardonnez point aux 

give not men their 

Ta Trapan-rco/zara at/- 

hommes leurs of- 

trespasses, neither 

ra>f, oi!5e o Trarfjp 

fenses, votre Pere ne 

will your Father for- 

Vfiav dfp!]cr(i ra ira- 

vouspardonnera point 

give your trespasses. 

pcwn-w/iara vp.a>i>. 

non plus vos offenses. 

16. "Orav 6e vr}- 

16. Et quand vous 

16. Moreover, when 

o~rfvr)T, fir) yivecrdf 

jeunerez, ne prenez 

ye fast, be not as the 

&anfp ol vTTOACpirai, 

point un air trisio, 

hypocrites, of a sad 

frKvdptaTrol dcpavi- 

comme font les hypo- 

countenance : for 

ovcrt yap ra 7rpocra>- 

crites ; car ils se ren- 

they disfigure their 

TTa avTtiiv, OTTOIS cpa- 

dent tout defaits de 

faces, that they may 

vucri TOIS dvdpioTrots 

visage, afin qu'il pa- 

appear unto men to 

VtCTTtVOVTtS- 'Aflfjlf 

raisse aux hommes 

fast. Verily, I say 

X'ya>, OTI drre- 

qu'ils jeunent. En 

unto you, They have 

\ovcn TOV p.tcrdbv av- 

verite, je vous dis 

their reward. 


qu'ils rejoivent leur 


17. 2w of vfcrreuaiv 

17. Mais toi, quand 

17. But thou, when 

aXev^ai crov TT/V Kt- 

tu jeunes, oins ta tete, 

thou fastest, anoint 

tpa\r)v, KOI TO irpocr- 

et lave ton visage ; 

thine head, and wash 

d)nov crov vi^fai 

thy face ; 

18. OTreor an fha- , 

, r , 

18. afin qu'il- ne 

18. That thou ap- 

vrjs TOIS awpcoTrotf 

paraisse point aux 

pear not unto men to 

vrjcrrtviav, a\Xa rco 

hommes que tu 

fast, but unto thy Fa- 

irarpi crov TU> iv r5 

jeunes, mais a ton 

ther, which is in se- 

KpVUTtf K:ii 6 ITU- 

Pere qui est present 

cret : and thy Father, 

TTjp CTOV 6 f3\fTT(0V fV 

dans ton lieu secret ; 

which seeth in secret, 

ra Kpvjrry, dirnod)o-n et ton. Pere qui te voit 

shall reward thee 




I, AT IN. 

tern Ucbcf. Dcnu be in 

que tuyo es el reyno, 

nos a malo. Quo 

i|t t>A$ SHcid), HUD Me 

el poder, y la gloria 

niam tuum esi 

ftraft, iwD Me JfpiTi 1 ; 

porlossiglos. Amen. 

regnum, et po- 

(idrfrit iu Groigfcit. 

tentia, et gloria in 


secula. Amen. 

14. >nm fo if)r fccn 

14. Porque si per- 

14. Si enim di- 

9P?cnfd)ni ttjre gctjlci- 

donareis a los hom- 

miseritis homini- 

tofigcbet, fo rcirfc cucb 

bres sus ofensas vu- 

bus lapsus eorum % 

ciicr fyimmlifdxr. 33atcr 

estro Padre celestial 

dimittet et vobis 

and) mTgclcn. 

os perdonara tarnbien 

Pater vester cse- 

a vosotros. 


15. ! 2Bo ifjr afccv ten 

15. Mas si no per- 

15. Si autem 

SDienfdKii ibre gcfylcv 

donareis a los hom- 

non dimiseritis 

nicbt iwgcbet, fo roirfc 

bres sus ofensas tarn- 

hominibus lapsus 

fucb ciicu 33atcr cure 

poco vuestro Padre 

ipsorum, nee Pa- 

Seller auct) uidjt v>ci--- 

os perdonara vues- 

ter vester dimittet 


tras ofensas. 

lapsus vestros. 

16. OBrmi iljr fajlct, 

16. Y cuando ayu- 

16. Quum au- 

follt il}r nidjt faucv fc= 

neis no os pongais 

tem jejunatis, ne 

t^cn, UNC ltc J^cucblfr; 

caritristes como los 

fiatis sicut hypo- 

tcnii fte \)cr|tdlni ibrc 

hipocritas, los cuales 

critse, obtristati ; 

Jhiviejtducr, auf ^a|^ fie 

desfiguran sus rostros 

obscurant enim 

lun- ten icutcu fdKincu 

para hacer ver a los 

facies suas ; ul 

mit iljrcm gajlen. 

hombresque ayunan. 

appareant homi- 


Eri verdad os digo 

nibus jejunantes. 

ic fyabcu il)rcu ioljti 

que ya recibien su 

Amen dico vo- 



bis, quia recipiunt 

mercedem suam. 

17. ^33cnu Mi at rr 

17. Mas tu cuando 

17. Tu autem 

fi|le|l, fo falbe feciu 

ayunes unge tu cabe- 

jejunans, unge tu- 

-Oaupt/ UH& W)afd>c Kin 

za y lava tu cara. 

um caput, et fa- 

Zlmcpcbt ; 

ciem tuam lava : 

18. 2inf Bag Mi nicfet 

18. Para no hacer 

18. Ut ne appa- 

fdicmc)! toor ten Jcuteu 

ver a los hombres 

reas hominibus 

mit tciiicm ga|UH, fou-- 

que ayunas sino a tu 

jejunans, sed Pa- 

fccvu vor t>(incm ^Jatcr, 

Padre que esta. en lo 

tri tuo qui in se- 

rtfldKr tocrborflfii i|t ; 

secreto y tu Padre 

creto : et Patei 

ut) tctn 25afcr, tcr in 

que ve en lo secreto 

tuus videns in se- 

tag ^Bcvbovgcuc ficijct, 

te recompensara en 

creto, reddet tibi 






erot (v T&> fyavfpw. 

dans ton lieu secret 


te recompensera pub- 


19. Mq Qrjo-avp[f- 

19. Ne vous amas- 

19. Lay not up for 

Tf 6r}o~avpovs 

sez point des tresors 

yourselves treasures 

inl TTJS yrjs, onov 

sur la terre, que les 

upon earth, where 

af]S Kal fipdio-is dcpa- 

vers et la rouille con- 

moth and rust doth 

Ptct, Kal OTTOV K\f- 

sument, et que les 

corrupt, and where 

Trrat Biopvo-o~ovo-i, 

larrons percent et de- 

thieves break through 



and steal : 

20. &T)o-avpifT( 8e 

20. Mais amassez- 

20. But lay up for 

VfJ.iv 0r)o~avpous fv 

vous des tresors dans 

yourselves treasures 

ovpavia, onov ovTf 

le ciel, ou ni les vers 

in heaven, where nei- 

ays, OVTS f3p&o-is 

ni la rouille ne con- 

ther moth nor rsis 

a0ai//et, *cat OTTOU 

sument rien, et ou les 

doth corrupt, and 

/cAeWat ou biopvo-- 

larrons ne percent ni 

where thieves do no 

crovo-iv, ovSe JcAe- 

ne derobent. 

break through nor 



21. "Onov yap ear- 

21. Car ou est votre 

21. For where your 

Ttv 6 dr]o~avpbs u/iwi/, 

tresor, la sera aussi 

treasure is, there wil 

K ecrrat /cat ^ icap- 

votre cceur. 

your heart be also. 

Si'a V/KUC. 

~'2. 'O Au^i/or ro5 

22. L'oeil est la lu- 

22. The light of the 

<r</taroc o~riv 6 

miere du corps ; si 

body is the eye : if 

6(pda\fJi6s ' eav ovv 6 

done ton ceil est net, 

therefore thine eye be 

o(pda\fj.6s o~ov dir\ovs 

tout ton corps sera 

single, thy whole body 

T;, oXoi/ TO cr<3fta (rov 


shall be full of light. 

(pcaTfivbv to~Tcu * 

23. 'Eai/ Se 6 
o<i^aXud? o-ov TTOVTI- 

23. Mais si ton ceil 
est mal disnnsp. tout 

23. But if thine eye 

hft evil, thv wholfi 

pbs 5, o\oi> TO o-w^ta ton corps sera tene- 
7ov o-KOTetvbv etrrai. breux ; si done la 
Et ovv TO (pas TO fv lumiere qui est en 
o-oi, o-KOToj tori, TO toi n'est que tene- 
bres, combien seront 
grandes les tenebres 
memes ? 

24. Ovot Is ovvarai 24. Nul ne peut ser- 
Kvpiois 8ov\fv- vir deux maitres ; car, 

body shall be full of 
darkness. If there- 
fore the light that is 
in thee be darkness, 
how great is that 
darkncss ! 

24. No man can 
serve two roasters : 





wirD Dirg vcrgcltcu 6f: 


i.i manifesto. 


19. 3&r follf end) 

19. No amontoneis 

19. Ne thesau- 

nicbt cbafce fammcln 

tesoros para vosotros 

rizate vobis the- 

anf (SiDcn, Da fie Die 

en la tierra, en don- 

sauros in terra, 

SOiottcn nuD Dcr SHojt 

de la polilla y el 

ubi aerugo et tinea 

frc|fcn, nnD Da Die 3)ic= 

orin los consumen y 

exterminat, et ubi 

be nad) grabcn nnD ftel;-- 

en donde los ladrones 

fures perfodiunt, 


los desentierran y ro- 

et furantur. 


20. ammcft cud) 

20. Masamontonad 

20. Thesauriza- 

abcr cbaftc im f>in\: 

para vosotros tesoros 

te autem vobis 

mel, Da fie roe Dcr ?Diot-- 

en el cielo en donde 

thesauros in ca?lo, 

ten nod) 5Ho|t frcflcn, 

ni la polilla ni el 

ubi neque aerugo, 

unD Da Die 25tcbc ntdit 

orin los consumen, y 

neque tinea ex- 

nad) graben, nod) jlcfy-- 

en donde los ladrones 

terminat, et ubi 


no los desentierran 

fures non effodi- 

ni roban. 

unt, nee furantur. 

21. 25 nut no cncr 

21. Porque donde' 

21. Ubi enim 

cba i|t, Da ifl and) 

esta vuestro tesoro 

est thesaurus ve- 

cuer Jpcrj. 

alii esta tambien vu- 

ster, ibi erit et cor 

estro corazon. 


22. 2>ag 2(ugc i|f fee; 

22. Luz de tu cu- 

22. Lucerna cor- 

ictbcs iicbt. -JQBciut 

erpo es tu ojo, por lo 

poris est oculus : 

Dem 2luge ciufaltig ijl, 

que si tu ojo fuere 

si igitur oculus 

fo irivDDcingaitjcrietb 

sencillo, todo tu cu- 

tuus simplex fue- 

licfct fci;n. 

erpo estara lleno de 

rit, totum corpus 


tuum lucidum 


23. QBcnn abcr Dcin 

23. Mas si tu ojo 

23. Si autem 

21iiAC cin cbalf i|i, fo 

fuere maligno todo 

oculus tuus m-ilus 

rcirD Dcin ganger icib 

tu cuerpo esla 'a lle- 

fuerit, totum cor- 

fn|tci* fctju. QOPeun 

no de tinieblas. Asi 

pus tuum tene- 

abcr Dag itcbt, Dag in 

que si la luz que hay 

brosurn erit. Si 

Dir i\i, in|tcrni i|t, 

en ti es tinieblas { cu- 

ergo lumen quod 

Jtic gro|5 ^KirD Dann Die 

an grandes seran las 

in te, tenebrae 

ginftcnujj fclbcr fcpn ? 

mismas tinieblas ? 

sunt, tenebrse 


24. StiemauD faun 

.24. Ningunopuede 

24. Nemo po- 

jvrcen Screen Dicncu; 

servir a dos seliores, 

test duobus domi- 




tiv TJ yap TOV ei/a 
p.itrqa'fi, Kai TOV ert- 
pov dyaTrrja-ei. rf evbs 
dvdf^fTai, Acal TOV 
eref >v KaTa<ppovr)- 

<Tfi ' ov 
6ov\evfiv KOI 

25. Aia rovro Xeya> 

MV, TI cpyr]- 
rt, Kal TI Triyrf p.r]- 
df rai (TtofiaTi vpaiv, 
TI fi'8uo~i)o~0t ' oi>x\ 
i] ^v\fj TrAeioy e'crrt 


triapa TOV 

26. 'E/LtjSXe'^aTf els 
TO. TTfTtiva TOV ovpa- 
vov, on ov OTTflpov- 
aiv, oiSe 6(piovo-tv, 
ov8e o~vvdyovo~iv (Is 
aTTo8f]Kas, Ka\ 6 na- 
6 ovpdvios 


ptTf ai/rwi* ; 

27. Ti's te t vftSiv 

irpoo~fvai f 
fjXiKiav avTOv 
tva ; 
28. Knl jrept V8v- 

TO. Kpva 
dypoii jrair avd- 

ou il haYra 1'un, et 

for either he will hate 

aimera 1'autre ; ou il j the one, and love the 
s'attachera a 1'un, et other ; or else he will 
me"prisera 1'autre ; ! hold to the one, and 

vous ne pouvez servr 
Dieu et Mammon. 

25. C'est pourquoi 
je vous dis : Ne soyez 
paint en souci pour 
votre vie, de ce que 
vous mangerez, et de 
ce que vous boirez ; 
ni pour votre corps, 
de quoi vous serez 
vetus. La vie n'est- 
elle pas plus que la 
nourriture, et le corps 
plus que le vetement? 

26. Considerez les 
oiseaux du ciel, car 
ils ne sement, ni ne 
moissonnent, ni n'as- 
semblent dans des 
greniers, et cepen- 
dant votre Pere ce- 
leste les nourrit. 
N'etes-vous pas beau- 
coup plus excellens 
qu'eux ? 

27. Et qui est celui 
d'entre vous, qui 
puisse par son souci 
ajouter une coudee a 
sa taille ? 

28. Et pourquoi 
etes-vous en souci du 
vehement ? Apprenez 
Comment croisscnt les 

despise the other. Ye 
cannot serve God and 

25. Therefore I say 
unto you, Take no 
thought for your life, 
what ye shall eat, or 
what ye shall drink ; 
nor yet for your body, 
what ye shall put on. 
Is not the life more 
than meat, and the 
body than raiment ? 

26. Behold the fowls 
of the air : for they 
sow not, neither do 
they reap, nor gather 
into barns ; yet your 
heavenly Father feed- 
eth them. Are ye not 
much better than 
they ? 

27. Which of you 
by taking thought can 
add one cubit unto 
his stature ? 

28. And why take 
ye thought for rai- 
ment ? Consider the 
lilies of the field, hovr 






fittwetcr cr wirt cinen 

porque 6 aborrecera 

nis servire : aul 

tjajfcii uiit ten antcvn 

al uno y amara al 

enim unum ode- 

Itcbcn ; otcr wirt ei= 

otro, 6 se allegara al 

rit, et alterum di- 

nem anl?anacn, nut ben 

uno y menospreciara 

liget : aut unum 

antern veradHcn. 3t)r 

al otro. No podeis 

amplexabitur, et 

f6nnct nidjt (Soft tie-- 

sen r ir a Dios y a las 

alterum despiciet. 

neu unt tcm SDfam- 


Non potestis Deo 



servire et mam- 


25. 3)arum fage id) 

25. Por esto os di- 

25. Propter hoc 

end) : orget nidjt fur 

go : no and e is afa- 

dico vobis, ne 

cucr Men/ was ifyr cf= 

nados por vuestra 

anxiemini anima? 

fen uui> tvinfen wertet; 

vida pensando que 

vestrse, quid man- 

and) nicbt fin* eiircu 

habeis de comer 6 

ducetis, et quid 

icib, was il)r anjicfycn 

que habeis de beber, 

bibatis : neque 

wcrtct. 3|l uid)t tatf 

ni por vuestro cuer- 

corpori vestro, 

icbcn mcljr, bcnu tie 

po que habeis de ves- 

quid induamini. 

pcifc '< lint tcr icib 

tir. f No vale mas 

Nonne anima plus 

mcl)r, bcnu tic SCIei- 

la vida que el alimen- 

est esca, et cor- 

tung ? 

to, y el cuerpo que 

pus indumento ? 

el vestido ? 

26. cfyct tic SWgcI 

26. Mirad las aves 

26. Inspicite in 

ttnter tcm -fpimmcl an : 

del cielo que no siem- 

volatilia cseli, 

fte faen nidjt, ftc crntni 

bran ni siegan, ni re- 

quoniam non se-' 

nirtjt, ftc famine hi nidjt 

cogen en troges, y 

minant, neque 

in tic rtjcnncn, nut 

vuestro Padre celes- 

metunt, neque 

encr (jimmiifdjev 35atcr 

tial las alimenta <f no 

congregant in 

nab/ret ftc tod). ci)t 

valeis pues vosotros 

horrea, et Pater 

itjr teim nidjt vicl 

mucho mas que e- 

vester caelestis 

incite, bcuu fte ? 


pascit ilia. Non- 

ne vos magis ex- 

cellitis illis ? 

27. 'ilBer i|l imtcr 

27. Y quien de vo- 

27. Quis amem 

cud), tcr fciucr idngc 

sotros dandose a dis- 

ex vobis anxiaius 

einc lle jwfccn m6ge, 

currir podra afiadir 

potest adjicere ad 

ob er glcid) tar urn for= 

un codo a su estatu- 

staturam suam 



cubitum unum "* 

28. Unt warnm for= 

28. Y ,; porque os 

28. Et circa ves- 

act itjr fur tic 5tlci= 

afanais por el vesti- 

timentum quid 

bung ? cbauet tie ii-- 

do ? Contemplad los 

anxiamini ? Ob- 

lien auf t>cmgclte,it>te 

lirios del canipo CO- 

servate I'.lia agri 







pet oi> xoTTta, ov8e 

lis des champs ; ils 

they grow ; iftey tcil 


ne travaillent ni ne 

not, neither do they 


spin : 

29. Aya> Sf vp.1v, 

29. Cependant, je 

29. And yet I say 

OTI ov8f 2o\op.ti>v tv 

vous dis que Salomon 

unto you, That even 

irdo~T) TTJ 80^17 avTov 

me me, dans toute sa 

Solomon, in all his 

ircpifftdXtTo a>s tv 

gloire, n'a pas ete ve- 

glory, was not ar- 


tu comme 1'un d'eux. 

rayed like one of 


30. Et 8e TOV xP~ 

30. Si done Dieu 

30. Wherefore, L 

TOV TOV dypov o-r]p.e- 

revet ainsi 1'herbe des 

God so clothe the 

pov oira, KOI avpiov 

champs, qui est au- 

grass of the field, 

(Is K\i;3ai>ov /SaXXd- 

jourd'hui sur pied, et 

which to-day is, and 

ptvov, 6 Qtoy OVTMS 

qui demain sera jetee 

to-morrow is cast into 

dp.<pi(wvo~i.v, ov iro\- 

au four, ne vous ve- 

the oven, shall he not 

Xffl ^toXXoj' iifjas, 0X1- 

tira-t-il pas beaucoup 

much more clothe 

yoTTtoToi ; 

plutot, 6 gens de pe- 

you, O ye of little 

tite foi ? 

faith ? 

31. Mi) ovv p-fpi- 

31. Ne soyez done 

31. Therefore take 

p.vr]o-T]Tf, \tyovTfs, 

point en souci, di- 

no thought, saying, 

Ti 0ayo)/iej', ff TI TTI- 

sant : Que mange- 

What shall we eat? 

tafifv, f) ri irepifia- 

rons-nous ? ou que 

or, What shall we 

\a>jj.(6a ; 

boirons-nous ? ou de 

drink ? or, Where- 

quoi serons-nous ve- 

withal shall we be 


clothed ? 

32. TLdvra yap 

32. Vu que les 

32. (For after all 

Tavra TO t6vr) eVt- 

paVens recherchent 

these things do the 

f")Tfl oi8t yap 6 ira- 

toutes ces choses ; car 

Gentiles seek :) for 

Tijp vfjLwv o ovpdvios, 

votre Pere celeste 

your heavenly Father 

OTI X, r> 3C fTf TOVTUV 

connait que vous 

knoweth that ye have 


avez besoin de toutes 

need of all these 

ces choses. 


33. ZrjTflrf de irpa- 

33. Mais cherchez 

33. But seek ye first 

Tov TTjvfiacrihfiav TOV 

premierement le roy- 

the kingdom of God, 

Qfov, Kal Tr)i> dtKato- 

aume de Dieu et sa 

and his righteousness, 

frvvrjv avTov, teal Tav- 

justice, et toutes ces 

and all these things 

ra irdvra Trpoo-Tfdf)- 

choses vous seront 

shall be added unto 


donnees par dessus. 


34. Mi) ovv p-fpt- 

34. Ne soyez done 

31. Take therefore 

UVT)O~T)Te fit TTjV (W- 

point en souci pour 

no thought for the 

iiov 5 yap avpiov 

lc lendemair car le 

morrow : for the moi- 






f{c njitrtjfcH : ftf arl'cu 

mo creccn : cllos no 

quomoao augen 

tcu mdu, and) fptuiicn 

trubajan, ni hilan. 

tur: non fatigan- 

ftc uicht. 

tur, neque nent. 

29. 3cft faflc fuel), fcaf; 

29. Y sinembargo 

29. Dico autem 

and) @a(cmo in allcr 

os digo que ni aun 

vobis, quoniam 

fcincr $err(icf)leit nid)t 

Salomon en medio 

nee Salomon in 

bct'lctfct .qcrorfnt i|t, 

de toda su gloria no 

omni gloria sua 

a Is? frcifdbcu Sine. 

estuvo vestido como 

amictus est sicut 

uno de estos. 

unum istorum. 

30. o fcam ctt 

30. Pues si la ycr- 

30. Si autem 

fcas rag auf fccm gcf= 

ba del campo que 

foenum agri hodie 

fce alfo f(ei&et, fra$ sod) 

hoy es y manana es 

existens, et eras 

tyrute |tc{?er, nut) mor* 

echada en el horno, 

in clibanum in- 

gen in ten Ofcn geroor-- 

Dios la viste asi ^ no 

jectum, Deus sic 

fim n>itl>, folltc cr fcas 

os vestira mucho mas 

circumornat, non 

ntrt)t bictoiffyr. cud) 

a vosotros hombres 

multo magis vos, 

tfyun? ifyr ftleiuglaus 

de poca fe ? 

exfguse fidei ? 

tngcn ! 

31. 2>arum follt if)r 

31. No os afaneis 

31. Ne igitur 

imbt forjjcu, unfc fa.qeu : 

pues diciendo que 

anxiemini, dicen- 

^IBag er&eu wir c|fcu ? 

comeremos ? 6 que 

tes : Quid man- 

QQBag rorrt>eu roiv triu= 

beberemos ? 6 con 

ducabimus, aut 

feu? ( 2Bomit trcv^cu 

que nos cubriremos ? 

quid bibemus, 

jru- tuns Hcircit. 

jvut quid circum- 

amiciernur ? 

32. SRad) fofdiem af= 

32. (Porque los 

32. Omnia enim 

Icn trad)tfu bic J^eibcn. 

Gentiles buscan estas 

hsec gentes inqui- 

2)cuii cuer tjimmlifdKr 

cosas) porque vues- 

runt. Novitenim 

93atcr roctg, Dajj it;c bc(j 

tro Padre celestial 

Pater vester cae- 

allci? bcDiivfct. 

sabe que teneis ne- 

lestis quod opus 

cesidad de todas es- 

habetis horum 

tas cosas. 


33. ^radjtct am cr- 

33. Buscad pues 

33. Qusorite au 

|lni uad) btm 9ifid)f 

primero el reyno de 

tem primum reg- 

Qtattr*, unfc na<f> fritter 

Dios, y su justicia, y 

num Dei, et jus- 

crtdjti^fcit; fo n>ii^ 

todas estas cosas os 

titiam ejus, et haec 

eudt "olrt)e$ allcg ju^ 

seran afiadidas. 

ormiia adponen- 



tur vobis. 

34. Sarum forAft 

34. Asi que no an- 

34. Ne igittif 

iud>t ffir ben anfrcni 

deis cuidadosos por 

anxiemini incraa: 

SDIorgfii ; bcnn bcr 

el cua de mafiana, 

nam eras curahil 



TTS ' 
pa 17 

lendemain prendra row shall take thought 

T r]fj.e- soin de ce qui le re- for the umfgs of itnelf. 

avnjs. \ garde : a chaque jour Sufficient unto the 

suffit sa peine. day is the evil thereof. 

1. Mi) KptrfTf, U' 

2. y Ev w yap Kpt- 
, Kfn6rj~ 


1. Ne jugez point, 1. Judge not, that ye 
afin que vous ne soy- be not judged, 
ez point juges. 

2. Car de tel juge- 

2. For with what 


Tpr]8r)(Tf-at vf 

3. T & f3\tfts TO 

KO.p<pos TO tV TO) 

o<f>0d\n(p TOV d$t\- 
ff)ov aov, TT)V Se fv 

.M 60- 

ment que vous juge- judgment ye judge, 
rez, vousserezjuges; ye shall be judged; 
et de telle mesure and with what meas- 
que vous mesurerez, ure ye mete, it shall 

on vous mesurera re- 
3. Et pourquoi re- 

be measured to you 
3. And whv behold- 

oi' ov Karavofis ; 
4. *H ITVS ff"is 

aov, A<ts 
cVcfSaXa) ro Kap<pos 
tttro TOV o(f>0(iX.pov 
aov ; KOI (Sou rj 80- 
<bs (v T 

5. ' 

/SaXf irpu~ov TTJV So- 

KW (K TOV 0<p&a\fJLOV 

aov, Kal TOTf 8ia3\i- 
^r fK^aktlv TO 
Kapfas (K TOV o(p8.i\- 

fLOV TOV a8(\(pOV (TOV. 

6. Mi) SwTf ro ayt- 
ov Tails inxri, /i^S* 
fiahifTf TOVS papya- 
PITOS vfidiv (p-rpo- 

Ot)tV TOM' \oip<l>l 'J.T) 

gardes-tu le fetu qui est thou the mote thai 
est dans I'oail de ton is in thy brother's 
j frere, .et tu ne prends eye, but considerest 
: pas garde a la poutre not the beam that is 
j qui est dans ton ceil ? in thine own eye ? 

4. Ou comment dis- 4. Or how wilt thou 
tu a ton frere : Per- say to thy brother, 
I mets que j'ote de ton Let me pull out the 
j reil ce fetu, et voila, mote out of thine 
J tu as une poutre dans eye ; and behold, a 

ton ceil ? beam is in thine own 


5. Hypocrite, ote 5. Thou hypocrite, 
premie re ment de ton first cast out the beam 
ceil la poutre, et apres out of thine own eye ; 
cela tu verras com- and then shah thou 
ment tu oteras le fetu see clearly to cast out 
de 1'ceil de ton frere. the mote out of thy 

brother's eye. 

6. Ne donnez point 6. Give not thai 
les choses saintes aux which is holy unto the 
chiens, et ne jetez dogs, neither cast yc 
point vos perles de- your peuris before 
vaiit les pourceaux, swine, lest they train 






mor^entc $ act ititfc fur 

porque el dia de ma- 

suaipsius : suffi- 

ta fiitcfoi-flcn. :? 

fiana traera su cui- 

ciens diei mahtia 

i|t jKiuig, tag cm jcg^ 

dado ; bastale al dia 


licbcr $aci fciuc cyclic 

su proprio afan. 

splage fyabe. 

1- SKtdjirt nicftt, anf 

1. No juzgueis pa- 

1. Ne judicate, 

fcafi ifyr nicl)t gcric^rct 

raque no seals juz- 

ut non judicc mi- 




2. S5cnn mitrocfrfjcr-' 

2. Porcjue con el 

2. In quo enim 

lit) (Scvirbt ilji- ricbtcf, 

juicio con que juzga- 

judicio judicave- 

ttcrfret ibr (Kvirbtet 

reis sere is juzgados, 

ritis, judicabimi- 

tt>cvtcn; untmit n>c lcb= 

y con la medida con 

ni : et in qua 

eriei; 5D?aafe~ itjv mqFct, 

que midiereis se os 

mensura mensi 

tnirfc cud) gcmeifcu VDCI--' 

volvera a medir. 

fueritis, remetie- 


tur vobis. 

3. <2Ba* fief? c|t Mt abcr 

3. Y f porque ves 

3. Quid autem 

ten plittei- in tci-- 

la mota en el ojo de 

intueris festucam 

ce 25ntfccr Tdi^e, ui^ 

tu hermano y no 

quse in oculo fra- 

tir|l nirt^t ncwat;c ^cn 

eclias de ver la viga 

tris tui, at in tuo 

SSaifcu in tciucm 2lit; 

que esta en tu ojo ? 

oculo trabem non 


animadvertis ? 

4. Obfr ic ^arf^i l>u 

4. O f como dices 

4. Aut quomodo 

fagcn ju teincm 23nu 

a tu hermano, deja 

dices fratri tuo : 

tcr : J6alt, itf) trill Dir 

que saque la mota de 

Sine ejiciam fe- 

ten v^' ttctr rtug &fi-' 

tu ojo, y he aqui tu 

stucam de oculo 

jicm ^liige jiel^cn ? iu^ 

tienes una viga en tu 

tuo, et ecce trabs 

ftcl^c, ctn *Ua{fe ijl iw 

proprio ojo ? 

in oculo tuo ? 

tcincm Tiuge. 

5. Sit J^ntrfrtcr, jic- 

5. Hip ; ^rita, echa 

5. Hypocrita, 

I)e am ev|kn ten 95ak 

primero .a viga de 

ejice primum tra- 

fen aug tcincm Tiugc ; 

tu ojo, y entonces 

bem de oculo tuo, 

barnarb bcftc Ije, wie fcu 

veras claramente pa- 

et tune intueberis 

ten pfittcr au5 bci; 

ra sacar la mota del 

ejicere festucam 

nee: 33ruDcr5 2(uge jics 

ojo de tu hermano. 

de oculo fratris 



6. 3t?t follt tag J^cu 

6. No deis k> santo 

6. Ne detissanc> 

Ugtfyiun nicbt ten JP)nn-- 

a los perros ni eche- 

turn canibus, ne- 

tcn fltbnt, unD cute 

is vuestras perlas de- 

que mittatis mar- 

spetlen follt itjr nicbt 

lante de los puercos, 

garitas vestras 

bor tie aue roerfcn ; 

no sea que los hu- 

ante porcos, ne 






irore KaTa7raTT)<rco(riv 

tie peur qu'ils ne le' 

pie them under their 

avrovs (V TOIS trocrlv 

foulent a leurs pieds, 

feet, and turn again 

avrwv, Kal crrpcufxv- 

et que se retournan 

and rend you. 

Tfs pr)<acriv v/jias. 

ils ne vous dechirent. 

7. Alrelre, Kal &:>- 

7. Demandez, et i 

7. Ask, and it shall 

dfi&eTai vfjiiv ffjrei- 

vous sera donne ; 

be given you ; seek, 

rf, KOU fvpf)crfTf ' 

cherchez, et vous 

and ye shall find ; 

Kpovere, Kal dvoiyf)- 

trouverez ; heurtez, 

knock, and it shall be 


et il vous sera ouvert. 

opened unto you : 

8. Has yap 6 al- 

8. Car quiconque 

8. For every one 

TO>V \anJ3dvfi, Kal 6 

demande, re^oit; et 

that asketh, receiv 

&)Ttav, nal 

quiconque cherche, 

eth ; and he that seek- 

T^> Kpovovri dvoiyf}- 

trouve ; et il sera ou- 

eth, findeth ; and to 


vert a celui qui 

him that knocketh, it 


shall be opened. 

9. *H TIS ecrriv f 

9. Mais qui sera 

9. Or what man is 

vp.wv avdpatTros, bv 

Phomme d'entre vous 

there of you, whom 

tav aiTT](Tri 6 vibs av- 

qui donne une pierre 

if his son ask bread, 

TOV aprof, p.r) \iQov 

a son fils, s'il lui de- 

will he give him a 

nSa>(ret aurw ; 

mande du pain ? 

stone ? 

10. Kai eav l^dvv 

10. Et s'il lui de- 

10. Or if he ask a 

aiTTja-t], p.rj 8<pw tiri- 

mande un poisson, lui 

fish, will he give him 

BaxTfi aurw; 

donnera-t-il un ser- 

a serpent ? 

pent ? 

11. i'f ovv vfj-fls, 

11. Si done vous, 

11. If ye, then, be- 

irovrjpol ovrts, ot5arf 

qui etes mechans, sa- 

ing evil, know how to 

fid/i.ara aya^a 8i$6vai 

vez bien donner a vos 

give good gifts unto 

TOIS ttitvois Vfjuav, ;ro- 

enfans des choses 

your children, how 

srca /ia\Xov 6 irar^p 

bonnes, combien plus 

much more shall your 

V/J.OHJ, 6 tv rols ovpa- 

votre Pere qui est aux 

Father which is in 

vois, 8a>(rti dyada 

cieux, donnera-t-il des 

heaven give good 

Tols alrovmr O.VTOV, 

biens a ceux qui les 

things to tHem that 

lui demandent ! 

ask him ? 

12. lldi'Tii ovv ocra 

12. Toutes les 

12. Therefore all 

i/ 6f\7]Tf iva TTOIW- 

choses done que vous 

things whatsoever ye 

triv ol (ivdpamoi, 

voulez que les 

would that men should 

OUTU) Kal Vpflt TTOlfl- 

hommes vous fassent, 

do to you, do ye even 

rt ai'Tois ovr )r yap 

faites-les-leur aussi tie 

so to them : for this 

to~rw o vofjios * ii ot 

meme, car c'est la loi is the law and ttie 






anf fcaj5 fie MefcftM^fii 

ellen con sus pies y 

forte conculcent 

niebt jertreten nut tt>- 

volviendose contra 

eas in pedibussu- 

ren gftfen, IIIID fid) 

vosotros os despeda- 

is, et conversi di- 

rccnt'cn, un& end) jtv= 


rumpant vos. 


7. Siftec, fouw-fcend) 

7. Pedit, y se os 

7. Petite, et da- 

gcoicbcn ; fud)ct, fo rocr; 

dara : buscad, y ha- 

bitur vobis : qu<E- 

fcet ityr. ttiiDen ; Hqjfct 

llareis : Hamad, y se 

rite, et invenietis : 

an, fo irirt) end) anfge; 

os abrira. 

pulsate, et ape rie- 


tur vobis. 

8. Seiin irei- t>a b"it= 

8. Porque todo a- 

8. Omnis enim 

tet, t>cv empfdnoit ; mil 1 

quel que pide recibe ; 

petensaccipit : et 

n>cv til fnd)et, l>cv fin-- 

y el que busca halla, 

quaerens invenit, 

lift; uno n>er Da an-- 

y al que llama se le 

et pulsanti iperi- 

Wopfct, Dem n>ivt> auf= 




9. <-lBcld)fr i|l nnter 

9. O quien de vo- 

9. Aut quis est 

end) 507enfd)en, fo ifyn 

sotros es el hombre 

ex vobis homo, 

feiu ofyn bittet nm 

a quien si su hijo pi- 

quern si petierit 

23rofc, fcer ifym einen 

diere pan acaso le 

films suus panem, 

tcin bietc? 

dara una piedra ? 

nunquid lapidem 

dabit ei ? 

10. Otec fo etr ifjn 

10. O si le pidiere 

10. Etsipiscem 

bittet nm fin en gi|'d), 

un pez, acaso le dara 

petierit, nunquid 

tec it^in fine djlange 

una serpiente ? 

serpentem dabit 



11. o tenn ifyr, Die 

11. Si vosotros pues 

11. Si ergo vos 

il)r Dod) arci fetji 1 , fon-- 

siendo malos sabeis 

mali existentes, 

uet Dennod) enren Sfin-- 

dar b-'^nas dadivas a 

nostis data bona 

tcrn gutc abcn c\e-- 

vuestros hijos e cuan- 

dare filiis vestris, 

*>eii, wie Dielmcbc wirD 

to mas vuestio Pa- 

quan o magis Pa- 

euer SJatev im J^immcl 

dre que esta en los 

ter vester qui in 

utee gebfii fceuen, fie 

cielos dara buenas 

cselis, dabit bona 

ty\\ bitten. 

dadivas a los que se 

petentibus se ? 

las pidieren ? 

12. Mcs nnn, was 

12. Asi que todo lo 

12. Omnia ergo 

il)c roollet, fcafj end) t>ic 

que quisiereis que los 

qiuecumque vul- 

ieutc tt}nn fcllen, &as 

hombres hagan con ' tis ut faciant vo- 

thnt it)f il)nen ; t>a$ ift 

vosotros, hacedlo asi bis homines, ita 

^a6 (Scfefi uno tic spio: 

vosotros tambien con et vos facite illis. 


ellos : porque esta es > Haec cnim &' 







et les proplietes. 


13. Ela-f\deTf 8ta 

13. Entrez par la 

13. Enter ye in at 

TVS (TTfl>T)S TTvXtJf 

porte etroite, car c'est 

the strait gate ; for 

ort TrAarfta ?} nv\r], 

la porte large et le 

wide is the gate, and 

KII\ evpv)(<i)pos f) 68bs 

ehemin spacieux qui 

broad is the way, that 

fj dndyovfra els TTJV 

mene a la perdition ; 

leadethto destruction, 

OTrwAetai', KOL TroAAot 

et il y en a beaucoup 

and many there be 

1<TLV Ol i(7pVOitVOl 

qui entrent par elle. 

which go in thereat : 

81' avTrjs. 

14. "Ort o-T-ei/v / 

14. Car la porte est 

14. Because strait is 

TTV\T1, Kill Tf6\lfJLp,VT) 

etroite ; et le ehemin 

the gate, and narrow 

TJ 686s T] tiTrayoucra 

est etroit qui mene a 

is the way, which 

flS TfjV d)T]V, KUl oAl- 

la vie ; et il y en a 

leadeth unto life, and 

yoi (l(rli> ol evpiffKcv- 

peu qui le trouvent. 

few there be that find 

Tfs avrtjv. 


15. Upoo-exfTe 8e 

15. Or gardez-vous 

15. Beware of false 

OTTO TO>V -^evSoTrpo- 

des faux prophetes, 

prophets, which come 

<pr)ri>, otrives epxov- 

qui viennent a vous 

to you in sheep's 

rai Trpbs V/JLUS fv tv- 

en habits de brebis, 

clothing, but inward- TrpoQiiTav, 

mais qui au-dedans 

ly they are ravening 

(<ru>6fv 8e flat. \\IKOI 

sont des loups ravis- 





16. 'ATTO TGOV Kap- 

16. Vous les con- 

16. Ye shall know 

irwv avr&iv fntyvu>- 

naitrez a leurs fruits : 

them by their fruits. 

&fo~0e CWTOVS. Mijrt 

Cueille-t-on les rai- 

Do men gather grapes 

crv\\tyovcriv tnrb a- 

sins a des opines, ou 

of thorns, or figs of 

KavOwv crTiKpvXtjv, rj 

les figues a des char- 

thistles ? 

dnb Tjji^6\ci>v O-VK.O. ; 

dons ? 

17. OSrco Tiav 8fv- 

17. Ainsi *out bon 

17. Even so every 

8pov dyadov Kapirovs 

arbre rait de bons 

good tree bringeth 

KU\OVS TTOlfl ' TO 8f 

fruits ; mais le mau- 

forth good fruit ; but 

(raTTpov 8ev8pov Kap- 

vais arbre fait de 

a corrupt tree bring- 

irovs Trovrjpovs TTOiet. 

mauvais fruits. 

eth forth evil fruit. 

18. Ou 8vvarai 

18. Le bon arbre ne 

18. A good tree can- 

ftevo'pnv dyadbv nap- 

pout point faire de 

not bring forth evil 


mauvais fruits, ni le 

fruit, neither can a 

ov8e 8ev8pov crairpav 

mauvais arbre faire 

corrupt tree bring 

Kaonovs Ka\ovs TTOI- 

de bons fruits. 

forth good fruit. 


19. THdv 8(v8pov 

19. Tout arbre qui 

19. Every tree that 






la Ley y los Profetas. 

Lex et Prophetae. 

13. (gcbct ciu Mir (6 

13. Entrad por la 

13. Intrate per 

tic fnAc spfovtc ; fceun 

puerta angosta, por- 

angustam portam, 

Me spforte i|l n?cit, nnt> 

que ancha es la pu- 

quia lata porta et 

free xXBcA i|t breit, l-er 

erta, y espacioso el 

spatiosa via du- 

jnr SBerDammnife" ah 

camino que conduce 

cens ad perditio- 

futjrct; un& iljvcr finl> 

a la perdicion, y mu- 

nem,et multisuct 

toicle, Me fcaranf roau-- 

chos son los que en- 

ingredientes per 


tran por ella. 


14. ttnt> Me spfortc 

14. Porque estrecha 

14. Quia angus- 

ift eiiAe, unfe frer SBea 

es la puerta, y an- 

ta porta, et stricta 

i|t fcbmal, Dcr jam ie-- 

gosto el camino que 

via ducens ad vi- 

ten futyret; un& roeni: 

conduce a la vida y 

tam, et pauci sunt 

e finD ityrer, Me ifyit 

pocos son los que 

iuvenientes ean. 


atinan con el. 

15. efyet encft i>or, 

15. Guardaos de los 

15. Attenditeve- 

toor ten fa(fcf;ru ^Pro: 

falsos profetas que 

roafalsis |.-ophe- 

^ tjeten, tie in cbaf^ 

vienen a vosotros 

tis, qui veniunt ad 

hciMru ju end) fom- 

vestidos de pieles de 

vos in indumentis 

mru ; tiureiiMA aba- 

ovejas y por dentro 

ovium, intrinse- 

ft Hi 1 fie rcit'cul'e -IColfc. 

son lobos rapaces. 

cus autem sunt 

lupi rapaces. 

16. 7(u ifyreu ruc(5-- 

16. Por sus frutos 

16. A fructibus 

ten fcllt il}r fte crt'riu 

los conocereis. Aca- 

eorum agnoscetis 

nen. Sfann man and) 

so se cogen uvas de 

eos. Nunquid col- 

"Jraubeu lefeu Don teu 

los espinos, 6 higos 

ligunt a spinis 

2>crurn, oicr gcigen 

de los abrojos ? 

uvam, aut de tri- 

toon M"n 2>i|U(n ? 

bulis ficum ? 

17. 2((fo eiu jeAfirfia- 

17. Asi mismo todo 

17. Sic omnis 

giuer 'J5aum briiiAft 

arbol bueno Ilevabu- 

arbor bona fruc 

cnrc grnrlue; abcr cm 

en fruto, y el arbol 

tus bonos facit . 

fauler !Baum bringet 

malo lleva mal fruto. 

at cariosa arbor 

arge gi-iidjte. 

fructus malos fa- 


18. Sin A"tfr 35aum 

18. No puede el 

18. Non potest 

faun nidjt arse gnubre 

arbol bueno llevar 

arbor bona fruc- 

bnncien, uuD eiu f'uila- 

mal fruto, ni el ur- 

tus malos facere, 

25aum taint nid)t Ante 

bol malo llevar fruto 

neque arbor cari- 

grud)tc In-ingeu. 


osa fructus pul- 

chros facere. 

19. Sin icalicfecv 

19. Todo arbol que 

19. Omnis arbor 








ne fait point de bon 

bringeth not fortii 


fruit, est coupe et je- 

good fruit is hewn 

irvp ySdXXerai 

te au feu. 

down, and cast into 

the fire. 

20. "Apaye diro r>v 

20. Vous les con- 

20. Wherefore by 

KapTTtav avT<av errt- 

nartrez done a leurs 

their fruits ye shall 

yvaxrtadt avrovs. 


know them. 

21. Ov TTOS 6 \e- 

21. Tous ceux qui 

21. Not every one 

ya>v fj.oi, Kvpif, Kv- 

medisent: Seigneur! 

that saith unto me, 

pif, fi&fXtiHTtTai els 

Seigneur ! n'entre- 

Lord, Lord, shall en- 

rrji> /Sao-iXeiav reav 

ront pas dans le roy- 

ter into the kingdom 

ovpavuiv dXX' 6 TTOi- 

aume des cieux ; mais 

of heaven ; but he 

>V TO 6f\rjfJM TOV 

celui qui fait la vo- 

that doeth the will of 

irarpos fj.ov TOV tv 

lonte de mon Pere 

my Father which is 


qui est aux cieux. 

in heaven. 

22. IloXXoi epovtri 

22. Plusieurs me di- 

22. Many will say 

flOl (V fKeiVJ] Trj T]p,f- 

ront en ce jour-la : 

to me in that day, 

pa, Kvptf, Kvpte, ov 

Seigneur ! Seigneur ! 

Lord, Lord, have we 

T6J CT6) 6v6fJ.aTl TTpO- 

n'avons-nous pas pro- 

not prophesied in thy 

t(pr]T(va-afj.fv, KOI rta 

phetise en ton nom ? 

name ? and in thy 

a~a> ovofjian 8aifji6via 

et n'avons-nous pas 

name have cast out 

f^f^d\o/j.fv, KOI rw 

chasse les demons en 

devils ? and in thy 

r<a ovofjiaTi Swdpfis 

ton nom ? et n'avons- 

name done many 

jroXXay firoir)crap.(i> ; 

nous pas faitplusieurs 

wonderful works ? 

miracles en ton nom ? 

23. Kai Tort 6/j.o- 

23. Mais je leur di- 

23. And then will I 

\oyr]croi avrois, on 

ra alors tout ouverte- 

profess unto them, I 

ovbeiroTf eyvcov iifias ' 

ment : Je ne vous ai 

never knew you : de- 

anoxaipelTt air 1 e/iov 

jamais reconnus ; re- 

part from me, ye that 

ot fpya^6fj.fvot TTJV 

tirez-vous de moi, 

work iniquity. 


vous qui vous adon- 

nez a 1'iniquite. 

24. Dor ovv Saris 

24. Quiconque en- 

24. Therefore who- 

OKOllfl f.lOV TOVS Xd- 

tend done ces paroles 

soever heareth these 

yovs TOVTOVS, Kai Trot- 

que je dis, et les met 

sayiags of mine, and 

el avrovs, 6/zotaxrci) 

en pratique, je le com- 

doeth them, I will 

ai/Tov avdpl (ppovipM, 

parerai a 1'homme 

liken him unto a wise 


prudent, qui a bati sa 

man, which built his 

oiKiav avrov tirl "~v]v 

maison sur la roche ; 

house upon a rock : 

HfTpav ' 






33aum, lcr nicbt gate 

no lleva buen fruto, 

non faciens fruc- 

griubte buno.ct, um-j, 

sera cortado y echa- 

tum pulchrum, 

afcgrfyaurn HUD in gcit- 

do al fuego. 

exscind itur, et in 

cr .qcroorfcn. 

ignem injicitur. 

20. 2)arnm an ifyren 

20. For sus frutos 

20. Itaque ex 

griicbten foilt i(jr fie 

pues los conoceceis. 

fructibus eorum 

erf cnurn. 

agnoscetis eos. 

21. t? wcrfccn ntcfct 

21. No todo aquel 

21. Non omnis 

allc, tic jtt mir fagni: 

que me dice Seiior, 

dicens mihi, Do- 

cvr, crr ! in " fca$ 

Senor, entrara en el 

mine, Domine, 

J^immelrcid) fommcu ; 

reyno de los cielos, 

intrabitin regnum 

fouDtni tie Dcn'IBiilcn 

sino aquel que hicie- 

cselorum : sed fa- 

tfyim mcincs SBatcrtf 

re la voluntad de mi 

ciens voluntatem 

tin immc(. 

Padre que esta en 

Patris mei, qui in 

los cielos. 

cselis. y^ 

22. * roertcn tide 

22. Muchos me di- 

22. Multidicent 

2i mir faa,cn an jcncm 

ran en aquel dia Se- 

mihi in ilia die : 

$agc: J^cvr, J^crr, l^a= nor, Senor ^no he- 

Domine, Domine, 

bcu ir nicbt in Deincm mos profetizado en 

nonne tuo nomi- 

Sdamen gen>ei(fagct ? 

tu nombre ? ^ y no 

ne prophetavi- 

^abcnwir nicftt tit tru 

hemos en tu nombre 

mus, et tuo no- 

ncm Stamen ^eufcl 

lanzado demonios ? 

mine damonia 

ansgt triebftt ? J^abrn 

,; y hecho muchos mi- 

ejecimus, et tuo 

rcu- nirl)t in Deuicm 

lagros en tu nombre ? 

nomine t fficien- 

Sflamen Dick il;aten 

tias multas feci- 

Sft(;an ? 

mus ? 

23. 2)aim VT5ert>e icti 

23. Y entonces yo 

23. Ettunccon- 

tb,ncn be fennen : 3d) 

les dire claramente. 

fitebor illis, Quod 

Ijabc cud) nod) nie cr= 

Nunca os conoci ; 

nunquam novi 

i'annt; trricbct allc t>on 

apartaos de mi ope- 

vos ; abscedite a 

mir, il)i' Ucbclcljatcv. 

rarios de la maldad. 

me omnes ope- 

rantes iniquita- 


24. Saturn, rcr fcie-- 

24. For tanto todo 

24. Omnis ergo 

fc mcinc 5Hctc l;6rct, 

aquel que oye estas 

quicunque audit 

nul> tl)ut ftc, ^clt \)cr: 

mis palabras y las 

mea verba haec, 

fllcicbc id) cinem flugni 

practica, lo compa- 

et facit ea, assi- 

SD7anne/ fccr fdu J5'i^ 

rare a un hombre 

milabo ilium viio 

anf eincn gdjVn l\\u- 

cuefdo que edifico su 

prude nti, qui aedi- 


casa sobre peiia. 

ficavitdornum su- 

am super petram 






25. Kai K(iTfj3r) -f] 

25. et loi-sque la 

25. And the rain 

/3pox>), Kai rj\6ov oi 

pluie est tombee, et 

descended, and the 

Trora^oj, Kai en vev- 

que les torrens sont 

floods came, and the 

TOV OI (lVfJiOl, K(U 

venus, et que les 

winds blew, and beat 

irpo(reir(crov TJJ oiKia 

vents ont souffle, et 

upon that house ; and 

flaivy, Kai OVK fjrf- 

ont . donne contre 

it fell not : for it was 

<re Tf8ui\ia>To yap 

cette maison, elle 

founded upon a rock. 

'jrl TTJV ireTpav. 

n'est point tombee, 

parce qu'elle etait 

fondee sur la roche. 

26. Kai jras o d- 

26. Mais quiconque 

26. And every one 

KOVU>1> p.OV TOVS Xd- 

entend ces paroles 

that heareth these 

yovs TOVTOVS, Kai pr/ 

que je dis, et ne les 

sayings of mine, and- 

jroiwj' OVTOVS, 6p.oia>- 

met point en pratique, 

doeth them not, shall 

6f)o-tTai dflpt /xcopw 

sera semblable a 

be likened unto a 

OOTIS (0Ko86[J.T)O~f Tt/V 

1'homme insense, qui 

foolish man, which 

oiKiai> avTov fjrl TTJV 

a bati sa maison sur 

built his house upon 


le sable ; 

the sand : 

27. Kai KaTtftr] f/ 

27. et lorsque la 

27. And the rain 

Ppoxr), Kai ?)\Qov oi 

pluie est tombee, et 

descended, and the 

wora^oi, icai (TTVtv- 

que les torrens sont 

floods came, and the 

(Tav ol avfp.oi, Ka\ 

venus, et que les 

winds blew, and beat 

Trpoo~fKo\}rav TTJ oiKiq 

vents ont souffle, et 

upon that house ; and 

fKeivrj, KOI firt(rf 

ont donne contre 

it fell : and great was 

Kai rjv 17 TTTWTIS av- 

cette maison, elle est 

the fall of it. 

TIJS fifyd\T], 

tombee, et sa ruine 

a etc grande. 

28. Kni iytvfTo 

28. Or il arriva que 

28. And it came to 

OTf O~VVTf\(O-(V 6 

quand Jesus cut ache- 

pass, when Jesus had 

Ir)o~ovs TOUS Xdyour 

ve ce discours, les 

ended these sayings, 

TOVTOVS, ((TT\f)0-- 

troupes furent eton- 

the people were as- 

trovTO oi o^Xot <7ri 

nees de sa doctrine ; 

tonished at his doc- 

73 diSu^j avTov 

trine : 

29. 'Hi/ yap 8i8a- 

29. car il les ensei- 

29. For he taught 

VKU avTovs as (ov- 

gnait comme ayant 

them as one having 

crlav f%a>v, Kai ov% 

de 1'autorite, et non 

authority, and not vs 

its oi ypapfn rd?. 

pas com rue les 

the scribes. 







25. >a nun cin spla^ 

25. Y descendio 

25. Et descen- 

rc>ini fid, nnD cin <c= 

lluvia, y vinieron ri- 

dit pluvia et vene- 

n\i|fa- turn, nuD irct)c-- 

os, y soplaron vien- 

runt flumina, et 

tcn Die 2I3mDe, nnD 

tos, y dieron con im- 

flaverunt venti, et 

jlicjjfn an Dat> au', 

petu sobre aquella 

procubuerunt do- 

jlcl etTDorl) uicbt, Dcnn 

casa y no cayo por- 

mui illi, et non 

e6 roar anf cineu gelfeit 

que estaba cimenta- 

cecidit : fundata 


da sobre pefia. 

erat enim super 


26. UnD er Dicfe 

26. Y todo aquel 

26. Et omnis 

mcinc iKcDe l)6ret, nnt> 

que oye estas mis 

audiens mea ver- 

Jljut fie uicl)t, Der i|t 

palabras, y no las 

ba ha3c, et non 

liuem tfy&ricfoten SDTan-- 

cumple, sera seme- 

faciens ea, assi- 

ue flleict), Dei- fein J^ans 

jante a un hombre 

milabitur viro 

fttif l>en anD baucte. 

loco que edifico su 

stulto, qui asdifi- 

casa sobre arena. 

cavit domum su- 

am super are- 

nam : 

27. 2>a nun cin spfafr 

27. Y descendio 

27. Et descen- 

rcaen ficl, nnD r'am cm 

lluvia, y rios vinie- 

dit pluvia, et ve- 

(?cn>a|fcr, nnD n>el)etcn 

ron, y soplaron vien- 

nerunt flumina, et 

tie vlDinDe, nnD lliejjcn 

tos, y dieron impetu- 

flaverunt venti, et 

an Das? J^aus, Da jicl es, 

osamente sobre a- 

proruerunt domui 

unD that cincu Avc>h'cn 

quella casa, y cayo, 

illi, et cecidit, et 


y fue grande su rui- 

fuit casus illiua 



28. UnD e* frc.aab ficd, 

28. Y sucedio que 

28. Et factum 

Ca 3cfng Dicfe $HcDc 

cuando Jesus hubo 

est, quum con- 

tuMlciiC'Ct batte, cntfc^tc 

concluido estos razo- 

sum masset Jesus 

fid) Da^ 33olf fiber feU 

namientos las gentes 

sermones hos,stu- 

ue ietjve. 

estaban pasmadas de 

pebant ilium tur- 

su doctrina. 

bce super doctrina 


29. X>enn er preDiate 

29. Porque los en- 

29. Erat enim 

gnraltia, nnD nicfet wn 

sefiaba como quien 

docens eos utauc- 

l>ie l)nftAc(cl}vtcn. 

tiene autoridad y no 

toritatem habens, 

a la manera de los 

et non sicut Scri* 







1, Et quand il fut 1. When he was 
TOW opovs, de scendu de la mon- come down from the 
tagne, de grandes mountain, great mul- 
tioupes le suivirent. titudes followed him. 

2. Kai I8ov \fnpos 
fXd&vTrpoa'fKvvfi av- 
r<5, Xeya>i> Kvpif, tav 
deXys, bvvauai pe *a- 

3. Kai fKTtivas Tt)v 
X f ip a > fi^aTO avrov 
6 'Ir)<rovs, \(ya>v 
eXa>, Kadapta-drjTi ' 
Kai evdecos eicadapi- 

2. Et voici, un le- 
preux vint et se pro- 
sterna devant lui, en 
lui disant : Seigneur, 
si tu veux, tu peux 
me rendre net. 

3. Et Jesus etendant 
la main, le toucha, en 
disant : Je le veux, 
sois net ; et inconti- 
nent sa lepre fut gue- 

2. And behold, there 
carne a leper and wor- 
shipped him, saying, 
Lord, if thou wilt, 
thou canst make me 

3. And Jesus put 
forth his hand, and 

! touched him, saying, 
I will ; be thou clean. 
And immediately his 
leprosy was cleansed. 

4. Kai Xe'yei av 4. Puis Jesus lui dit : 
6 'Irjorovs "Opa firj- j Prends garde de ne le 
o> vl (iTTT]s ' oXXa dire a personne ; mais 
a-fcivTov Set- va, et te montre au 
> itpd, not sacrificateur, et offre 
* Swpoi/, ! le don que Moi'se a 


4. And Jesus saith 
unto him, See thou 
; tell no man ; but go 
thy way, show thyself 
to the priest, and offe f 
j the gift that Moses 
ordonne,afin que cela ' commanded, for ates- 

tls paprvpiov avrols. leur serve de temoi- 
5. Et quand Jesus 

5. "Elcre\d6i>Ti 


- j fut entre dans Caper- 
naum, un centenier 


6. Kai 

vint a lui, le priant, 

Ki5- 6. et disant: Sei- 
/3/- gneur, mon serviteur 
oiKia est paralytique dans 
dtivuis ma maison, et il souf- 
fre extremement. 

7. Kai Xe'-yft avru 
'lr)(70\s 'Eya A- 

timony unto them. 

5. And when Jesus 
was entered into Ca- 
pernaum, there came 
unto him a centurion, 
beseeching him, 

6. And say ing, Lord, 
my servant lieth at 
home sick of the pal- 
sy, grievously tor- 

7. Jesus lui dit: J'i- 7. And Jesus sauh 
rai, et je le guerirai. | unto him, I will come 






1. >a er aber torn 

1. Y cuando hubo 

1. Descendei.te 

25er^c tjcrab ajnci fol,^ 

descendido del monte 

autern eo de mon- 

teii;m viel belt's nact). 

le seguian muchas 

te, secuUe sunt 


eum turbas mul- 

2. Unb ffefye, ein Tine-- 

2. Y he aqui vino 

2. Et ecce le- 

faia,cr fam, nnb betete 

un leproso, y le ado- 

prosus veniens, 

fyn an, nnb fprad) : 

raba diciendo Seiior, 

adorabat eum, di- 

eir, fo bn n>HI|t, 

si tu quieres puedes 

cens : Domine, si 

fannfl bit mid) rootyl 


velis, efficax ea 


me mundare. 

3. Unb 3ffne flrccftc 

3. Y estendiendo 

3. Etextencena 

fcine anb aus?, rnfyrc= 

Jesus la mano le to- 

manum, tetigit 

te il)n an, nnb fprart) : 

co diciendo : Quie- 

eum Jesus, di- 

3d) roills tbun; fet) a.e= 

ro, se limpio, e in- 

cens : Volo, mun- 

reinia.ef. Unb alfobafb 

mediatamente quedo 

dare. Et confes- 

roarb er toon feinem 

limpio de su lepra. 

tim munduta est 

2lufag rein. 

ejus lepra. 

4. Unb 3efn$ fprarfc 

4. Entonces Jesus 

4. Et ait illi Je- 

ju ib. m : @tel?e jn, fa= 

le dijo : Mira no lo 

sus : Vide, nemi- 

cie es niemanb ; fon= 

digas a nadie mas ve, 

ni dixeris : sed 

bern gefyc l)in, nnb jet; 

presentate al Sacer- 

abi, teipsum os- 

ge birb bem spriefter, 

dote, y ofrece el don 

tende sacerdoti, 

unb opfere bte abe, 

que Moyses ordeno 

et offer munus 

bte5D?ofe^ befot)[fn bat, 

en testimonio a ellos. 

quod prseccpit 

jn ciuem 3fAnifi fiber 

Moyses, in testi- 


monium illis. 

5. >a aber 3efn? eiiu 

5. Y habiendo en- 

5. Introeunte au- 

ginft jn Sapernanm, 

trado Jesus en Ca- 

tem Jesu in Ca- 

trat cin J^anptmann 

pharnaum se llego a 

pernaum, acces- 

?u ifjm, ber bat ifyn, 

el un centurion ro- 

sit ad eum Cen- 


turio, appellans 


6. Unb fpraeb : J^err, 

6. Y diciendo : Se- 

6. Et dicens : 

mein SCneebt liegt jn 

nor, mi criado esta 

Domine, puer 

anfe, nnb ijt .aidjtbnu 

postrado en cama 

meus jacet in do- 

dii.a, nnb l}at gro|5"e 

paralitico rcciamente 

mo paralyticusj 



vehementer dis- 


7. 3ff$ fprarf) jn 

7. Y Jesus le dijo : 

7. Et ait illi Je 

i^m 3d) Jfill rom- 

Yo ire y le sanare. 

sus : Ego veniena 






6t>v dfpanfvo-o ai- 

and heal him. 


8. Kat UTTOKpi6fls 

8. Mais le centenier 

8. The centurion 

o fKarovrapxos e(prj 

lui repondit : Sei- 

answered and said, 

Kvpie, ov< flfii tKa- 

gneur, je ne suis pas 

Lord, I am not wor- 

vos tva p,ov VTTO Trfv 

digr.e que tu entres 

thy that thou should- 

(Ttfyrjv (l<re\0T]s 

sous mon toit ; mais 

est come under my 

aXXa fiovov fine Xo- 

dis seulement la pa- 

roof : but speak the 

ya>, ical ladfj(T(Tai 6 

role, et mon serviteur 

word only, and my 

irals fj.ov. 

sera gueri. 

servant shall be 


9. Kat yap e'ya> av- 

9. Car moi-meme, 

9. For I am a man 

6pa>T7OS fl/JLl V7TO t- 

qui suis un homme 

under authority, hav- 

ova-jay, fx<nv VTT' 

constitue sous la puis- 

ing soldiers under 

ffiavTov orpanajra? 

sance d'autrui, j'ai 

me : and I say to this 

ical Xeyto TOVTW, TTO- 

sous moi des gens de 

man, Go, and he go- 

pfvdrjri, Kal iroptve~ 

guerre, et je dis a 

eth ; and to another, 

rat /cat aXXw, ?p- 

Pun : Va, et il va ; et 

Come, and hecometh; 

Xf >cat ep^erat 

a un autre : Viens, et 

and to my servant, 

xal rc3 douXo) /iov, 

il vient; et a mon 

Do this and he doeth 

irolrjvov roCro, xal 

serviteur : Fais cela, 



et il le fait. 

10. 'A/couo-a? 3e 6 

10. Ce que Jesus 

10. When Jesus 

'I^a-ouf, edavfiaaf, 

ayant entendu, il s'en 

heard it, he marvelled, 

Kal tiTTf rols aKoXou- 

etonna, et dit a ceux 

and said to them that 

0ova-iv 'A/iijj/ Xeyw 

qui le suivaient : En 

followed, Verily I say, ov&e tv T&5 *I(T- 

verite, je vous dis que 

unto you, I have not 

parjX rofravTr^v iri- 

je n'ai pas trouvo, 

found so great faith, 

OTIV fvpov. 

n.eme en Israel, une 

no, not in Israel. 

si grande foi. 

n. t K \ f * 
. Acya> oe v^iti', 

11. Mais je vous dis 

11. And I say unto 

OTT, rroXXol an^o ava- 

que plusieurs vien- 

you, That many shall 

ToXaif Kal 8v<r/J.u>v 17- 

dront d'Orient et 

come from the east 

^ouo-i, xai dvuK\idfi- 

d'Occident, et seront 

and west, and shall 

vovrai fitra. Af$p:iafi 

a table dans le roy- 

sit down with Abra- 

Kal 'lo-aax Kal 'la- 

aurne des cieux, avec ham, and Isaac, and 

fcw/S <V ri; ^a<riXt'a 

Abraham, Isaac et 

Jacob, in the kingdom 

T&>v ovpavuv ' 


of heaven : 

12 Oi 8e viol T^t 

12. Et les enfans du 

12. But the children 




r iris. 

men, nnb iljn gcfunb 

curabo eum. 


8. XVr -Oanptmann 

8. Entonces el cen- 

8. Et respon- 


turion le respondio 

dens Centurio nit: 

Jfperv, ict) bin nicbt 

diciendo: Seuor yo 

Domine, non sum 

ttfitb,, ba bn nntrr 

no soy digno de que 

idoneus ut meum 

mfin 2)acb gfl?f|t ; fn-- 

entres debajo de mi 

subtectum intres: 

bmi f pi- icb mtr ein 

techo, mas di sola- 

sed tantum die 

c S5o\-t f fo nnrb mfin 

mente la palabra, y 

verbum, et sana- 

ftnfcbt gffnnb. 

sanara mi criado. 

bitur puer meus. 

9. Saw ict) 6 in fin 

9. Porque yo tam- 

9. Etenim ego 

93?cnfcb, bajn bcr 

bien soy hombre su- 

homo sum sub 

Obrigffit untcrtfyan, 

jeto a la autoridad de 

auctoritatem, ha- 

itnb babe nntfr. mir 

otro, y tengo a mis 

bens sub meip* 

nf,4'ohifcbte ; bocb 

ordenes soldados, y 

sum milites : et 

iff nn ifbfagf 511 fincin: 

digo a este : Ve y 

dico huic, Vade, 

<ft)e t)'ll, fO gfi?ft 

va ; y al otro ven, y 

et vadit : et alii, 

c r ; nuD jnm anbmi : 

viene : y a mi cria- 

Veni, et venit : et 

omm, fo fomim 

do : haz esto, y lo 

servo ineo, Fac 

(r ; HUD jn nif iiicm 


hoc, et lacit. 

tb. ut fi-fit. 

10. 2)a bag 3ffns 

10. Al oir Jesus se 

10. Audiensau- 

b^rftf, Vfnvunbfrte fr 

maravillo y dijo a 

tem Jesus, mira- 

fid), niiD fpracb jn bf-- 

los que le seguian : 

tus est : et ait se- 

iifn, bif il)m nacbfc(g: 

En verdad os digo 

quentibus: Amen 

ten: QODaljvlicb, icb fa= 

que no he hallado fe 

dico vobis, neque 

ge fiicb, folcbfn (S(an= 

tan grande, no, ni en 

in Israel tantam 

ben b,abc icb in 3fraet 


fidem invem. 

nicbt gffnnbfti. 

11. 2ibfr icb fage end) : 

11. Y os digo que 

11. Dico auttm 

53ic(c wcrbrn toinmfn 

vend ran muchos de 

vobis, quod multi 

Vein 90?orgfn nnb vom 

oriente, y de occi- 

ab orientibus et 

2lbfiiD, nnb mit 2lbra: 

dente, y se sentaran 

occidentibus ve- 

bam nnb 3faaf nnb 

con Abraham, e 

nient, et recum- 

3*fo6 im ^unmclvficb 

Isaac y Jacob en el 

bent cum Abra- 


ray'no de los cielos. 

ham, et Isaac, et 

Jacob in regno 


12. 'Z(bet tie ^inbev 

12, Y los hijos del 

12. Filii autem 






Pa(n\fias fKpXrjdi,- 

royaume seront jetes 

of the kingdom shall 

aovra: els TO CTKOTOS 

dans les tenebres de 

be cast out into out- 

TO f^OOTfpOV ' fKfl 

dehors, ou il y aura 

er darkness : there 

ea"rai 6 K\av0fj.os K;il 

des pleurs et des 

shall be weeping and 

o Ppvypos ruv ooov- 

grincemens de dents. 

gnashing of teeth. 


13. Kai fiTTfv 6 

13. Alors Jesus dit 

13. And Jesus said 

Irjcrovs TO) tKaTOV- 

au centenier : Va, et 

unto the centurion, 

rapxat vTraye, Kal 

qu'il te soit fait selon 

Go thy way ; and as 

a>? enia-revaras ytvrj- 

que tu as cru. Et a 

thou hast believed, so 

6f]Tu> (rot. Kat ia$>7 

1'heure me" me son 

be it done unto thee. 

o Trair OVTOV tv Tg 

serviteur fut gueri. 

And his servant was 

&po eKfivjj. 

healed in the self- 

same hour. 

14. Kal eXdav 6 

14. Puis Jesus etant 

1 4. And when Jesus 

Irjcrovs fls TTJV oiKtav 

venu dans la maison 

was come into Peter's 

HfTpOV, (iSf Tr)V TTfV- 

de Pierre, vit la belle- 

house, he saw his 

Oepav OVTOV /3e/3Xij- 

mere de Pierre qui 

wife's mother laid, 

p,evi]v Kal irvpeo-o-ov- 

etait au lit, et qui 

and sick of a fever 

<rav ' 

avail la fievre. 

15. Kat TjfyaTO TJ}? 

15. Et lui ayant tou- 

15. And he touched 

%(tpos avr^?, KOI a- 

che la main, la fievre 

her hand, and the fe- 

(friJKev avrfjif 6 irvpt- 

la quitta : puis elle se 

ver left her : and she 

TOS ' Kal T)ytpdr], Kal 

leva, et les servit. 

arose, and ministered 

StrjKovft avTto. 

unto them. 

16. O\lrtar Se ye- 

16. Et le soir etant 

16. When the even 

vofjLfitrjs irpocrrjiifyKav 

venu, on lui presenta 

was come, they 

aurw ^aip.ovi(ofji(vovs 

plusieurs demoni- 

brought unto him 

irt/\\ovs ' Kal e'^e/3a- 

aques, desquels il 

many thai were pos- 

Xe ra jr^eu/iOTa Xo- 

chassa par sa parole 

sessed with devils . 

ya>, Kal Trairaj TOVS 

les esprits malins, et 

and he cast out the 

KUKUS t^ovras fdf- 

guerit tous ceux qui 

spirits with his word, 


se portaient mal ; 

and healed all that 

were sick : 

17. "Orrw? TrX^pa)- 

17. afin que fut ac- 

17. That it might 

6y TO prjdtv oia *H- 

compli ce dont il avail 

be fulfil.ed which was 

craiov TOV irpo(pt]Tov, 

ete parle par Esafe 

spoken by Esaias the 

\fyovros ' " AUTOS 

le prophele, en di- 

prophet, saying, Him- 

rat dadfvtlas ij/iwv 

sanl : 11 a pris nos 

self took our infirmi- 

eXa/3f , Kal raj vo&ovs 

langueurs, el a porte 

ties and bare our sick 


nos maladies. 







bfS Kcid)i$ ircvtcu \\n& 

reyno serin echados 

regni ejicientur 10 

flcjtofifn in Die dit|}cr|te 

a las tinicblas esteri- 

tenebras exteno- 

ginjtmiife' I) mans, l<a 

ores. Alii sera el 

res : ibi erit fle- 

rcilt> fa; It fallen UJlD 

llanto y el crugir de 

tus, et frem.tus 




13. lint 3cfu<? fpracfe 

13. Y Jesus dijo al 

13. Et dixit Je 

gu tern Jfpauptmaimc : 

centurion : Ve y co- 

sus Centurioni : 

(gefye fytn, Div t qcfd)cl)e, 

mo creiste asi te sea 

Abi, et sicut cre- 

rcie tu geglaubct fyaft. 

hecho. Y fue sano 

didisti, fiat tibi. 

ltnt> fciu ftiudjt wait) 

el siervo en aquella 

Et sanatus est 

.qcfiuib ju fccvfcllngcn 


puer ejus in hora 



14. Itnft 3cfu$ fam 

14. Y habiendo 

14. Et ingressus 

in spctri Jpaue:, unD 

llegado Jesus a la 

Jesus in domum 

fafyc/ Dag fciuc @cl)roie-- 

casa de Pedro vio a 

Petri, vidit so- 

grrmnttcr U$, unb (;at-- 

su suegra postrada 

crum ejus jacen- 

tt Dag gicbcr. 

en cama, y con fie- 

tem et febrici- 


tantem : 

15. 2)a griff er if)re 

15. Y toco su ma- 

15. Et tetigit 

J^.uib an, unt> tag ic- 

no, y la fiebre la dejo, 

manum ejus, et 

l>cr vcdif|5fie. lluDftc 

y levantose, y los 

dimisit earn fe- 

|tauD auf, UIID liicucte 


bris : et surrexit, 


et ministrabat eis. 

16. Tim Went) a&cr 

16. Y venida la tar- 

16. Vespere au- 

6rad)ten fte Die[e 4 -Sc= 

de le trajeron mu- 

tem facto, obtu- 

fc IJcuc ju tfym ; unl> cr 

chos endemoniados, 

Jerunt ei daemom- 

tricb tie ciftcr au^ 

y con su palabra lan- 

acos multos, et 

nut \H3oi-tcii, unt> mad)-- 

zaba los espiritus, y 

ejiciebat spiritus 

te allcvlcn kvaut'e gc-- 

euro a todos los do- 

verbo et omnes 



male habentes sa- 

nabat : 

17. 2(uf tag crfullct 

17. Para que se 

17. Ut adimple- 

witrbe, Dvxg gcfagt ijl 

cumpliese lo que fue 

retur dictum per 

turd) Dnt sprcyl^fteu 

dicho por el profetx 

Isaiam Profihe- 

3ffata, tor tui fpridit: 

Isaias, cuando dijo 

tam, dicentem : 

Ci- l?%u nnfcrc djroadv 

El mismo tomo nu- 

Ipse ijfirmitates 

Jjctt auf fid) gcnommcn, 

estras enfermedades, 

nostras accepit, et 

Uu& unfcre @eud)c l)at 

y cargo con nuestras 

^ngrotationes por- 





18. 'iSwi' 8e 6 'l?;- 

18. Or Jesus voyant 

18. Now when Je- 

o-oOf jroXXovs o^Xovs 

autour de lui de 

sus saw great multi 

jrcpl avTov, eneXev- 

grandes troupes, com- 

tudes about him, he 

orev dneXQelv els TO 

manda de passer a 

gave commandment 


1'autre rivage. 

to depart unto the 

other side. 

19. Kai irpoa-fX- 

19. Et un scribe 

19. And a certain 

6&v ds Tf>afjL[jMTVSi 

s'approchant, lui dit : 

scribe came, and said 

f ' - A 5. ' 

tnrfv avrca Atoa- 

Maitre, je te suivrai 

unto him, Master, I 

ovcaXc') aKoXovu^o"co 

partout ou tu iras. 

will follow thee 

trot OTTOU eav dnep- 

whithersoever thou 




20. Kat Xeyet au- 

20. Et Jesus lui dit: 

20. And Jesus saith 

ra) 6 'lijcrovs At 

Les renards ont des 

unto him, The foxes 

dXo>TT(Kfs <fxaXfovs 

tanieres, et les oi- 

have holes, and the 

e^ouo-t, Kai ra irtrei- 

seaux du ciel ont des 

birds of the air have 

va TOV ovpavov Kara- 

nids ; mais le Fils de 

nests ; but the Son of 

e fc v t\ 

(TKTjvaxTds ' o oe vtor 

1'homme n'a pas ou 

man hath not where 

TOW dvdptinov OVK 

il puisse reposer sa 

to lay his head. 

f%fl TTOV TT)t> Kftya- 


\fjv K\ivrj. 

21. "Ertpos 8e TWV 

21. Puis un autre de 

21. And another of 

fia6r]rS>v CIVTOV flirtv 

ses disciples lui dit : 

his disciples said un- 

aura) Kvpte eniTpf- 

Seigneur, permets- 

to him, Lord, suffer 

^rov fioi irpu>TOV 

moi d'aller premiere- 

me first to go and 

aTrcXdctf, Kat oa^rai 

ment ensevelir mon 

bury my futher. 

TOV naTfpa p.ov. 


22. *O 8e 'lij&ovs 

22. Et Jesus lui dit: 

22. But Jesus said 

- > , 

eirrev avTto ' AKO- 

Suis-moi, et laisse les 

unto him, Follow me: 

\ovdei p.oi, Kat ii(p(s 

morts ensevelir leurs 

and let the dead bury 

TOUS VfKpOVS dii-^ai 


their dead. 

Toi/s favrtav Vfupovs. 

23. Kat (/jLfiiivri 

23. Et quand il fut 

23- And when he 

avrw tls TO TrXotoi/, entre dans la nacelle, 

was entered into a 

f)KoXov8ti(rai> avrw ot ses disciples le sui- 

ship, his disciples fol- 

fJM.6rjTal auroO. 


lowed him. 

24. Kat tSoii, o~fio-- 

24. Et, voici, il s'e- 

24. And behold, 

fids ft.cyas iyivtTo leva sur la mer une si 

there arose a grea' 






er {Ktracieu. 



18. UnD Da 3rfus t)icf 

18. Mas como vie- 

18. Videos au- 

93cif6 um fid) .falje, 

se Jesus muchas gen- 

tcm Jesus multaa 

fyiefe er fytmibcr jcufcit 

tes al rededor de si, 

turbas circum se, 

fces 33iccv$ fdfyren. 

orden6 pasar a la 

jussit abire in ul- 

otra parte del lago. 


19. Unt> eg trat jti 

19. Y llegandose a 

19. Et accedena 

iljm fi dirifrgcfefyr: 

el un Escriba le dijo : 

unus Scriba, ait